Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*Z)


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Всего на Z (З) – 43 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *za
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `behind, beyond, after, for'
Russian: za `behind, beyond, after, for' [prep]
Czech: za `behind, after, for, by, during' [prep]
Slovak: za `behind, after, for, by, during' [prep]
Polish: za `behind, after, for, by, during' [prep]
Lithuanian: ažu° (E. Lith.) `behind, after, for, beyond' [prep]; #Lith. až (E. Lith.) `behind, after, for, beyond' [prep]
Latvian: a°iz `behind, beyond' [prep]; #Latv. az (a~z, a^z) (E. Lith.) `behind, after, for, beyond' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *zabordlo
GRAM: n. o
Russian: zaboroґlo `rampart' [n o]; #Ru. zabraґlo `beaver, visor, upper part of a rampart' [n o] {1}
Old Russian:: zaborolo `wooden city-wall' [n o]; #ORu. zabralo `fortification' [n o] {1}
BeloRussian: zabraґlo `beaver, visor, upper part of a rampart' [n o] {1}
Czech: {2}
Serbo-Croatian: za°bralo `rampart, bulwark' [n o]
Bulgarian: zabraґlo `fortification' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-dhlom
Page in Pokorny: 133
Notes: {1} The form zabralo is obviously of Church Slavic: origin. {2} Cz. zaґbradliґ, Slk. zaґbradlie `railing, balustrade', derives from *bьrati `take'.
Proto-Slavic form: *zar§a°
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `dawn, aurora'
Old Church Slavic: zarja (Supr.) `dawn, shine, ray' [f jѓ]
Russian: zarjaґ `dawn, sunset, reveille, retreat' [f jѓ], zarjuґ [Accs], zoґrju [Accs], zoґri [Nomp]
Czech: zaґr№e `shine' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: zarza `dawn, daybreak' [f jѓ]
Slovene: zaґrja `redness of the sky' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhЎr(H)-ieh2
Proto-Slavic form: *zaverti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `close, enclose'
Old Church Slavic: zavьri `closed' [3sg aor]
Russian: zavereґt' (dial.) `mend, patch, wrap, roll up' [verb], zavruґ [1sg], zavreЁt [3sg]
Czech: zavr№iґti `close, lock, incarcerate' [verb]
Slovak: zavriet' `close, lock' [verb]
Polish: zawrzecґ `contain, enclose, (dial.) close' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: za°vrijeti `hide' [verb], za?vrЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zavri~ti (Vrgada) `hide' [verb], za?vreš [2sg]
Slovene: zavre•ґti `detain, obstruct' [verb], zavre°m [1sg]
Lithuanian: veґrti `pierce, string' [verb]
Latvian: ve~rt `open, close' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhoH??-uerH-
Other cognates: Skt. apivrёn•oґti `close, cover' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *zele°nъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `green'
Old Church Slavic: zelenъ (Zogr., Mar., Supr.) `green' [adj o]
Russian: zeleЁnyj `green' [adj o]
Czech: zelenyґ `green' [adj o]
Slovak: zelenyґ `green' [adj o]
Polish: zielony `green' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ze°len `green' [adj o], zele°na [Nomsf], zele°no; #SCr. C№ak. zele~n (Vrgada) `green' [adj o], zelena? [Nomsf], zeleno?; #SCr. C№ak. ze?len (Hvar) `green' [adj o], zelena? [Nomsf], ze?leno; #SCr. C№ak. ze?len `green' [adj o], ze?lena [Nomsf], ze?leno
Slovene: zele°n `green' [adj o], zeleґna [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: zeleґn `green' [adj o]
Lithuanian: ža~lias `green' [adj o] 4; #Lith. žel~vas `greenish' [adj o] 4; #Lith. žeґlvas (dial.) `greenish' [adj o] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhelh3-en-
Other cognates: Skt. haґri- `fallow, yellowish, greenish' [adj]; Gk. ^ГГq†ГŽГћГУГ› `pale green, greenish yellow' [adj]; Lat. helvus `yellowish' [adj]; OHG gelo `yellow' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *zelьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `greens, herbs'
Old Church Slavic: zelije `vegetables, greens, herbs' [n io]
Russian: zeґl'e `potion, poison' [n io]
Czech: zeliґ `cabbage' [n io]
Polish: ziele `herb, weed' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ze?lje `greens, sorrel, dock' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ze~l§Њ `mangel (type of beet)' [n jo], ze~l§aІЇ [Gens]
Slovene: zęґlje `cabbage' [n jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhelh3-
Proto-Slavic form: *zeml§a°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `earth, land'
Old Church Slavic: zemlja `earth, land' [f jѓ]
Russian: zemljaґ `earth, land' [f jѓ], zeґmlju [Accs] {1}
Ukrainian: zemljaґ `earth, land' [f jѓ], zeґmlju [Accs]
Czech: zemĕ `earth, land' [f jѓ]; #Cz. zem `earth, land' [f i/jѓ]
Slovak: zem `earth, land' [f i/jѓ]
Polish: ziemia `earth, land' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ze°mlja `earth, land' [f jѓ], ze?mlju [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zeml§a? (Vrgada) `earth, land' [f jѓ], ze?ml§u [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zemlja? (Novi) `earth, land' [f jѓ], ze?mlju [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zemlja? (Orbanicґi) `earth, soil, ground, country' [f jѓ], ze?mlju [Accs]; #SCr. Kajk. zѓmljo? (Bednja) `earth, land' [f jѓ], zѓmlju? [Accs]
Slovene: zeґmlja `earth, land' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: zemjaґ `earth, land' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґem-
Lithuanian: že~me† `earth, land' [f Њ] 2
Latvian: zeme `earth, land' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: semmЊ `earth, land'
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhgґh-em-ieh2
COMM: The Balto-Slavic forms are based on the Asg. stem of the PIE root noun. Illič-Svityč (1963: 41) suggests that in the larger part of the Slavic territory the original AP (b) was ousted under the influence of an i-stem *zemь, cf. Kortlandt 1975b: 410, where it is argued that the Freising Fragments also offer evidence for AP (b).
Other cognates: Skt. ks•aґm- (RV+) `earth' [f]; Gk. cqиn `earth' [f]; Hitt. tЊkan `earth' [m], taknas [Gens]
Notes: {1} In Old Russian::, both AP (b) and (c) are attested (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *zębnǫti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suffer from cold'
Russian: zjaґbnut' `suffer from cold' [verb]
Czech: zaґbnouti `suffer from cold' [verb]
Slovak: ziabnut' `suffer from cold' [verb]
Polish: ziębna§cґ `suffer from cold' [verb]
Lithuanian: žem~bti `cut slantwise, sharpen' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґembh-
Other cognates: Skt. jaґmbhate `snatch' [verb]; Skt. jaґmbhayati `crush' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *zębnǫti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `germinate'
Old Church Slavic: prozębnǫti `germinate' [verb]
Old Russian:: zjabnuti `germinate' [verb]
Lithuanian: žeґmbe†ti `germinate, sprout' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґemb-??
Other cognates: Lat. gemma `bud, precious stone' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *zęti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: zębomi (Supr.) `being pulled out' [Nompm ptcprsp]
Czech: zaґbsti `suffer from cold, freeze' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zeґpsti `freeze' [verb], zeґbЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ze~sti `freeze' [verb], zЊbe?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zie~s `freeze, be very cold' [verb], ziebe? [3sg]
Slovene: zęґbsti `freeze' [verb], zęґbe [3sg]
Lithuanian: žem~bti `cut slantwise, sharpen' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґembh-
Other cognates: Skt. jaґmbhate `snatch' [verb]; Skt. jaґmbhayati `crush' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *zę°tь
GRAM: m. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `son-in-law'
Old Church Slavic: zętь `bridegroom' [m i]
Russian: zjat' `son-in-law, brother-in-law (sister's husband or husband's sister's husband)' [m i]
Czech: zet' `son-in-law' [m jo]
Old Czech:: zĕt' `son-in-law' [m i]
Slovak: zat' `son-in-law' [m jo]
Polish: zięcґ `son-in-law' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ze?t `son-in-law, brother-in-law (sister's husband)' [m o], ze?ta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ze?t (Vrgada, Hvar) `son-in-law, brother-in-law (sister's husband)' [m o], ze?ta [Gens]
Slovene: ze°t `son-in-law' [m o], zęґta [Gens]
Bulgarian: zet `son-in-law, brother-in-law (sister's husband)' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґeґnЂtis; zґeґnЂtos
Lithuanian: žeґntas `son-in-law' [m o] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґenh1-ti-??
COMM: Since Latv. znuo~ts `son-in-law, sister's husband, wife's brother' seems to reflect *gґneh3-to-, we might consider a reconstruction *gґenh3-ti-.
Proto-Slavic form: *zĕnica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `pupil (of the eye)'
Old Church Slavic: zĕnica `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ]
Russian: zeniґca `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ]
Polish: zґrenica `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: zje?nica `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ]
Slovene: ze•niґca `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: zeniґca `pupil (of the eye)' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *zĕvati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `yawn'
Church Slavic: zĕvati (RuCS) `yawn' [verb]
Russian: zevaґt' `yawn, (dial.) shout, cry' [verb], zevaґju [1sg]
Czech: ziґvati `yawn' [verb]
Slovak: ziґvat' `yawn' [verb]
Polish: ziewacґ `yawn' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zije°vati `yawn' [verb], zi?jevѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. z–ha?ti (Vrgada) `yawn' [verb], zi~šeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zieha?t (Orbanicґi) `yawn' [verb], zie~šen [1sg]
Slovene: ze•ґvati `yawn, cry' [verb], ze•ґvam [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґheh1-??
Proto-Slavic form: *zidъ; zьdь
GRAM: m. o; f. i
PSLMEAN: `wall'
Old Church Slavic: zъdĕ (Ps. Sin.) `wall' [Locsm o]
Czech: zed' `stone wall' [f i], zdi [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: zi?d `wall' [m o], zi?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zi?d (Vrgada) `wall' [m o], zi?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zi?t (Orbanicґi) `wall' [m o], zi?da [Gens]
Slovene: zi?d `wall' [m o/u], zi?da [Gens], zidu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: zid `stone wall' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґeid-
Old Prussian: seydis `wall'
COMM: \ZThe root may be a metathesized variant of *dheigґh- `knead clay, coat with loam'. \z
Proto-Slavic form: *zijati; zьjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `open (one's mouth), gape, be wide open'
Old Church Slavic: zijati (Supr.) `open (one's mouth)' [verb], zĕjǫ [1sg], zijajǫ [1sg]
Russian: zijaґt' `yawn, gape' [verb], zijaґju [1sg], zijajǫ [1sg]
Czech: zeti `gape, be wide open' [verb], zejiґ [3pl]; #Cz. zaґti `gape, be wide open' [verb], zejiґ [3pl]
Old Czech:: zieti `gape' [verb], zeju [1sg]
Polish: ziacґ `exhale' [verb], zieję [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: zi°jati `yawn, shout' [verb], zi°jѓm [1sg]; #SCr. zja?ti `yawn, shout' [verb], zja?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zi°jati (Vrgada) `gape, yawn, cry, shout' [verb], zi°jan [1sg]
Slovene: zijaґti `yawn, gawk, shout' [verb], zija?m [1sg], zi?jem [1sg]; #Sln. zi?jati `yawn, gawk, shout' [verb], zi?jam [1sg]
Bulgarian: zeґja `be wide open, yawn' [verb], zeґješ [2sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґiaЂtei
Lithuanian: žioґti `open (one's mouth)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhh1i-??
Other cognates: Lat. hiѓre `yawn, be wide open' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *zi°nǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `open (one's mouth), gape'
Old Church Slavic: zinǫti (Supr.) `open (one's mouth)' [verb], zinǫ [1sg]
Russian: raziґnut' `open wide (one's mouth), gape' [verb]
Old Czech:: pozinuґti `swallow up' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zi?nuti `open (one's mouth), yawn' [verb], zi?nЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zi?nuti (Vrgada) `open (one's mouth), yawn' [verb], zi?neš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zi?nuti (Hvar) `open (one's mouth), yawn' [verb], zi?nen [1sg]
Slovene: ziґniti `open (one's mouth)' [verb], zi?nem [1sg]
Bulgarian: ziґna `open one's mouth', yawn' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhh1i-??
Other cognates: OIc. giґna `yap, yawn' [verb]; OIc. gine `be wide open' [verb]; OHG ginЊn `be wide open' [verb]; OIc. gina `yawn' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *z–ma°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `winter'
Old Church Slavic: zima `winter' [f ѓ]
Russian: zimaґ `winter' [f ѓ], ziґmu [Accs]
Czech: zima `winter' [f ѓ]
Slovak: zima `winter' [f ѓ]
Polish: zima `winter' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ziґma `winter' [f ѓ], zi?mu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. z–ma? (Vrgada, Novi) `winter' [f ѓ], zi?mu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. z–ma? (Orbanicґi) `winter' [f ѓ], zi?mo [Accs]
Slovene: ziґma `winter, cold' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: ziґma `winter' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: žiema° `winter' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: zi°ema `winter' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhei-m-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. hiґmѓ- (RV+) `winter' [f]; LAv. ziiѓ† `winter' [m]; Gk. ^Г—Гk•Гњ•Гq†ГУГљ `winter' [m]; Lat. hiems `winter' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *zmьja°
GRAM: f. iѓ
PSLMEAN: `snake'
Old Church Slavic: zmija `serpent' [f jѓ]
Russian: zmejaґ `snake' [f jѓ], zmeґi [Nomp]
Czech: zmije `adder' [f jѓ]
Slovak: zmija `adder' [f jѓ]
Polish: z†mija `(venomous) snake, adder' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: zmi°ja `snake' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. zmija? (Vrgada) `snake' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. zmi?ja (Novi, Orbanicґi) `snake' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: zmijaґ `adder' [f jѓ], zmiiґ [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhgґh-m-
Proto-Slavic form: *zmь°jь
GRAM: m. io
PSLMEAN: `snake, dragon'
Old Church Slavic: zmii `serpent, dragon' [m jo], zmija [Gens]
Russian: zmej `dragon, (obs., coll.) snake' [m jo], zmeґja [Gens]; #Ru. zmij (arch.) `serpent, dragon' [m jo], zmiґja [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: zma?j `dragon, tapeworm' [m jo]
Slovene: zma?j `dragon' [m jo]
Bulgarian: zmej `dragon, tapeworm, (arch.) snake' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhgґh-m-i-u-
Proto-Slavic form: *znamenьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `sign'
Old Church Slavic: znamenie `sign' [n io]
Czech: znameniґ `sign' [n io]
Slovak: znamenie `sign' [n io]
Serbo-Croatian: zna?mЊnje `sign, symbol, omen' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. znamie~nje (Orbanicґi) `traces, trail' [n jo]
Slovene: znaґmenje `sign' [n jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґneh3-men-
Other cognates: Gk. gnw~ma `sign, symptom' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zna°mę
GRAM: n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sign'
Church Slavic: znamę `sign' [n n]
Russian: znaґmja `banner, standard' [n n]
Old Czech:: znamĕ `sign' [n n]
Polish: znamię `sign' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: zna?mЊn `sign, symbol, omen' [n o]
Bulgarian: znaґme `flag, banner' [n n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґneh3-men-
Other cognates: Gk. gnw~ma `sign, symptom' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zna°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `know'
Old Church Slavic: znati `know' [verb], znajǫ [1sg]
Russian: znat' `know' [verb], znaґju [1sg]
Czech: znaґti `know' [verb]
Slovak: znat' `know' [verb]
Polish: znacґ `know' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zna?ti `know' [verb], zna?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zna?ti (Vrgada) `know' [verb], znaІ?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zna?t (Hvar) `know' [verb], zno?n [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zna?t (Orbanicґi) `know' [verb], zna?n [1sg]
Slovene: znaґti `know' [verb], zna?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: znam `know' [verb], znaґeš [2sg]; #Bulg. znaґja `know' [verb], znaґeš [2sg]
Lithuanian: žinoґti `know' [verb]
Latvian: zina^t `know' [verb]
Old Prussian: posinnat `confess' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґneh3-
Other cognates: Skt. jѓnѓґti `know' [verb]; Gk. gignиskw `perceive, realize' [verb]; Go. kunnan `know' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *znojь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `heat'
Old Church Slavic: znoi `heat' [m jo]
Russian: znoj `intense heat, sultriness' [m jo], znoґja [Gens]
Czech: znoj (poet., arch.) `sweat, heat' [m jo]
Polish: znoґj `toil, sweat, (obs.) heat' [m jo], znoju [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: zno?j `sweat' [m jo], zno?ja [Gens]
Slovene: znǫ?j `heat, sweat' [m jo]; #Sln. zno°j `heat, sweat' [m jo]
Bulgarian: znoj `heat' [m jo]
Proto-Slavic form: *znьjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `smoulder, burn'
Russian: znijaґt' (Dal': Tver', Psk.) `smoulder, burn (without flames)' [verb]; #Ru. zneґjat' (Dal': Arx.) `smoulder, burn (without flames)' [verb]; #Ru. zneґt' (Arx.) `shine, flame, become red' [verb]
Czech: zn№at (dial.) `shine, burn' [verb]; #Cz. znĕt' (dial.) `shine, burn' [verb]
Other cognates: znojь
Proto-Slavic form: *zoba°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `peck'
Old Church Slavic: ozoba (Ps. Sin.) `devoured' [3sgaor]; #OCS izoba (Supr.) `ate' [3sgaor]
Russian: zobaґt' (dial.) `peck, swallow, eat greedily, devour' [verb]
Old Russian:: zobati `eat' [verb]
Czech: zobati `peck' [verb]; #Cz. džobač (Lach dial.) `peck' [verb]
Slovak: zobat' `peck' [verb]
Polish: dziobacґ `peck' [verb] {1}
Old Polish: zobacґ `peck' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zo°bati `peck, (Vuk) eat grains' [verb], zo?bljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zoba?ti (Vrgada) `peck' [verb], zo?bl§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zoba?t (Orbanicґi) `peck, eat, nibble (grapes, berries etc.)' [verb], zo?bljen [1sg]
Slovene: zoґbati `peck, eat (berries, cherries etc.), eat grains' [verb], zǫґbljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: zoґbam `eat berries one by one' [verb]
Lithuanian: že†~bti `eat dry substances, gobble, crave for, covet' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґ(h)obh-
COMM: It is doubtful if there are cognates outside Balto-Slavic.
Notes: {1} Originally an East Polish form.
Proto-Slavic form: *zo?lto
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `gold'
Old Church Slavic: zlato `gold' [n o]
Russian: zoґloto `gold' [n o]
Czech: zlato `gold' [n o]
Slovak: zlato `gold' [n o]
Polish: zљoto `gold' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: zљoto `gold' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: zla?to `gold' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. zlaІ?to (Vrgada) `gold' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. zla?to (Novi, Orbanicґi) `gold' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. zlo?to (Hvar) `gold' [n o]
Slovene: zlato•? `gold' [n o]
Bulgarian: zlaґto `gold' [n o]
Latvian: zę°lts `gold' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґholh3-to-
Other cognates: Skt. hiґran•ya- (RV+) `precious metal, gold' [n]; Go. gul± `gold' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zo?bь; zo?bъ
GRAM: f. i; m. o
Russian: zob `crop, goitre' [m o], zoґba [Gens]; #Ru. zob' (N. dial.) `food, grub' [f i]
Czech: zob `birdseed' [m o]
Polish: dzioґb `beak, bill' [m o], dzioba [Gens] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: zo?b `oats' [f i], zo?bi [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zo?b (Vrgada) `oats' [f i], zo?bi [Gens]
Slovene: zǫ?b `(solid) fodder, grain' [f i], zobi? [Gens]
Bulgarian: zob `fodder (grain)' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґ(h)obh-
Notes: {1} Since the 18th century for nos.
Proto-Slavic form: *zo?rkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `sunbeam, look, appearance'
Old Church Slavic: zrakъ `look, appearance, countenance' [m o]
Russian: zoґrok (dial.) `look, glance, appearance' [m o]
Czech: zrak `face' [m o]
Slovak: zrak `face' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: zra?k `sunbeam, air' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. zdraІ?k (Vrgada) `air' [m o], zdraІ?ka; #SCr. C№ak. zra?k (Orbanicґi) `air' [m o], zra?ka
Slovene: zra?k `beam, air' [m o]
Bulgarian: zrak `light, vision' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhor(H)-
Proto-Slavic form: *zo°rdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hay-stack'
Russian: zoroґd `hay-stack, enclosure for a hay-stack' [m o]; #Ru. zaroґd `hay-stack, enclosure for a hay-stack' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґorЂdos
Lithuanian: žaґrdas `rack for drying flax' [m o] 1
Latvian: za~rds `rack for drying flax' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґ(h)ord-o-?? (gґ(h)orHd(h)-o-??)
Proto-Slavic form: *zori°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `ripen (tr.)'
Old Church Slavic: sъzori (Supr.) `ripen (tr.)' [3sg aor.]
Russian: zoriґt' (dial.) `make (berries) ripen by spreading (them) on a mat' [verb]
Old Czech:: szor№iґti `ripen (tr.)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. zori?t (Orbanicґi) `ripen' [verb], zori~ [3sg]
Slovene: zoriґti `ripen (tr.)' [verb], zoriґm [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґorH2-eie-
Page in Pokorny: 390
Other cognates: Skt. jaґrati `make old, let smth. reach an old age' [verb]; Gk. gh~raj `old age' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zor§a°
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `dawn, aurora'
Old Church Slavic: zorję (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `dawn' [Nompf jѓ]
Russian: zarjaґ `dawn, sunset, reveille, retreat' [f jѓ], zarjuґ [Accs], zoґrju [Accs], zoґri [Nomp]; #Ru. zorjaґ (arch., poet.) `dawn, sunset, reveille, retreat' [f jѓ], zoґrju [Accs], zorjuґ [Accs]
Ukrainian: zorjaґ `star' [f jѓ]
Czech: zora `dawn, aurora' [f ѓ]; #Cz. zor№e (arch., eccl.) `dawn, aurora' [f jѓ]
Slovak: zora `dawn, aurora' [f ѓ]
Polish: zorza `dawn, daybreak' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: zorza `dawn, daybreak' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: zo°ra `aurora' [f ѓ], zo?ru [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zora? (Vrgada) `aurora' [f ѓ], zo?ru [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zora? (Orbanicґi) `aurora' [f ѓ], zo?ro [Accs], zoro? [Accs]
Slovene: zoґrja `aurora, redness of the sky' [f jѓ]; #Sln. zǫ?rja `aurora, redness of the sky' [f jѓ]; #Sln. zǫґra `aurora' [f ѓ]; #Sln. zoґra `aurora' [f ѓ]; #Sln. zo°r `shine, daybreak, East' [m o], zoґra [Gens]; #Sln. zo•?r `shine, daybreak, East' [m o]
Bulgarian: zoraґ `aurora, daybreak' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: žarija° `hot coal' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: sari `glow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhor(H)-ieh2
Proto-Slavic form: *zǫbrъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `wisent'
Russian: zubr `wisent' [m o], zuґbra [Gens]
Czech: zubr `wisent' [m o]
Slovak: zubor `wisent' [m o]
Polish: z†ubr `wisent' [m o]
Old Polish: za§br `wisent' [m o]; #OPl. za§brz `wisent' [m jo]; #OPl. zubr `wisent' [m o] {1}
Lithuanian: stum~bras `wisent, aurochs' [m o] 2
Latvian: sum~brs `aurochs' [m o]; #Latv. stumbr(i)s `aurochs' [m o]; #Latv. su~brs `aurochs' [m o]
Old Prussian: wissambs' (EV) `aurochs' {1}
COMM: A connection with the root *gґombh- of PSl. zǫbъ, Latv. zu°obs `tooth' cannot be ruled out, but it is possible that we are dealing with a migratory term, cf. Oss. dombaj `bison'.
Notes: {1} Variants with a nasal are also attested in placenames, e.g. Zębrzyce. {2} The meanings of wissambs `Ewer' and tauris `Wesant' are seemingly reversed (cf. Young 1998). Young (o.c.) connects the element wis- with OPr. wissene `wild rosemary' and OHG wisa `meadow'.
Proto-Slavic form: *zǫ?bъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `tooth'
Old Church Slavic: zǫbъ `tooth' [m o]
Russian: zub `tooth' [m o], zuґba [Gens]
Ukrainian: zub `tooth' [m o], zuґbu [Gens]
Czech: zub `tooth' [m o]
Slovak: zub `tooth' [m o]
Polish: za§b `tooth' [m o], zębu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: zu?b `tooth' [m o], zu?ba [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zu?b (Vrgada, Novi, Hvar) `tooth' [m o], zu?ba [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zuo?p (Orbanicґi) `tooth' [m o], zuo?ba [Gens]
Slovene: zǫ?b `tooth' [m o], zǫ?ba [Gens], zobu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: zaўb `tooth' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґombos
Lithuanian: žam~bas `sharp edge' [m o]
Latvian: zu°obs `tooth' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґombh-o-
Other cognates: Skt. jaґmbha- `tooth' [m]; Gk. gТmfoj `pin, nail' [m]; OIc. kambr `comb, jagged edge' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *zvęgti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: zvęgoma `being told' [Gensn ptcprspas]
Russian: zvjač' (dial.) `bark continually, scold' [verb], zvjaguґ [1sg], zvjažeЁt [3sg]
Lithuanian: žveґngti `neigh' [verb], žveґngia [3ps]
Proto-Slavic form: *zvĕ?rь
GRAM: m. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `wild animal'
Old Church Slavic: zvĕrь `wild animal' [m i]
Russian: zver' `wild animal' [m jo]
Czech: zvĕr№ `wild animal' [f i]
Slovak: zver `wild animal' [m o]; #Slk. zver `game' [f i]
Polish: zwierz `wild animals (coll.), big animal' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: zvi?jer `wild animal' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. zvi?r (Vrgada) `wild animal' [f i], zvi?ri [Gens]
Slovene: zvę?r `wild animal' [f i], zveri? [Gens]
Bulgarian: zvjar `wild animal' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґuёeЂriґs
Lithuanian: žve†ri°s `wild animal' [m i] 3
Latvian: zvę^rs `wild animal' [m o] 3
Old Prussian: sw–rins `wild animal' [Apl]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhueh1r-
Other cognates: Gk. q»r `wild animal' [m]; Lat. ferus `wild' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *zъly
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `sister-in-law (husband's sister)'
Church Slavic: zlъva (Mikl.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]
Russian: zoloґvka `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]; #Ru. zoґlva (dial.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister), daughter-in-law' [f ѓ]; #Ru. zoloґva (dial.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]; #Ru. zoloґv' (dial.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f i]; #Ru. zoґlovica (dial.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f jѓ]; #Ru. zoloґvica (dial.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: zelva `sister-in-law (husband's sister), daughter-in-law' [f ѓ]
Slovak: zolvica `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: zљew `sister-in-law (husband's sister), daughter-in-law' [f i]; #OPl. zeљw `sister-in-law (husband's sister), daughter-in-law' [f i] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: za?ova `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. za?va (Vojv.) `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: za?љva `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]; #Sln. za?va `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]; #Sln. zo?љva `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: zaўґlva `sister-in-law (husband's sister)' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґlh2-u-
Other cognates: Skt. giri- (Gr•Sі) `sister-in-law(?)' [f]; Gk. gŽlwj `husband's sister [f]; Lat. glЎs `sister-in-law' [f]
Notes: {1} The material presented in the Sљownik staropolski seems to point to a paradigm zљew, Gsg. zeљwi < *zъlъvь, Gsg. zъlъvi. In that case the vocalism of zeљw must be analogical.
Proto-Slavic form: *zъlъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `bad, evil, wicked'
Old Church Slavic: zъlъ `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]
Russian: zloj `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]; #Ru. zol `angry' [adj o], zlo [Nomsf], zlo [Nomsn]
Czech: zlyґ `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]
Slovak: zlyґ `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]
Polish: zљy `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: za?o `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o], zla? [Nomsf], zlo? [Nomsn]
Slovene: zЌ°љ `bad, evil' [adj o], zla° [Nomsf]; #Sln. za?љ `bad, evil' [adj o]
Bulgarian: zaўl `bad, evil, wicked' [adj o]
Lithuanian: atžіlu°s (Z№em.) `rude' [adj u] 3
Proto-Slavic form: *zъvati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `call'
Old Church Slavic: zъvati `call' [verb], zovǫ [1sg]
Russian: zovaґt' `call' [verb], zovuґ [1sg], zoveЁt [3sg]
Czech: zvaґti `call, invite' [verb]
Slovak: zvat' `call, invite' [verb]
Polish: zwacґ `call' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zva?ti `call' [verb], zo°vЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zva?ti (Vrgada) `call' [verb], zove?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. zva?t (Orbanicґi) `call' [verb], zove?n [1sg]
Slovene: zvaґti `call' [verb], zoґvem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhouH-e-
Other cognates: Skt. haґvate `invoke' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *zьdati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `build'
Old Church Slavic: zьdati `build' [verb], ziždǫ [1sg]
Old Russian:: zьdati `build' [verb], zižu [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: ziґdati `build' [verb], zi?dѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. z–da?t (Orbanicґi) `build, lay bricks' [verb], zi~dan [1sg]
Slovene: ziґdati `build a wall' [verb], ziґdam [1sg]
Bulgarian: ziґdam `lay bricks' [verb]
Lithuanian: žie~sti `form (from clay)' [verb], žie~džia [3sg]
Latvian: zi°est `coat with clay' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhidh-
Notes: {1} Metathesized variant of *dheigґh `knead clay, coat with loam'?
Proto-Slavic form: *zьlčь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `bile'
Old Church Slavic: zlъčь `bile' [f i]; #OCS zlьčь (Zogr., Supr.) `bile' [f i]
Russian: žeЁlč' `bile' [f i], žeЁlči [Gens]
Czech: žluč `bile' [f i]
Slovak: žlč `bile' [f i]
Polish: z†oґљcґ `bile' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: žu?č `bile' [f i], žu?či [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. žu?č (Vrgada) `bile' [f i], žu?či [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. žu?č (Hvar) `bile' [f i], žu?či [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. žu?č (Orbanicґi) `bile' [f/m i/jo], žu?či [Gens], žu?ča [Gens]
Slovene: žo?љč `bile' [f i], žoљči? [Gens]; #Sln. žo?љč `bile' [m jo]
Bulgarian: zlaўč `bile' [f i]
Lithuanian: tulži°s `bile' [f i] 4
Latvian: žul^(k)ts `bile' [f i]; #Latv. zul^kts (dial.) `bile' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhlh3-
COMM: The forms with ž- must have arisen under the influence of *žьltъ `yellow'.
Other cognates: Gk. ^ГћГГ•ГУ `bile' [f]; Lat. fel `bile, gall-bladder' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zьrĕti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `see, look at'
Old Church Slavic: zьrĕti `see, look at' [verb], zьrjǫ [1sg]
Russian: zret' (obs.) `behold, gaze' [verb], zrju [1sg], zrit [3sg]
Czech: zr№iґti `see' [verb]
Slovak: zriet' `see' [verb]
Old Polish: zґrzecґ `see' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zre?ti (obs.) `watch' [verb], zre?m [1sg]
Slovene: zre•ґti `look (at)' [verb], zre°m [1sg]
Bulgarian: zra `look (at)' [verb]
Lithuanian: že†re†ґti `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhr(H)-
Proto-Slavic form: *zьrĕti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `ripen'
Old Church Slavic: zьrĕlъ (Supr.) `ripe' [adj o]
Church Slavic: zьrĕti `ripen' [verb]
Russian: zret' `ripen' [verb], zreґju [1sg]
Czech: zraґti `ripen' [verb]
Slovak: zriet' `ripen' [verb]
Polish: zґrzecґ `ripen' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: zre?ti `ripen' [verb]
Slovene: zre•ґti `ripen' [verb], zre•?jem [1sg], zre•?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: zreґja `ripen' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґrH2-
Page in Pokorny: 390
Other cognates: Skt. jaґrati `make old, let smth. reach an old age' [verb]; Gk. grau~j `old woman' [f]; Gk. gh~raj `old age' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *zь°rno
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `grain'
Old Church Slavic: zrьno `grain' [n o]
Russian: zernoґ `grain' [n o]
Czech: zrno `grain' [n o]
Slovak: zrno `grain' [n o]
Polish: ziarno `grain' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: zr?no `grain' [n o], zr?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zr?no (Vrgada) `grain' [n o], zr?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. za?rno (Hvar) `grain' [n o], za^rna [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. zr?no (Vrgada) `grain, kernel, bead' [n o], zr?na [Gens], zr?na [Nomp]
Slovene: zrґno• `(single) grain, tree-fruit' [n o]
Bulgarian: zaўґrno `(single) grain, bean, berry' [n o]; #Bulg. zaўrnoґ `(single) grain, bean, berry' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґirn-
Lithuanian: ži°rnis `pea' [m io]
Latvian: zir~nis `pea' [m io]
Old Prussian: syrne `grain'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґrH2-no-
Page in Pokorny: 390
Other cognates: Lat. grѓnum `grain' [n]; Go. kauґrn `grain' [n]; OIr. graґn `grain' [n]

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