Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*Ž)


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Всего на Ž (Ж) – 51 слово.

Proto-Slavic form: *ža°ba
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `frog, toad'
Old Church Slavic: žaba (Ps. Sin.) `frog' [f ѓ]; #OCS žĕba (Ps. Sin.) `frog' [f ѓ]
Russian: žaґba `toad, quinsy' [f ѓ]
Czech: žaґba `frog' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žaba `frog' [f ѓ]
Polish: z†aba `frog' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ža?ba `frog' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ža?ba (Vrgada) `frog, turtle' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ža?ba (Orbanicґi) `frog' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žaґba `frog' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: žaґba `frog, (krastava ž.) toad' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: gabawo (EV) `toad'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєeb-eh2
Other cognates: Lat. bіfЎ `toad' [m]; OS quappa `eel-pout' [f]; MoDu. kwab `lobe' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *žalь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `grief, regret, pity'
Old Church Slavic: žalь (Zogr.) `tomb' [f i]
Russian: žal' `pity' [f i]
Czech: žal `grief, pain' [f i]
Slovak: žial' `grief' [f i]
Polish: z†al `grief' [f i]
Slovincian: žaІґuёl `grief, regret' [m o], žaІґuёlu† [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ža?o je + Dat `feel sorry, be angry, suspect' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. je ža~l + Dat (Orbanicґi) `feel sorry, care, mind' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. je ža~l + Dat (Cres) `feel sorry' [adv]
Slovene: ža°љ `grief, pain' [f i], ža?li [Gens]
Bulgarian: žal `grief, pity' [f i]
Lithuanian: ge†la° `acute pain' [f ѓ] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєЊlH-eh2
Other cognates: OHG quѓla `violent death' [f]; OS quѓla `pain, torture' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *žarъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `glow, heat'
Russian: žar `heat' [m o], žaґra [Gens], žaґru [Gens], (o) žare [Locs], (v) žaruґ [Locs]
Czech: žaґr `heat' [m o]
Slovak: žiar `heat' [m o]
Polish: z†ar `glow' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ža?r `live coals, ardour, zeal' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ža?r (Orbanicґi) `live coals' [m o]
Slovene: ža?r `glow, heat' [m o]
Bulgarian: žar `glow' [f i]; #Bulg. žar `fire, passion' [m o]
Latvian: gar^me `warmth' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: gorme `heat' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhЎr(-o)-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Other cognates: Skt. gharmaґ- `heat, glow' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *žasiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scare'
Church Slavic: žasiti `scare' [verb]
Lithuanian: gesyґti `extinguish' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєЊs-??
Proto-Slavic form: *že
GRAM: ptcl.
Old Church Slavic: že emphatic particle [ptcl]
Russian: že `but, and, after all' [conj]; #Ru. že emphatic particle [ptcl]
Czech: že `that, since, because' [conj]; #Cz. že emphatic particle [ptcl]
Polish: z†e `that, since, because' [conj]; #Pl. z†e emphatic particle [ptcl]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghe
Other cognates: Skt. gha, ghѓ (RV+) `certainly, at least' [ptcl]
Proto-Slavic form: *že?lǫdь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `acorn'
Church Slavic: želudь (RuCS) `acorn' [m jo]
Russian: žeЁlud' `acorn' [m jo]
Czech: žalud `acorn' [m o]
Slovak: žalud' `acorn' [m jo]
Polish: z†oљa§dzґ `acorn' [f i], z†oљędzi [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: že?lіd `acorn' [m o]; #SCr. že?ljіd `acorn' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. žel§u?d (Vrgada) `acorn' [m o], žel§u?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. želu?d (Novi) `acorn' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. želo?t (Orbanicґi) `acorn' [m o], želo?di [Nomp]
Slovene: žeґlod `acorn' [m o], želǫґda [Gens]
Bulgarian: žeґlaўd `acorn, beech-nut' [m o]
Lithuanian: gi°le† `acorn' [f Њ] 2; #Lith. gyle†~ (dial.) `acorn' [f Њ] 4
Latvian: zi~le `acorn' [f Њ]; #Latv. zi°le `acorn' [f Њ]; #Latv. dzi~le `acorn' [f Њ] {1}
Old Prussian: gile `acorn, oak'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєelh2-ond-io-
Other cognates: Gk. bŽlanoj `acorn' [m]; Lat. glѓns [f]
Notes: {1} Forms preserving the original anlaut dz- are very rare.
Proto-Slavic form: *žegti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `burn'
Old Church Slavic: žešti `burn' [verb], žegǫ [1sg], žъgǫ (Supr.) [1sg]
Russian: žeč' `burn' [verb], žguґ [1sg], žžeЁt [3sg]
Czech: žeґci `burn' [verb], žehu [1sg]
Polish: z†ec `burn' [verb], z†gę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: že°cґi `burn' [verb], že°žЊm [1sg]
Lithuanian: de°gti `burn, light' [verb], de~ga [3ps], de~ge† [3pt]; #Lith. de°gti `burn' [verb], den~ga [3ps], de~ge† [3pt]
Latvian: degt `burn, light' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhegєh-tei
COMM: From *dhegєh- > *geg- as a result of assimilation?
Other cognates: Skt. daґhati `burn' [verb]; Av. dažaiti `burn' [verb]; Lat. fovЊre `warm, cherish' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *želdъ; želdica
GRAM: m. o; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `glazed frost, sleet'
Church Slavic: žlĕdica `sleet' [f jѓ]
Russian: oґželed' (dial.) `glazed frost, crust of ice over snow' [f i]; #Ru. oželeґd' (dial.) `glazed frost, crust of ice over snow' [f i]; #Ru. oželed' (Tersk.) `crust of ice on trees' [f i]; #Ru. oželeґdica `glazed frost' [f jѓ]; #Ru. oželeґdica (S. dial.) `black ice, thin crust of ice over snow' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: oґželed' `glazed frost' [f i]; #Ukr. oželeґda `glazed frost' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. oželeґdica `glazed frost' [f jѓ]
Polish: z†љoґd (obs.) `sleet' [m o]; #Pl. z†љoґdzґ (obs.) `glazed frost, sleet' [f i]
Slovincian: zlo†ґuёЅ `icicle' [f i], zlu°oЅ„ [Gens]
Polabian: zlaІd `hail' [m o]
Slovene: žle•?d `glazed frost, sleet' [m o]; #Sln. žle•diґca `glazed frost' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghelh2d-
Other cognates: Gk. cŽlaza `hail' [f]; MoP žѓla `hail, hoarfrost' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *želĕti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `regret'
Church Slavic: želĕti (RuCS) `regret, grieve' [verb]
Czech: želeti `regret' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєelH-eH-
Proto-Slavic form: *želĕ°ti II; žela°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a {1}
PSLMEAN: `wish, want'
Old Church Slavic: želĕti `wish, want' [verb], želĕjǫ [1sg]; #OCS želati `wish, want' [verb], želajǫ [1sg]
Russian: želaґt' `wish, want' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: že°ljeti `wish, want, desire' [verb], že°l–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. želi?ti (Vrgada) `wish, want, desire' [verb], želi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. želi?t (Hvar) `wish, want, desire' [verb], želiґn [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. žele?t (Orbanicґi) `wish, want, desire' [verb], želi~n [1sg]
Slovene: žele•ґti `wish, want' [verb], želiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: želaґja `wish, want' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhel-
Page in Pokorny: 489
Other cognates: Gk. qљlw `wish, want' [verb]
Notes: {1} The Serbo-Croatian: and Slovene: i-present is mobile.
Proto-Slavic form: *želĕ°zo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `iron'
Old Church Slavic: želĕzo `iron' [n o]
Russian: želeґzo `iron' [n o]; #Ru. zeleґzo (dial.) `iron' [n o]; #Ru. zjaleґzo (dial.) `iron' [n o]
BeloRussian: zeleґzo `iron' [n o]; #Bel. zaleґzo `iron' [n o]
Ukrainian: zaliґzo `iron' [n o]; #Ukr. želiґzo `iron' [n o]
Czech: železo `iron' [n o]
Slovak: železo `iron' [n o]
Polish: z†elazo `iron' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: že°ljezo `iron' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. žele?zo (Orbanicґi) `(piece of) iron' [n o]
Slovene: žele•ґzo• `iron' [n o]
Bulgarian: željaґzo `iron' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gelezґ-; gelЊzґ-
Lithuanian: geleži°s `iron' [f i] 3b; #Lith. gelži°s (Z№em.) `iron' [f i]
Latvian: dze°lzs `iron' [f i??]; #Latv. dzelezs (E. Latv.) `iron' [f i??]
Old Prussian: gelso `iron'
Proto-Slavic form: *želǫdъkъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `stomach'
Church Slavic: želudъkъ (RuCS) `stomach' [m o]
Russian: želuґdok `stomach' [m o]
Czech: žaludek `stomach' [m o]; #Cz. žaloudek (arch., dial.) `stomach' [m o]
Slovak: žaluґdek `stomach' [m o]
Polish: z†oљa§dek `stomach' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: že°ludac `stomach' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. želu?dec (Cres) `stomach' [m jo]
Slovene: želǫ?dЌc `stomach' [m jo], želǫ?dca [Gens]; #Sln. želǫ?dЌk `stomach' [m o], želǫ?dka [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghel-ond-
Other cognates: Gk. ^ГћГГ’ГУГ–Г—Г› `intestines' [Nompf]
Proto-Slavic form: *želsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `repay, pay for'
Old Church Slavic: žlĕsti (Supr.) `repay, pay for' [verb], žlĕdǫ [1sg]; #OCS žlasti (Supr.) `repay, pay for' [verb], žladǫ [1sg]
Old Russian:: želesti `repay, pay for' [verb], želedu [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghel-dh-
COMM: Probably a borrowing from Germanic.
Other cognates: Go. fragildan `repay' [verb]; OHG geltan `pay, repay, sacrifice' [verb]; OSw. gjalla `pay, repay' [verb] {1}
Notes: {1} The Germanic evidence points to a suffix *-t-.
Proto-Slavic form: *žely I
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `tumour, fistula'
Russian: želvaґk `tumour' [m o]; #Ru. žolv' (Dal') `tumour' [f i]; #Ru. žeЁlvi, želviґ (dial.) `abscesses, lumps, bumps' [Nompm i]; #Ru. žeЁlvi (dial.) `swollen glands on the neck' [Nompm i]
Czech: žluva (Kott) `soft tumour (in horses)' [f ѓ]; #Cz. žuva (dial.) `swelling on the udder of a cow' [f ѓ]
Polish: z†oґљwi (dial.) `abscess on the ear' [Nompm i]; #Pl. z†oґљwie (dial.) `boils on the legs of a cow' [Nompm i]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. že?lva (Cres) `tumour' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. žo•?љva (Vis) `scrofula' [f ѓ]; #SCr.
Slovene: žę?љva `fistula' [f ѓ]
Latvian: dzęlva `(slight) swelling on the skin' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghel(H)-uH-
Proto-Slavic form: *žely II
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `tortoise'
Church Slavic: žely (RuCS) `tortoise' [f і], želъve [Gens]
Russian: žolv' `tortoise' [f i]
Old Russian:: žely `tortoise' [f і], želъve [Gens]
Czech: želva `tortoise' [f ѓ]
Polish: z†oґљw `tortoise' [m jo], z†oґљwia [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: že?lva `tortoise' [f ѓ]
Slovene: že?љva `tortoise' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghel(H)-uH-
Other cognates: Gk. ^Г—ГУГГҐЇ?j `tortoise' [f]; Gk. ^Г—Гиnh `tortoise' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *želza
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b?
PSLMEAN: `gland'
Church Slavic: žlĕza `gland' [f ѓ]
Russian: železaґ `gland' [f ѓ], žeґlezy [Nomp]; #Ru. žeґlezo `tumour (neck, throat, groin)' [n o]; #Ru. zeґlezy (dial.) `glands' [Nompf ѓ]; #Ru. zolozaґ (dial.) `gland, tumour on the neck' [f ѓ]; #Ru. zoloґza `gland' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: zaloґza `gland' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: zaґloza `gland' [f ѓ]
Czech: žlaґza `gland' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: žleґza `gland' [f ѓ]; #OCz. žlaґza `gland' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žl'aza `gland' [f ѓ]
Polish: zoљzy `scrofula, strangles (adenitis equorum)' [Nompf ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: žaљza `gland, (pl.), glandular disease' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: zaљza `gland, (pl.), glandular disease' [f ѓ]; #LSrb. žaљza `gland, (pl.), glandular disease' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: žlije°zda `gland' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žle•ґza `gland' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: žlezaґ `gland' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: ge~ležuonys `submaxillary gland, strangles (adenitis equorum') [Nompf n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghelgґh-eh2
COMM: The Polish and Sorbian forms seem to reflect a zero grade.
Other cognates: Arm. geљjk` `glands'
Proto-Slavic form: *žel§a I
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `grief'
Old Church Slavic: žel§a (Supr.) `grief' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: žel§a `grief' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєelH-ieh2
Proto-Slavic form: *žel§a II
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `wish'
Church Slavic: žel§a (RuCS) `wish' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: že°lja `wish, desire' [f jѓ], že?lju [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. želja? (Vrgada, Novi) `wish, desire' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. že?lja, želja? (Orbanicґi) `wish, desire' [f jѓ], že?ljo [Accs]
Slovene: žeґlja `wish, desire' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhel-ieh2
Proto-Slavic form: *žena°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `woman, wife'
Old Church Slavic: žena `woman, wife' [f ѓ]
Russian: ženaґ `wife, (poet., obs.) woman' [f ѓ]
Czech: žena `woman, wife' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žena `woman, wife' [f ѓ]
Polish: z†ona `wife' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: že°na `woman, wife' [f ѓ], že°nu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. žena? (Vrgada, Novi, Hvar) `woman, wife' [f ѓ], ženu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. žena? (Orbanicґi) `wife' [f ѓ], ženo? [Accs]
Slovene: žeґna `woman, wife' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: ženaґ `woman' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *genaЂ
Old Prussian: genno `woman' [Vocs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєen-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 473
Other cognates: Skt. jaґni- (RV+) `woman, wife' [f]; Go. qino `woman' [f]; OIr. ben `woman' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *žeravъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `burning, scorching'
Church Slavic: žeravъ (RuCS) `burning, scorching' [adj o]
Old Russian:: žeravъ `burning, scorching' [adj o]
Czech: žeravyґ (lit.) `burning, scorching' [adj o]; #Cz. žer№avyґ (lit.) `burning, scorching' [adj o]; #Cz. r№er№avyґ `burning, scorching' [adj o]
Slovak: žeravyґ `burning, scorching' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: že?rѓv `live coal' [f i??]; #SCr. že°rava (u Grblju) `live coal' [m o]; #SCr. že?ravica `live coal' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. žera?va, ževa?ra (Vrgada) `live coal' [m o]
Slovene: žera?vica `heartburn' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєher-Ўu-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Other cognates: Skt. ghrёn•aґ- `heat, glow' [m]; Gk. qermТj `warm' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *žeravь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `crane'
Russian: žuraґvl' `crane' [m jo]; #Ru. žuraveґl' (dial.) `crane' [m jo]; #Ru. žoґrav (dial.) `crane' [m jo]
Old Russian:: žeravlь `crane' [m jo]
BeloRussian: žuraveґl' `crane' [m jo]; #Bel. žoґrauў `crane' [m o]
Ukrainian: žuraveґl' `crane' [m jo]
Old Czech:: žeraґv `crane' [m jo]; #OCz. žeraґb `crane' [m jo]
Slovak: žeriav `crane' [m jo]
Polish: z†uraw `crane' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: že?rѓv `crane' [m o]
Slovene: žerja°v `crane' [m o], žerjaґva [Gens]
Bulgarian: žeґrav `crane' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gerЂ(Ў)u-
Lithuanian: geґrve† `crane' [f Њ] 1
Latvian: dze~rve `crane' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: gerwe `crane'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґerh2-Ўu-
Other cognates: Gk. gљranoj `crane' [m]; Lat. grіs [f]; OHG kranuh [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *žerbьjь
GRAM: m. io
PSLMEAN: `lot, fate'
Old Church Slavic: žrĕbii `lot' [m io]
Russian: žreґbij `lot, fate' [m jo]
Czech: hr№eb `nail' [m o]
Old Czech:: hr№ebiґ `nail' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ždri?jeb `nail' [m o]
Slovene: žre?b `nail' [m o]
Bulgarian: žreґbie `nail' [m o]
Old Prussian: g–rbin `number' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gerbh-
Other cognates: Gk. grŽfw `carve, write' [verb]; OE ceorfan `carve, cut, strike down' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žerdlo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `mouth, gorge'
Russian: žereloґ (dial.) `mouth, orifice' [n o]
Old Russian:: žerelo `throat, mouth, orifice' [n o]
Czech: žr№iґdlo `source' [n o]
Slovak: žriedlo `source' [n o]
Polish: zґroґdљo `source' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ždrije°lo `ravine, gorge' [n o]
Slovene: žre•ґlo• `gorge, abyss, hole' [n o]
Bulgarian: žreloґ `gorge, source' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gerЂtloґ
Lithuanian: gerkle†~ `throat, larynx' [f Њ] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєerH3-tloґm
Page in Pokorny: 474
Other cognates: Gk. bŽraqron `mouth' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *žerti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `devour, eat (of animals)'
Old Church Slavic: požrĕti (Ps. Sin., Hil., Supr.) `swallow, devour' [verb], požьrǫ [1sg]
Russian: žrat' `eat (of animals), gobble' [verb], žru [1sg], žreЁt [3sg]
Old Russian:: žьrati `eat (of animals), gobble' [verb], žьru [1sg]
Old Czech:: žrieti `eat (of animals), gobble' [verb], žru [1sg]
Polish: z†recґ `eat greedily' [verb], z†rę [1sg]
Slovene: žre•ґti `eat (of animals), gobble' [verb], žre°m [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gerЂtei
Lithuanian: geґrti `drink' [verb]
Latvian: dzer^t `drink' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєerh3-
Page in Pokorny: 474
Other cognates: Skt. giraґti `devour' [verb]; Gk. bibrиskw `eat, digest' [verb]; Lat. vorѓre `devour, eat greedily'; OIr. gelid `to eat (of animals), to devour' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žezlъ; žьzlъ; žezlo°
GRAM: m. o; m. o; n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `stick, staff'
Old Church Slavic: žьzlъ `stick, staff, sceptre' [m o]; #OCS žezlъ `stick, staff, sceptre' [m o]
Russian: žezl `stick, staff, crozier' [m o], žezlaґ [Gens] {1}; #Ru. žezeґl' (dial.) `short stick to which draught dogs are tied' [f i]
Czech: žezlo `sceptre' [n o]
Old Czech:: žezl `sceptre' [m o]; #OCz. žezlo `sceptre' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: že°zlo `sceptre' [n o]; #SCr. žeґželj (Vuk) `ein Anbindstock fur die Schafhµnde' [m jo]
Slovene: žęґzlo• `sceptre' [n o]
Bulgarian: žeґzaўl `staff, sceptre' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gegґh-l-
COMM: The connection with OHG kegil `nail, peg' etc., which would point to *gegґh-l- is uncertain.
Other cognates: OHG kegil `nail, peg' [m]
Notes: {1} In Old Russian::, both (a) and (b) are attested (Zaliznjak 1985: 134, 137).
Proto-Slavic form: *žeЇ§da°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wish, desire'
Old Church Slavic: žędati `wish, long for, desire' [verb], žęždǫ [1sg]
Russian: žadaґt' (dial.) `thirst for' [verb], žadaґju [1sg]
Czech: žaґdati `ask, demand' [verb]
Slovak: žiadat' `ask, demand' [verb]
Polish: z†a§dacґ `demand' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: žadacґ `wish, desire, demand' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: žedasґ `demand' [verb]
Lithuanian: pasige°sti `miss' [verb], pasigen~da [3ps]
COMM: The nasal of the Slavic root must have originated from a nasal present, cf. Lith. -gen~da.
Other cognates: Gk. qљssasqai `pray for' [verb]; Gk. poqљw `desire' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žęґdja
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wish, desire'
Old Church Slavic: žažda (Euch., Supr.) `thirst, desire' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: žaža `thirst, drought' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: žaґda `wish, desire, request' [f jѓ], žiedĕ [Locs]
Old Polish: z†a§dza `wish, desire, request, avarice' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: že?‹a `thirst' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. že~‹a (Vrgada) `thirst' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. žeґja (Novi) `thirst' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. žie~ja (Orbanicґi) `thirst' [f jѓ]
Slovene: žęґja `thirst' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *žę°dlo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a?
PSLMEAN: `sting'
Old Church Slavic: žęlo `sting' [n o]
Russian: žaґlo `sting, point (of a needle etc.)' [n o]
Polish: z†a§dљo `sting' [n o]
Slovene: žeґlo• `prickle, sting' [n o]
Lithuanian: ge†la° `acute pain' [f ѓ] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєlH-dhlom
COMM: Apparently with dissimilation of the first l to n.
Proto-Slavic form: *žędьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `avid, greedy'
Russian: žaґdnyj `greedy, avaricious' [adj o]; #Ru. žaґden `greedy, avaricious' [adj o], žadnaґ [Nomsf], žaґdno [Nomsn]
Czech: žaґdnyґ (obs.) `avid' [adj o]
Polish: z†a§dny `eager, anxious' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: žeґdan `thirsty' [adj o], žeґdna [Nomsf], žeґdno [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. že?dan (Vrgada) `thirsty' [adj o], žЊdna? [Nomsf], že?dno [Nomsn]
Slovene: žęґdЌn `thirsty' [adj o]
Bulgarian: žaґden `thirsty' [adj o]; #Bulg. žaўґden `thirsty' [adj o]; #Bulg. žeґden (dial.) `thirsty' [adj o]
COMM: The nasal of the Slavic root must have originated from a nasal present, cf. Lith. -gen~da.
Other cognates: Gk. qљssasqai `pray for' [verb]; Gk. poqљw `desire' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žęti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `press, squeeze'
Church Slavic: žęti (SerbCS) `press, squeeze' [verb], žьmǫ [1sg]
Russian: žat' `press, squeeze' [verb], žmu [1sg], žmeЁt [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: že?ti `press, squeeze' [verb], žme?m [1sg]
Latvian: gu°mt `seize' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(e)m-
Other cognates: Gk. gљnto (Il.) `grasped' [3saormed]; Nw. kumla `knead, squeeze' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žęti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `reap, mow'
Old Church Slavic: žęti `reap, mow' [verb], žьnjǫ [1sg], žьnǫ (Sav.) [1sg]
Russian: žat' `reap, mow' [verb], žnu [1sg], žneЁt [3sg]
Czech: žiґti `reap, mow' [verb], žnu [1sg]
Slovak: žat' `reap, mow' [verb], žnem [1sg]
Polish: z†a§cґ `reap, mow' [verb], z†nę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: že?ti `reap, mow' [verb], ža?njЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. že?ti (Vrgada) `reap, mow' [verb], že?n§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. žeґt (Hvar) `reap, mow' [verb], ža?n§em [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. že?t (Orbanicґi) `reap, harvest' [verb], ža?njen [1sg]
Slovene: žęґti `reap, mow' [verb], žaґnjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: žaўґna `reap, mow' [verb]
Lithuanian: gene†ґti `prune, hem' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *žę°tva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `harvest'
Old Church Slavic: žętva `harvest' [f ѓ]
Russian: žaґtva `harvest' [f ѓ]
Czech: žatva `harvest' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žatva `harvest' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: že?tva `harvest' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. že?tva (Vrgada, Hvar, Orbanicґi) `harvest' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žę?tva `harvest' [f ѓ]; #Sln. žę?tЌv `harvest' [f i], žę?tve [Gens]
Bulgarian: žaўґtva `harvest' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *ži°ca
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `thread, wire'
Russian: žiґca (dial.) `coloured woollen yarn' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ži?ca `wire, rope, thread' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?ca (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `wire, rope, thread' [f jѓ]
Slovene: žiґca `thread, wire' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: žiґca `thread, wire' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: gija° `thread (in warp)' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: dzija `thread' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhiH- (gєiH-??)
COMM: See *ži°la.
Other cognates: Lat. f–lum `thread' [n]; Arm. jiљ `sinew'
Proto-Slavic form: *židъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `liquid, watery'
Church Slavic: židъkъ `watery' [adj o]
Russian: žiґdkij `liquid, watery' [adj o]; #Ru. žiґdok `liquid, watery' [adj o], židkaґ [Nomsf], žiґdko [Nomsn]
Czech: židkyґ `liquid, watery' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: žiґdak `liquid, watery' [adj o]
Slovene: žiґdЌk `liquid, fluid, flexible, weak' [adj o], žiґdka [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєeidh-??
Other cognates: Gk. dei~sa `slime, filth' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *ži?vъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `alive'
Old Church Slavic: živъ `alive' [adj o]
Russian: živoґj `alive' [adj o]
Czech: živyґ `alive' [adj o]
Slovak: živyґ `alive' [adj o]
Polish: z†ywy `alive' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ži?v `alive' [adj o], žiґva [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?v (Vrgada) `alive' [adj o], ž–va? [Nomsf], ži?vo [Nomsn]
Slovene: ži?v `alive' [adj o], žiґva [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: živ `alive' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gЂiuёos
Lithuanian: gyґvas `alive' [adj o]
Latvian: dzi^vs `alive' [adj o]
Old Prussian: gijwans `alive' [Accp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєHi-u-oґ-
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. j–vaґ- `alive' [adj]; Lat. v–vus `alive' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *ži°la
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `vein, sinew, tendon'
Old Church Slavic: žila `vein, sinew, tendon' [f ѓ]
Russian: žiґla `vein, sinew, tendon' [f ѓ]
Czech: žiґla `vein' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žila `vein' [f ѓ]
Polish: z†yљa `vein' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ži?la `tendon, vein, root' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?la (Vrgada, Hvar) `tendon, vein, root' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?la (Orbanicґi) `vein, root' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žiґla `vein, sinew' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: žiґla `vein, sinew' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: gyґsla `vein' [f ѓ]
Latvian: dzi^(k)sla `vein' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: pettegislo `Rµckenader'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhiH-l-eh2 (gєiH-l-eh2??)
COMM: If the alternative etymology is correct, ži°la is cognate with Skt. jiyѓґ `tendon' [f], Gk. biТj `tendon, string of a bow' [m], MW gieu `sinews, tendons' [Nomp]
Other cognates: Lat. f–lum `thread' [n]; Arm. jiљ `sinew'
Proto-Slavic form: *ži°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `live'
Old Church Slavic: žiti `live' [verb], živǫ [1sg]
Russian: žit' `live' [verb], živuґ [1sg], živeЁt [3sg]
Czech: žiґti `live' [verb]
Slovak: žit' `live' [verb]
Polish: z†ycґ `live' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: žiґvjeti `live' [verb], žiґv–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ž–vi?ti (Vrgada) `live' [verb], ž–ve?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ž–ve?t (Orbanicґi) `live' [verb], ž–ve?n [1sg]
Slovene: žive•ґti `live' [verb], živiґm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gЂi(uё)-
Lithuanian: gyveґnti `live' [verb]
Latvian: dzi^vuo^t `live' [verb]
Old Prussian: giw–t `live' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєHi(-u)-
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. j–ґvati `live' [verb]; Lat. v–vЎ `live' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ži°to
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `grain, corn'
Old Church Slavic: žito `corn, fruits' [n o]
Russian: žiґto `corn' [n o]
Ukrainian: žyґto `rye' [n o]
Old Czech:: žiґto `corn' [n o]
Polish: z†yto `rye' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ži?to `corn, wheat' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?to (Vrgada) `barley' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?to (Orbanicґi) `grain' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ži?to (Cres) `wheat' [n o]
Slovene: žiґto• `corn' [n o]
Bulgarian: žiґto `corn' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *geґit-
Old Prussian: geits `bread'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєeHi-to-
Other cognates: W bwyd `food, meat'
Proto-Slavic form: *živi°ca
GRAM: f. jѓ
Russian: živiґca `soft resin' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: žyvyґcja `soft resin' [f jѓ]
Czech: živice `bitumen' [f jѓ]
Slovak: živica `resin' [f jѓ]
Polish: z†ywica `resin' [f jѓ]
COMM: A derivative of gwHi-u- `live'.
Other cognates: OIr. biґ `pitch'; Arm. kiw `tree pitch, mastic, chewing gum'
Proto-Slavic form: *živo°tъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `life'
Old Church Slavic: životъ `life, living creature' [m o]
Russian: živoґt `belly, stomach, (arch.) life, (obs., dial.) animal' [m o]
Czech: život `life' [m o]
Slovak: život `life' [m o]
Polish: z†ywot `life' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ži°vot `life, scrotum' [m o], živo°ta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. živo?t (Vrgada) `body' [m o], života? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. živo?t (Orbanicґi) `lower part of the back, life' [m o], živo?ta [Gens], života? [Gens]
Slovene: živo°t `life, body' [m o], živoґta [Gens]
Bulgarian: živoґt `life' [m o]
Lithuanian: gyvata° `life' [f ѓ] 2
Old Prussian: giwato (EV) `life'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєHi-u-
Proto-Slavic form: *žu°na
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
Bulgarian: žuґna `lip' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґiёoґuЂnaЂ (zґiёoґЂunaЂ??)
Lithuanian: žiaґuna `jaw, jaw-bone, gill' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: žau~nas `jaw' [Nompf ѓ] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґieuH-n-eh2 (gґieHu-n-eh2??)
Proto-Slavic form: *žuriti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rage'
Russian: žuriґt' (coll.) `reprove, scold' [verb], žurjuґ [1sg], žuriґt [3sg]; #Ru. žuriґt'sja (dial.) `grieve, quarrel' [verb], žurjuґs' [1sg], žuriґtsja [3sg]
Czech: zur№iti `rage, be furious' [verb] {1}
Slovak: zuґrit' `rage, be furious' [verb] {1}
Polish: z†urzycґ się (obs.) `be angry, rage' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: zurisґ `make sour, embitter' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zuґriti se `hurry, (dial.) complain' [verb], žu?r–m se [1sg]
Slovene: žuґriti se `hurry' [verb], žuґrim se [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gheuro-
COMM: According to Young (2002), the West Slavic forms continue a denominative verb based on an unattested adjective corresponding to Lith. žiauru°s `cruel, savage', which he assumes to have the same root as Lith. žve†ri°s `wild animal' (*gґheuh1r-?). Like Vasmer and others, he connects the East and South Slavic forms with Skt. ghoraґ- `terrible, terrifying' [adj] and Go. gaurs `sad' [adj]. Since the meaning of the West Slavic forms may have been influenced by German sauer `sour, angry' (perhaps through association with West Slavic *žurъ `sour mass used for soup or bread', which is regarded as a borrowing), I wonder if it is necessary to assume a different origin for the West Slavic forms on the one hand and the East and South Slavic forms on the other.
Other cognates: Skt. ghoraґ- (RV+) `terrible, terrifying' [adj]; Go. gaurs `sad' [adj]
Notes: {1} With dissimilation of *žur№- to zur№- in Czech: (Machek 1971: s.v.). The Slovak form may be a borrowing from Czech:.
Proto-Slavic form: *žьda°ti [стсл. жьдати, рус. ждать – глагольный корень ЖЬД / ЖИД]
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `wait, await'
Old Church Slavic: žьdati `wait, await' [verb], židǫ [1sg], žьdǫ [1sg]
Russian: ždat' `wait, await' [verb], ždu [1sg], ždeЁt [3sg]
Old Czech:: ždaґti `wait, await' [verb], ždu [1sg]
Slovene: žde•ґti `wait, await' [verb], ždiґm [1sg]
Lithuanian: gei~sti `long for, desire' [verb], gei~džia [3sg]
Latvian: ga°idi^t `wait' [verb]
Old Prussian: g(i)Њide `wait' [3pl]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghidh-
Other cognates: OHG g–t `greed, desire' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *žьldĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `desire'
Church Slavic: žlъdĕti (RuCS) `desire' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: žuґdjeti (Vuk: SW) `desire' [verb], žuґd–m [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *žьlna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `woodpecker'
Russian: želnaґ (dial.) `black woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Czech: žluna `(ž. zelenaґ) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Slovak: žlna `(ž. zelenaґ) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: žoљma `(čorna ž.) black woodpecker, (zelena ž.) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: žuґna `(crna ž.) black woodpecker, (zelena ž.) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]; #SCr. žuґnja `(crna ž.) black woodpecker, (zelena ž.) green woodpecker' [f jѓ]; #SCr. žuґja `(Srijem) oriole, (Bačka) woodpecker' [f jѓ]; #SCr. Kajk. žЎіno? (Bednja) `woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žoґљna `(črna ž.) black woodpecker, (zelena ž.) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gilЂnaЂ
Lithuanian: gilna° (BZ№) `black woodpecker, blackbird' [f ѓ]
Latvian: dzil^na `(męlnѓ dz.) black woodpecker, (zal§ѓ dz.) green woodpecker' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *žьltъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `yellow'
Russian: žeЁltyj `yellow' [adj o]; #Ru. žeЁlt `yellow' [adj o], želtaґ [Nomsf], žeЁlto [Nomsn], želtoґ [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: žlutyґ `yellow' [adj o]
Slovak: žltyґ `yellow' [adj o]
Polish: z†oґљty `yellow' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: žu?t `yellow' [adj o], žuґta [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. žu?t (Vrgada, Hvar, Orbanicґi) `yellow' [adj o], žіta? [Nomsf], žu?to [Nomsn]
Slovene: žo?љt `yellow' [adj o], žoґљta [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: žaўlt `yellow' [adj o]
Lithuanian: gel~tas `yellow' [adj o] 4
Latvian: dzęlts (dial) `yellow' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhlh3-
Other cognates: Skt. haґri- `fallow, yellowish, greenish' [adj]; Gk. ^ГГq†ГŽГћГУГ› `pale green, greenish yellow' [adj]; Lat. helvus `yellowish' [adj]; OHG gelo `yellow' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *žьrny
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `millstone'
Old Church Slavic: žrъny `millstone' [f. і]; #OCS žrъnovъ `millstone' [m o]
Russian: žeЁrnov `millstone' [m o], žernovaґ [Nomp]
Polish: z†arna `handmill' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: žrva?nj `handmill' [m jo]
Slovene: žr?nЌv `handmill' [m і], žr?nve [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *girЂnuЂ
Lithuanian: gi°rna `millstone' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: dzir~nas `millstone' [Nompf ѓ]; #Latv. dzir~nus `millstone' [Nompf і]; #Latv. dzir~navas `millstone' [Nompf ѓ]
Old Prussian: girnoywis (EV) `handmill'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєrH-n-uH-
Other cognates: Skt. grѓґvan- (RV+) `pressing-stone' [m]; Go. asilu-qairnus `donkey-mill' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *žьrti; žerti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sacrifice'
Old Church Slavic: žrьti `sacrifice' [verb], žьrǫ [1sg]; #OCS žrĕti `sacrifice' [verb], žьrǫ [1sg]
Old Russian:: žereti `sacrifice' [verb], žьru [1sg]; #ORu. žreti `sacrifice' [verb], žьru [1sg]; #ORu. žrьti `sacrifice' [verb], žьru [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *girЂtei
Lithuanian: gi°rt `praise' [verb]
Latvian: dzir~t `praise, (-ie^s) swank, boast, intend long for' [verb] {1}
Old Prussian: girtwei `praise' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєrH-tei
Other cognates: Skt. grёn•ѓґti `greet, praise' [verb]
Notes: {1} Usually reflexive.
Proto-Slavic form: *žьrtva
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `sacrifice'
Old Church Slavic: žrьtva `sacrifice' [f ѓ]
Russian: žeґrtva `sacrifice, victim' [f ѓ]
Slovene: žr?tva `sacrifice' [f ѓ]; #Sln. žr?tЌv `sacrifice' [f i], žr?tve [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєrH-tu-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *žьrьcь [ЖЬРЬЦЪ]
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `priest'
Old Church Slavic: žrьcь `priest' [m jo]
Russian: žrec `priest (of a pagan religion)' [m jo], žrecaґ [Gens]
Bulgarian: žrec `priest' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєrH-i-ko-
Proto-Slavic form: *žьva°ti [ЖИВАТИ]
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `chew'
Church Slavic: žьvati (SerbCS) `chew' [verb], žuju [1sg]; #CS žьvati (RuCS) `chew' [verb], žuju [1sg], žьvǫ [1sg]
Russian: ževґat' `chew' [verb], žujuґ [1sg], žueЁt [3sg]
Czech: žvaґti (dial.) `chew' [verb], žvu [1sg]
Old Czech:: žvaґti `chew' [verb], žuju [1sg]
Slovak: žut' `chew' [verb], žujem [1sg]
Polish: z†ucґ `chew' [verb], z†uję [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґieuH- (gґieHu??)
Other cognates: Toch. B sґuwam• `eat' [verb]; OHG kiuwan `chew' [verb]

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