Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*X)


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Всего на X (Х) – 24 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *xabati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `spoil'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 7-8
Czech: chabati (Kott) `seize, snatch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ha?bati `wear out, scold, spoil, soil' [verb], ha?bѓm [1sg]
Slovene: haґbati `push' [verb], haґbam [1sg]
COMM: See -> *xabiti.
Proto-Slavic form: *xabiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `spoil'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 8-9
Church Slavic: xabiti `spoil, corrupt' [verb]; #CS xabiti sę `abstain' [verb]
Russian: xaґbit' (arch.) `seize, snatch' [verb]
Czech: chabiti (Jungmann) `spoil, damage' [verb]; #Cz. chaґbit' (dial.) `snatch, steal' [verb]
Slovak: chabit' `fool' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: habiti `spoil' [verb]
Slovene: haґbiti `spoil, damage' [verb], ha?bim [1sg]; #Sln. habiґti `spoil, damage' [verb], habiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: xabjaґ `spoil' [verb]
Lithuanian: skoґbti `become sour' [verb]
Latvian: ska^bt `become sour' [verb]
COMM: In my opinion, this of one of the cases where Slavic *x- corresponds to Baltic sk-. I disagree with Fraenkel that #Lith. skoґbti is cognate with #Lith. sko~bti `hollow out, tear'. The meaning `seize, snatch', which is attested or both xabiti and -> *xabati is reminiscent of -> *capati, -> *gabati and -> *xapati and must be secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *xabъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `weak'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 9
Czech: chabyґ `weak, faded, bad' [adj o]
Slovak: chabyґ `weak, faded, small, timid' [adj o]
Lithuanian: skoґbas `sour' [adj o] 3
Latvian: ska^bs `sour' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *xabьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: VIII 9-10
Czech: chabnyґ `cowardly, faint-hearted' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: chamny `poor' [adj o]
Slovene: haґbЌn `quick, hasty, (dial.) weak' [adj o]
Bulgarian: xaґben `blunt (of an axe)' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *xѓpa°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `seize'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 18-19
Old Church Slavic: xapьjǫšte (Supr.) `biting' [Nompmppa]
Church Slavic: xapati (RuCS) `seize, bite, sting, trample' [verb]
Russian: xaґpat' `seize, grab' [verb], xaґpaju [1sg]; #Ru. xapaґt' (dial.) `seize, grab' [verb] {1}
Old Russian:: xapati `seize, bite, sting, trample' [verb]
Ukrainian: xapaґty `seize, grab, steal' [verb]
Czech: chaґpati `seize, comprehend' [verb]
Slovak: chaґpat' `seize, comprehend' [verb]
Polish: chapacґ `seize' [verb]
Slovincian: »a†~paўc `seize' [verb]
Slovene: ha?pati `snap, (h. se) seize' [verb], ha?pam [1sg]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 137).
Proto-Slavic form: *xlębь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: VIII 32-33
Old Church Slavic: xljębei (Ps. Sin.) `waterspouts' [Genpf i]; #OCS xlębь (Euch. MS 1/N) `waterfall' [f i]
Church Slavic: xljabь (RuCS) `waterfall, rapid' [f i]
Russian: xljab' `abyss, mud, muddy ground' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: hl(j)eb (obs., arch.) `rapids, waterfall' [f i]
Lithuanian: sklem~bti `slide off, slide down' [verb]; #Lith. sklę~sti `slide off, slide down' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *xlĕ°bъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a {1}
PSLMEAN: `bread'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 27-28
Old Church Slavic: xlĕbъ `bread, loaf' [m o]
Russian: xleb `bread, loaf, bread-grain, (pl.) corn' [m o]
Czech: chleґb `bread' [m o]
Slovak: chlieb `bread' [m o]
Polish: chleb `bread' [m o]
Slovincian: »le†ґb `bread' [m o], »li°eёbaў [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: hle?b `bread' [m o]; #SCr. (h)le?b `bread' [m o]; #SCr. hlje?b `bread' [m o]; #SCr. lje?b `bread' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. hl§i?b (Vrgada) `loaf of store-bought bread' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. hle?b (Orbanicґi) `round loaf' [m o]
Slovene: hle•°b `loaf, (white) bread' [m o], hle•ґba [m o]
Bulgarian: xljab `bread, grain' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *{1}
COMM: A borrowing from Germanic, cf. Go. hlaifs, OHG hleib.
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Old Russian:: (see Zaliznjak 1985). The length reflected in Slk. chlieb is probably due to Czech: influence.
Proto-Slavic form: *xlǫdъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `stick, pole'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 37-38
Church Slavic: xlǫdъ (RuCS) `staff' [m o]
Russian: xlud (dial.) `pole, truncheon, yoke' [m o]; #Ru. xlut (dial.) `pole' [m o]
Czech: chloud `stick' [m o]
Old Czech:: chlud `stick' [m o]
Polish: chљa§d `stalk, twig' [m o], chљędu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. hluґd (??) `pole, bar' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. hluo~t (Orbanicґi) `beam on a waggon (placed lengthwise on top of the hay)' [m o], hluoda? [Gens]
Slovene: hlǫґd `sawed off block, bar of a plough' [m o]; #Sln. hlǫ?d `bar of a plough' [m o]
Lithuanian: sklanda° (Z№em.) `fence-pole, bolt' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: sklan~da `bar, fence-pole' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *xoditi
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `go, walk'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 48-49
Old Church Slavic: xoditi `go, walk' [verb], xoždǫ [1sg]
Russian: xodiґt' `go, walk' [verb], xožuґ [1sg], xoґdit [3sg]
Czech: choditi `go, walk' [verb]
Slovak: chodit' `go, walk' [verb]
Polish: chodzicґ `go, walk' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ho°diti `go, walk' [verb], ho?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. hodi?ti (Vrgada) `go, walk' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. hodi?t (Orbanicґi) `go, walk' [verb], ho?din [1sg]
Slovene: hoґditi `go, walk' [verb], hǫґdim [Gens]
Bulgarian: xoґdja `go, walk' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sod-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 884
COMM: The initial x is thought to have originated after prefixes triggering the "ruki-rule" (e.g. pri-, u-). In order to explain the absence of the effects of Winter's law, Kortlandt assumes that xoditi replaces a reduplicated present *sizd-, where the law would not apply (Kortlandt 1988: 394).
Other cognates: Gk. РdeЪw `wander' [verb]; Av. ѓsnaoiti `approaches' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *xo?dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `motion, movement'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 51-52
Old Church Slavic: xodъ (Supr.) `motion, movement' [m o]
Russian: xod `motion, movement' [m o], xoґda [Gens]
Ukrainian: xid `motion, movement' [m o], xoґda [Gens]
Czech: chod `motion, movement, walking' [m o]
Slovak: chod `motion, movement, walk' [m o]
Polish: choґd `motion, movement, walking' [m o], chodu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ho?d `motion, movement, speed' [m o], ho?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ho?d (Vrgada) `motion, movement, speed' [m o], ho?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. huo?t (Orbanicґi) `walk, walking' [m o], ho?da [Gens]
Slovene: ho°d `motion, movement, walking' [m o], hoґda [Gens]; #Sln. hǫ?d `motion, movement, walking' [m o], hoda? [Gens]
Bulgarian: xod `motion, movement, step' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sod-o- {1}
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 884
COMM: The initial x is thought to have originated after prefixes triggering the "ruki-rule" (e.g. pri-, u-). In order to explain the absence of the effects of Winter's law, Kortlandt assumes that xoditi replaces a reduplicated present *sizd-, where the law would not apply (Kortlandt 1988: 394).
Other cognates: Gk. РdТj `wander' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *xo?ldъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `coolness, cold'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 57-58
Old Church Slavic: xladъ (Ps. Sin, Euch.) `coolness, cool breeze' [m o]
Russian: xoґlod `cold' [m o]
Czech: hlad `cold, coolness' [m o]
Slovak: hlad `coolness, cool shadow' [m o]
Polish: chљoґd `cold, coolness' [m o], chљodu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: chљoґd `coolness, shade' [m o], chљoda [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: hla?d `coolness, cool shade' [m o], hla?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. hlaІ?d (Vrgada) `shade' [m o], hlaІ?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. hla?d (Novi) `shade' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. hla?t (Orbanicґi) `shade' [m o], hla?da [Gens]
Slovene: hla?d `coolness' [m o]; #Sln. hlad (dial.) `shadow' [m o]
Bulgarian: xlad `cold, coolness' [m o]
COMM: Possibly cognate with Latin and Germanic words for `cold' reflecting PIE *gel-. The *x- lacks a convincing explanation.
Other cognates: Lat. gelidus `icy, cool' [adj]; OHG kalt `cold' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *xoldьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cool, cold'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 59-60
Old Church Slavic: xladьnъ (Euch., Supr.) `cool' [adj o]
Russian: xoloґdnyj `cold' [adj o]
Czech: chladnyґ `cool, cold' [adj o]
Slovak: chladnyґ `cool, cold' [adj o]
Polish: chљodny `cool' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: hlaґdan `cool, cold' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. hlaІ?dan (Vrgada) `cool, cold' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. hla?dan (Orbanicґi) `cold' [adj o]
Slovene: hlaґdЌn `cool' [adj o]
Bulgarian: hlaґden `cool' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Adjective in *-ьnъ. See -> *xo?ldъ.
Other cognates: Lat. gelidus `icy' [adj]; OHG kalt `cold' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *xomǫtъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `horse's collar, hames'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 69-70
Church Slavic: xomǫtъ `yoke, scales' [m o]
Russian: xomuґt `horse's collar, hames' [m o]
Czech: chomout `horse's collar, hames' [m o]
Slovak: chomuґt `horse's collar, hames' [m o]
Polish: choma§to `horse's collar, hames, clamp' [n o]; choma§t (arch., dial.) `horse's collar, hames, clamp' [m o]
Old Polish: choma§t (arch., dial.) `horse's collar, hames, clamp' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ho?mіt `bundle, bunch' [m o]
Slovene: homǫ?t `horse's collar, seine' [m o]
Bulgarian: xomoґt `yoke' [m o]
Lithuanian: ka~manos `leather bridle' [Nompf ѓ]
COMM: This etymon is sometimes regarded as a borrowing from Germanic. Banґkowski (2000: 143), on the other hand, regards Mong. khomut as a possible source.
Other cognates: MoDu. haam `hames' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *xorbrъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `brave'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 71-72
Old Church Slavic: xrabъrъ (Supr.) `brave' [adj o]; #OCS xrabьrъ (Supr.) `brave' [adj o] {1}
Russian: xoroґbryj (dial.) `brave, vain' [adj o]
Old Russian:: xorobryj `brave' [adj o]
Old Czech:: chrabry `brave' [adj o]
Polish: chrobry (poet.) `brave, bold' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: hraґbar `brave' [adj o]
Slovene: hraґbЌr `brave, bold' [adj o]
Bulgarian: xraґbaўr `brave' [adj o]
Latvian: šk§erbs `astringent, sharp' [adj o]
Other cognates: OIc. skarpr `sharp' [adj]
Notes: {1} The distribution of the two variants (xrabъrъ Nsg.m., xrabъryi Nsg.m., xrabъra Gsg.m. : xrabьrĕ Lsg.m., xrabьri Npl.m.) seems to be governed by the vocalism of the final syllable.
Proto-Slavic form: *xorna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `food, fodder'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 76-77
Church Slavic: xrana `food' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: »a•ґrnaў `food, fodder' [f ѓ]
Polabian: xarnaў `food' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: hraґna `food, fodder' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. (h)rѓІna? (Vrgada) `food, fodder' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. hrѓna? (Novi) `food, fodder' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. hrѓna? (Orbanicґi) `food' [f ѓ], hrѓno? [Accs]
Slovene: hraґna `food, fodder' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: xranaґ `food, fodder, grain' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Possibly a borrowing from Iranian.
Other cognates: Av. xvarЌna-
Proto-Slavic form: *xorniti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VIII 78-79
Old Church Slavic: xraniti `preserve, guard, protect' [verb], xranjǫ [1sg]
Russian: xoroniґt' `bury, hide' [verb], xoronjuґ [1sg], xoroґnit [3sg]; #Ru. xraniґt' `keep, preserve' [verb], xranjuґ [1sg], xraniґt [3sg]
Czech: chraґniti `defend, guard' [verb]
Polish: chronicґ `defend, guard' [verb]
Polabian: xorneў `feed' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: hraґniti `feed, keep, preserve, save' [verb], hra?n–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. hrѓІni?ti (Vrgada) `feed, save' [verb], hra~n–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. hrѓni?t (Orbanicґi) `feed, nourish' [verb], hra~nin [1sg]
Slovene: hraґniti `keep, guard' [verb], hraґnim [1sg]
Bulgarian: xraґnja `feed' [verb]
COMM: The noun from which this verb derives may be a borrowing from Iranian.
Other cognates: Av. xvarЌna-
Proto-Slavic form: *xoxotati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `laugh loudly'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 55
Church Slavic: xoxotati `laugh loudly' [verb]
Russian: xoxotaґt' `laugh loudly' [verb]
Slovincian: »oґ»otac `laugh' [verb]
Slovene: hohotaґti `laugh loudly' [verb], hohota?m [1sg], hohǫґčem [1sg]
Page in Pokorny: 634
Other cognates: Skt. kaґkhati `laugh' [verb]; Gk. ka^Г’ГУГ°Гq† `laugh loudly' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *xro°mъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `lame'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 101-102
Old Church Slavic: xromъ `lame' [adj o]
Russian: xromoґj `lame' [adj o]; xrom `lame' [adj o], xromaґ [Nomsf], xroґmo [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: chromyґ `lame' [adj o]
Slovak: chromyґ `lame' [adj o]
Polish: chromy (arch.) `lame, mutilated' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: hro?m `lame' [adj]; #SCr. C№ak. hro?m (Vrgada) `lame' [adj o]
Slovene: hro°m `lame, sick' [adj o]
Bulgarian: xrom `lame' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sromo- (?)
COMM: In this case it is difficult to explain *x- < *s-, as prexided verbs to which the ruki-rule applied seem to be lacking. The ESSJa compares #Pl. poskromicґ `tame' <- `clip the wings of' and MoHG Schramme `scratch', advocating *x- < *sk-.
Other cognates: Skt. srѓmaґ- `lame' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *xu?dъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `small, thin'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 111-113
Old Church Slavic: xudъ `small, insignificant, poor' [adj o]; #OCS xuždii `worse' [comp]
Russian: xudoґj `thin, lean, bad, full of holes' [adj o]; #Ru. xud `thin, lean, bad, full of holes' [adj o], xudaґ [Nomsf], xuґdo [Nomsn]; #Ru. xuґže `wor`se' [comp]
Czech: chudyґ `poor, bad, lean' [adj o]
Slovak: chudyґ `thin, lean' [adj o]
Polish: chudy `thin, lean, insignificant, poor' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: hu?d (dial.) `bad, evil' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. hu?t (Orbanicґi) `leaky, with a hole in it' [adj o], huda? [Nomsf], hu?do [Nomsn]
Slovene: hu?d `bad, evil' [adj o], huґda [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ksoud-oґ-
IE meaning: small
Page in Pokorny: 625
COMM: The fact that the root is not acute in Slavic, as one would expect in view of the *-d (Winters's law) is a consequence of Meillet's law.
Other cognates: Skt. ks•udraґ- `small' [adj]
Notes: The fact that the root is not acute in Slavic, as one would expect in view of the *-d (Winters's law) is a consequence of Meillet's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *xvoja; xvojь
GRAM: f. jѓ; m. jo
PSLMEAN: `needles or branches of a coniferous tree'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 125-126
Russian: xvoґja `needles or branches of a coniferous tree' [f jѓ]; #Ru. xvojaґ `needles or branches of a coniferous tree' [f jѓ]
Czech: chvoj `needles or branches of a coniferous tree' [m jo]
Slovak: chvoja `brushwood, branch of a fir-tree' [f jѓ]
Polish: choja `needles (of conifer), branches (of conifer)' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: hvo°ja `branch, sprout' [f jѓ]; #SCr. hvoґja `branch, sprout' [f jѓ]
Slovene: hǫ?ja `fir-tree, coniferous tree, brushwood of a coniferous tree' [f jѓ]; #Sln. hǫґja `fir-tree, coniferous tree, brushwood of a coniferous tree' [f jѓ]; #Sln. hvǫ?ja `fir-tree, coniferous tree, brushwood of a coniferous tree' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sku(o)jaЂ
Lithuanian: skuja° `needle of a coniferous tree, (dial.) twig of a pine tree, cone, fish-scale' [f jѓ] 4
Latvian: skuja `needle of a fir-tree' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *xvoґrstъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `brushwood'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 130-131
Church Slavic: xvrastъ `osier' [m o]
Russian: xvoґrost `brushwood' [m o]; #Ru. xvoroґst (dial.) `dry osiers, twigs, brushwood' [m o]
Ukrainian: xvoroґst `brushwood' [m o]
Czech: chrast `rustle' [m o]; #Cz. chraґst (dial.) `bush' [m o]; #Cz. chrast' (dial.) `thicket, dry osiers' [f i]
Polish: chrust `brushwood, shrubbery' [m o]
Slovincian: »ro†ґuёst `brushwood' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: chroґst (obs.) `brushwood, shrubbery' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: hra?st `oak, (dial.) tree' [m o], hraґsta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. hraІ~st (Vrgada) `oak' [m o], hrѓІsta? [Gens]
Slovene: hraґst `oak' [m o]; #Sln. hra?st `brushwood' [f i]
Bulgarian: xrast `bush, shrub' [m o]
COMM: Perhaps cognate with OHG hurst m./f., OE hyrst m. `bush, thicket', but the latter etymon is usually derived from *krt- `wind'.
Other cognates: OE hyrst `bush, thicket' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *xvorstьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `brushwood'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 131
Church Slavic: xvrastije (SerbCS) `osiers' [n io]
Czech: chrastiґ `shrubbery' [n io]; #Cz. chvrastiґ (arch.) `shrubbery' [n io]
Slovak: chrastie `shrubbery, thickets' [n io]
Polish: chrosґcie (obs.) `shrubbery, osiers' [n io]
Serbo-Croatian: hra?šcґe (arch., dial.) `oaks' [n jo]
Slovene: hraґstje `oak-wood, brushwood, osiers' [n jo]; #Sln. hra?ščje `brushwood' [n jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kvors-
Other cognates: OE hyrst `bush, thicket' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *xvorъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `ill'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 131-132
Church Slavic: xvorъ `ill' [adj o]
Russian: xvoґryj `ill, sickly' [adj o]; #Ru. xoґryj (dial.) `ill' [adj o]
Czech: choryґ `ill, sickly, bad' [adj o]
Old Czech:: ch(v)oryґ `thin, skinny' [adj o]
Slovak: choryґ `ill' [adj o]
Polish: chory `ill' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suor-o-
Page in Pokorny: 1050
Other cognates: Av. »vara- `wound' [m]; OHG sweЁro `pain, ulcer' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *xybati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sway'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 153
Czech: chybati (Kott) `hesitate' [verb]
Slovak: chyґbat' `be absent, be missing' [verb]
Polish: chybacґ (obs., dial.) `sway, rock, run, rush' [verb]
Slovene: hiґbati `scold, criticize' [verb]
COMM: Iterative in *-ati with lengthened zero grade of the root *k(w)s•eubh. Perhaps also cognate with #Lith. skubu°s, #Latv. sku°brs `hasty'.
Other cognates: Skt. ks•obh- `stagger, begin to swing, tremble' [verb]

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