Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*V)


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Всего на V (В) – 101 слово.

Proto-Slavic form: *vaditi
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: vaditi (Zogr., Mar., Supr.) `accuse' [verb], važdǫ [1sg], vadiši [2sg]
Russian: vaґdit' (arch., dial.) `slander, lure, spend time, deceive' [verb]; #Ru. vaґdit' (Novg.) `lure, spend time, deceive' [verb]
Czech: vaditi `hamper, (v. se) quarrel' [verb]
Slovak: vadit' `hamper' [verb]
Polish: wadzicґ (obs.) `annoy, hamper' [verb]
Kashubian: va†~Ѕiўc `hamper' [verb]
Slovene: vaґditi `report (someone), charge, (v. se) quarrel' [verb], va?dim [1sg]
Lithuanian: vadi°nti `call' [verb]
COMM: If we derive *vaditi from *h2uedh2 (cf. Skt. vadi `speak, talk'), the *a can be attributed to Winter's law. This would rule out a connection with Lith. vadi°nti `call', which is best derived from *uedh- `lead', cf. Latv. vadina^t `lead, accompany, urge, lure', vedina^t `urge, lure' (cf. Trautmann 1923a: 337, Bіga RR II: 642). It seems to me that Ru. dial. vaґdit' (Novg.) `lure, spend (time), deceive' cannot be separated from vodiґt' `lead' (Baltic influence?) and therefore does not belong to our etymon *vaditi.
Other cognates: Skt. vaґdati `speak, talk' [verb]; Hitt. uёѓtarnahh- [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *va?rъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Old Church Slavic: varъ `heat' [m o]
Russian: var `pitch, (dial.) boiling water, heat' [m o]
Czech: var `boiling' [m o]
Slovak: var `boiling' [m o]
Polish: war `boiling water, heat' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: va?r `heat' [m o]
Slovene: va?r `solder' [m o]
Lithuanian: varu°s `simmering' [adj u] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *uЎrH-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *vari°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c (b?)
PSLMEAN: `boil, cook'
Old Church Slavic: variti (Supr.) `cook' [verb]
Russian: variґt' `boil, cook' [verb], varjuґ [1sg], vaґrit [3sg] {1}
Czech: var№iti `boil, cook' [verb]
Slovak: varit' `boil, cook' [verb]
Polish: warzycґ `boil, cook' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vaґriti `cook, boil' [verb], va?r–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vaІЇri?ti (Vrgada) `cook, boil' [verb], vaІ~riš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vЎri?t (Hvar) `cook, boil' [verb], voґrin [1sg]
Slovene: variґti `boil, cook' [verb], variґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: varjaґ `boil, cook' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёЎriЂtei
Latvian: va°ri^t `boil, cook' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uЎrH-
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *vasъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `you (pl.)'
Old Church Slavic: vasъ `you (pl.)' [GenAccLocp prnps]
Russian: nas `you (pl.)' [GenAccLocp prnps]
Czech: vaґs `you (pl.)' [GenAccLocp prnps]
Polish: was `you (pl.)' [GenAccLocp prnps]
Serbo-Croatian: va?s `us' [GenAccp prnps]; #SCr. vas `us' [GenAccp prnps encl]; #SCr. C№ak. vaІ~s (Vrgada) `us' [GenAccp prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. va?s (Orbanicґi) `us' [GenAccp prnps]; #SCr. vas `us' [GenAccp prnps encl]
Old Prussian: wans `you (pl.)' [Accp prnps]
COMM: The form *vasъ goes back to *uЎs plus the Gpl. ending * -om.
Proto-Slavic form: *vedro
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `nice weather'
Old Church Slavic: vedro (Zogr., Mar.) `nice weather' [n o]
Russian: veЁdro (obs., coll.) `nice weather' [n o]
Czech: vedro `sweltering heat' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uedhrom
Other cognates: OIc. ve‹r `wind, weather' [n]; OHG wetar [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *vedrъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `clear'
Church Slavic: vedrъ `clear' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?dar `clear, serene, cheerful' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. ve~dar (Vrgada) `clear, serene, cheerful' [adj o], vedra? [Nomsf], ve?dra [Nomsf], ve?dro [Nomsn]
Slovene: vęґdЌr `clear (sky), without rain' [adj o], veґdra [Nomsf], vedro•? [Nomsn]
Bulgarian: veґdaўr `clear, fresh' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uedhro-
Proto-Slavic form: *ve?čerъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `evening'
Old Church Slavic: večerъ `evening' [m o]
Russian: veґčer `evening' [m o], veґčera [Gens]
BeloRussian: veґčar `evening' [m o], veґčera [Gens]
Ukrainian: veґčir `evening' [m o], veґčera [Gens]
Czech: večer `evening' [m o]
Slovak: večer `evening' [m o]
Polish: wieczoґr `evening' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: wječor `evening' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?čЊ `evening' [m o], ve?čera [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?čЊr (Vrgada) `evening' [f i], ve?čeri [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?čer (Hvar) `evening' [f i], ve?čeri [Gens]
Slovene: večę?r `evening' [m o]
Bulgarian: veґčer `evening' [m o]
Lithuanian: va~karas `evening' [m o]
Latvian: vakars `evening' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uekspero-
Other cognates: Gk. ›speroj `evening' [m]; Lat. vesper `evening' [m]; MW ucher `evening' [m]; Arm. gišer `evening'
Proto-Slavic form: *ve?rsъ; ve?rskъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `heather'
Russian: veґresk `heather' [m o]; #Ru. veґres `heather' [m o]
Czech: vr№es `heather' [m o]
Slovak: vres `heather' [m o]
Polish: wrzos `heather' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: wrjoґs `heather' [m o], wrjosa [Gens]; #USrb. wrĕs (dial.) `heather' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vri?jes `heather' [m o]
Slovene: vre•?s `heather' [m o]
Lithuanian: vi°ržis `heather' [m io]
Latvian: vir^zis `heather' [m io]; #Latv. vi°rsis `heather' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uergґ(-k)-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *velĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `want, order'
Old Church Slavic: velĕti `want, order' [verb], veljǫ [1sg]
Russian: veleґt' `want, order' [verb], veljuґ [1sg], veliґt [3sg]
Czech: veleti `command, order' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ve°l–m `say' [1sg]; #SCr. ve°lju (S. dial.) `say' [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. veli~ (Vrgada) `say' [3sg]
Slovene: vele•ґti `want, order, say' [verb], veliґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: veґlja `say' [verb]
Lithuanian: velti (OLith.) `allow' [verb], velmi [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uel(H)-
Other cognates: Lat. velle `want' [verb]; Go. wiljan `want' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *veli°kъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `big, great'
Old Church Slavic: velikъ `big, great, strong' [adj o]
Russian: veliґkij `great, big' [adj o]
Czech: velikyґ `great, big' [adj o]
Slovak: velikyґ `great, big' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?lik– `big, strong, intense, great' [adj o], ve?likѓ [Nomsf], ve?likЎ [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?lik (Vrgada) `big, strong, intense, great' [adj o], velika? [Nomsf], veliko? [Nomsn] {1}
Slovene: veґlik `big, great' [adj o], veliґka [Nomsf]; #Sln. vę?liki `big, strong' [adj o], vę?lika [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: veliґk `great, big' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uelH-
Notes: {1} The definite form ve?lik– is more common.
Proto-Slavic form: *velkti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `drag'
Old Church Slavic: vlĕšti `drag' [verb], vlĕkǫ [1sg]
Russian: voloґč' (coll.) `drag' [verb], volokuґ [1sg], voločeЁt [3sg]; #Ru. vleč' `drag' [verb], vlekuґ [1sg], vlečeЁt [3sg] {1}
Old Russian:: voloči `drag' [verb], voloku [1sg]
Czech: vleґci `drag' [verb], vleku [1sg]
Slovak: vliect' `drag' [verb], vlečiem [1sg]
Polish: wlec `drag' [verb], wlokę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: vuґcґi `drag' [verb], vuґcґЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vu~cґi (Vrgada) `drag' [verb], vіcґe?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vu~cґ (Orbanicґi) `drag' [verb], vіcґe?n [1sg]
Slovene: vle•ґči `drag' [verb], vle•ґčem [1sg]
Bulgarian: vlekaґ `drag' [verb], vlečeґš [2sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёelk- / uёilk-
Lithuanian: vil~kti `drag' [verb], vel~ka [3ps], vil~ko [3pt]
Latvian: vi°lkt `drag' [verb], vę°lku [1sgps]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2uelk-tei
Proto-Slavic form: *velь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `big, great'
Church Slavic: velii (RuCS) `big' [adj jo]
Russian: velij (obs.) `big' [adj jo]
Old Czech:: veliґ `big' [adj jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?lj– `great, big, large' [adj jo], ve?ljѓ [Nomsf], vel?jЎ [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?l– (Novi) `great, big, large' [adj o], ve?lѓ [Nomsf], ve?lЎ [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?li (Orbanicґi) `great, big, large' [adj jo], ve?la [Nomsf], ve?lo [Nomsn]
Slovene: vę?l(i) `big, great' [adj jo], vę?la [Nomsf]
Macedonian: veґlij `big' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uelH-i-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *velьkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `big, great'
Czech: velkyґ `big, great' [adj o]
Slovak: vel'kyґ `big, great' [adj o]
Polish: wielki `big, great' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uelH-
Notes: {1} The definite form ve?lik– is more common.
Proto-Slavic form: *velьmi
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `very'
Old Church Slavic: velьmi `very' [adv]
Russian: vel'miґ (obs.) `very' [adv]
Czech: velmi `very' [adv]
Slovak: vel'mi `very' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uelH-i-miHs
Proto-Slavic form: *veprь
GRAM: m jo
PSLMEAN: `(wild) boar'
Old Church Slavic: veprь (Ps. Sin.) `boar' [m jo]
Russian: vepr' `wild boar' [m jo], veґprja [Gens]
Czech: vepr№ `pig' [m jo]
Polish: wieprz `pig' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?par `boar' [m jo], ve?pra [Gens]
Slovene: vę?pЌr `boar' [m jo]
Latvian: vepris `castrated boar' [m io]
COMM: It can hardly be doubted that this etymon has Italic and Germanic cognates, but the reconstruction of the anlaut presents difficulties.
Other cognates: Lat. aper `wild boar' [m ]; OHG ebur `wild boar' [m]; OE eofor `wild boar' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vergti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `throw'
Old Church Slavic: vrĕšti `throw' [verb], vrьgǫ [1sg]
Old Czech:: vrci `throw' [verb], vrhu [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: vr?cґi `put, throw' [verb], vr?gnЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ver?cґ (Vrgada) `put, throw' [verb], ver?žeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vre?cґ, vr?cґ (Orbanicґi) `put, throw' [verb], vr?žЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vre?cґ (Cres) `throw away' [verb], ve?ržen [1sg]
Slovene: vre•ґči `throw' [verb], vr?žem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uergє-
Other cognates: Go. wairpan `throw' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vermę
GRAM: n. n
PSLMEAN: `time'
Old Church Slavic: vrĕmę `time' [n n]
Russian: vreґmja `time' [n n] {1}
Old Russian:: veremja `time' [n n]
BeloRussian: veґreme `time' [n n]
Ukrainian: veґremje `time' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: vrije°me `time' [n n], vre?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vri?me (Vrgada, Novi, Hvar) `time' [n n], vri?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vrie?me (Orbanicґi) `time' [n n], vre?mena [Gens]
Slovene: vreґme `weather, cause' [n n], vremęґna [Gens]; #Sln. vre•ґme `weather, cause' [n n]
Bulgarian: vreґme `time' [n n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uert-men-
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Other cognates: Skt. vaґrtman- `track, course' [n]
Notes: {1} A Church Slavic:ism.
Proto-Slavic form: *verslo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b?
Ukrainian: vereґslo `gourd stalk' [n o]
Czech: povr№iґslo `binder' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: vrije°slo `kettle hook' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uergґh-s-loґm
Other cognates: OS wurgil `snare' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *verteno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `spindle'
Church Slavic: vrĕteno (Parim.) `spindle' [n o]
Russian: veretenoґ `spindle, axle' [n o]
Czech: vr№eteno `spindle' [n o]
Slovak: vreteno `spindle' [n o]
Polish: wrzeciono `spindle' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: wrjecґeno `spindle' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: vrete°no `spindle' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. vreteno? (Orbanicґi) `spool, spindle' [n o]
Slovene: vre•teґno• `spindle' [n o]
Bulgarian: vreteґno `spindle' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uert-en-o-m
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Other cognates: Skt. vaґrtan•a- `rotation, rolling' [n]
Notes: {1} A Church Slavic:ism.
Proto-Slavic form: *veslo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `oar'
Old Church Slavic: vesla (Supr.) `oars' [Nompn o]
Russian: vesloґ `oar' [n o]
Czech: veslo `oar' [n o]
Slovak: veslo `oar' [n o]
Polish: wiosљo `oar' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ve°slo `oar' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. veslo? `oar' [n o], ve?slaІЇ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. veslo? (Novi) `oar' [n o], ve?sla [Nomp]
Slovene: veґslo• `oar' [n o]
Bulgarian: vesloґ `oar' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uegґh-s-lom?
COMM: An alternative is *uegґh-tlom.
Proto-Slavic form: *vesna°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `spring'
Old Church Slavic: vesnǫ (Ps. Sin.) `spring' [Accsf ѓ]
Russian: vesnaґ `spring' [f ѓ], vesnuґ [Accs] {1}
Czech: vesna `spring' [f ѓ]
Polish: wiosna `spring' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ve°sna `spring' [f ѓ]
Slovene: ve•?sna `spring' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: va~sara `summer' [f ѓ]
Latvian: vasara `summer' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ues-r/n-
Other cognates: Skt. vasantaґ- (RV+) `spring' [m]; Skt. vasar- (RV) `in the early morning' [adv]; Gk. ™ar `spring' [n]; Lat. uЊr `spring' [n]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *vesti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `lead, conduct'
Old Church Slavic: vesti `lead, conduct' [verb], vedǫ [1sg]
Russian: vestiґ `lead, conduct' [verb], veduґ [1sg], vedeЁt [3sg]
Czech: veґsti `lead, conduct' [verb], vedu [1sg]
Slovak: viest `lead, conduct' [verb]
Polish: wiesґcґ `lead, conduct' [verb]
Slovene: veґsti `lead, conduct' [verb], veґdem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *vestei
Lithuanian: ve°sti `lead' [verb], ve~da [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uedh-
Other cognates: OIr. fedid `go, bring' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vetъxъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `old, ancient'
Old Church Slavic: vetъxъ `old, ancient' [adj o]
Russian: veґtxij `old, ancient, decrepit' [adj o]; #Ru. vetx `old, ancient, decrepit' [adj o], vetxaґ [Nomsf], veґtxo [Nomsn]
Czech: vetchyґ `feeble, decrepit' [adj o]
Bulgarian: veґtxi `old' [adj o]; #Bulg. vext `old' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёetus•os
Lithuanian: ve~tušas (obs.) `old, archaic' [adj o]
COMM: In view of Lat. vetus, Gsg. veteris, the Balto-Slavic adjective is a thematicized form *uet-us-o-.
Other cognates: Lat. vetus `old' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *vezti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cart, lead, convey'
Old Church Slavic: vesti (Supr.) `cart, lead, convey' [verb], vezǫ [1sg]
Russian: veztiґ `cart, convey' [verb], vezuґ [1sg], vezeЁt [3sg]
Czech: veґzti `lead, convey' [verb], vezu [1sg]
Slovak: viezt' `lead, convey' [verb], veziem [1sg]
Polish: wiezґcґ `lead, convey' [verb], wiozę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: ve°sti `lead, convey' [verb], ve°zЊm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *vezґtei
Lithuanian: ve°žti `lead, convey' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uegґh-
Other cognates: Skt. vaґhati `carry, drive, lead' [verb]; Lat. vehere `drive, lead' [verb]; OIc. vega `move, swing, lift' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vę°dnǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `fade, wither'
Russian: vjaґnut' `fade, wither' [verb]
Czech: vadnouti `fade, wither' [verb]
Slovak: v„dnuґt' `fade, wither' [verb]
Polish: więdna§cґ `fade, wither' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ve?nuti `fade, wither' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?nuti (Vrgada) `fade, wither' [verb], ve?neš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?nut (Hvar) `fade, wither' [verb], ve?nen [1sg]
Slovene: vęґniti `fade, wither' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *u(e)ndh-
Page in Pokorny: 1047
Other cognates: OHG swintan `fade, pine away, wither' [verb]; OE swindan `subside, fade' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vęЇza°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `tie'
Old Church Slavic: vęzati `tie, join' [verb], vęžǫ [1sg], vęzajǫ [1sg]
Russian: vjazaґt' `tie, bind, knit' [verb], vjažuґ [1sg], vjaґžet [3sg]
Czech: vaґzati `tie, bind' [verb]
Slovak: viazat' `tie, bind' [verb]
Polish: wia§zacґ `tie, bind' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: veґzati `tie, connect, bind' [verb], veґžЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vЊza?ti `tie, connect, bind' [verb], ve~žeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vЊza?t (Hvar) `tie, connect, bind' [verb], veґžen [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vieza?t (Orbanicґi) `tie, connect, bind' [verb], vie~žen [1sg]
Slovene: vęґzati `tie, bind' [verb], vęґžem [1sg]
Bulgarian: veґza `stitch' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ngґh-
COMM: The origin of the initial *v remains unclear.
Other cognates: Gk. Ґgcw `squeeze, strangle' [verb]; Hitt. hamank `tie, betroth' [verb]; Lat. angere `strangle, choke' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕdĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `know'
Old Church Slavic: vĕdĕti `know' [verb], vĕmь [1sg], vĕdĕ [1sg], vĕstъ [3sg]
Russian: veґdat' `manage, (obs.) know' [verb]
Czech: vĕdĕti `know' [verb]
Slovak: vedet' `know' [verb]
Polish: wiedziecґ `know' [verb], wiem [1sg]
Slovene: ve•ґde•ti `know' [verb], ve•ґm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoiЂd-
Old Prussian: waist `know' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoid-
IE meaning: know
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. veґda [3sipfa]; Gk. o‡da `know' [3pipa]; Go. wait `know' [3pipa]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕdro°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bucket'
Old Church Slavic: vĕdro (Euch., Supr.) `barrel' [n o]
Russian: vedroґ `bucket' [n o]
Czech: vĕdro `bucket' [n o]
Slovak: vedro `bucket' [n o]
Polish: wiadro `bucket' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: vje°dro `bucket' [n o]; #SCr. vije°dro (Montenegro) `bucket' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?dro (Vrgada) `bucket' [n o]
Slovene: ve•ґdro• `bucket' [n o]
Bulgarian: vedroґ `bucket' [n o]
Lithuanian: ve†ґdaras `sausage, (dial.) belly, intestines' [m o] 3a
Latvian: vę^dars `belly' [m o]
Old Prussian: weders (EV) `belly, stomach'
Indo-European reconstruction: *ued-roґm
COMM: There are basically two etymologies for this noun. According to, among others, Meillet (1902-1905: 407-408) and Vasmer, *vĕdro° derives from the root of *uod-r/n- `water', cf. Gk. Шdr…a `water-pot, pitcher, vessel'. The other option is to connect the word for `bucket' with forms meaning `belly'. I prefer the latter etymology. In both cases the long vowel of the root can be attributed to Winter's law, which at first sight is incompatible with AP (b). In my framework, however, it is possible to assume that in Proto-Slavic the reflex of the laryngeal was lost in pretonic position (the sequence -dr- prevented the Balto-Slavic retraction of the stress from final open syllables). The remaining problem is the fact that the evidence points almost exclusively to a short root vowel, as words of the aforementioned type as a rule appear to have escaped the pretonic shortening that took place before Dybo's law.
Other cognates: Skt. udaґra- `belly, womb' [n]; Gk. Ыderoj [m] `dropsy' [m]; Gk. Уderoj gast»r (Hes.) [m]; Lat. uterus `lower abdomen, belly, womb' [m]
Notes: {1} With unclear -t-.
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕ?no
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `bride-price'
Russian: veґno `bride-price' [n o]
Old Russian:: vĕno `bride-price' [n o]
Czech: vĕno `bride-price' [n o]
Slovak: veno `bride-price' [n o]
Polish: wiano `bride-price' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: wĕno `dowry' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: vije°no (arch., dial.) `wedding, bride-price' [n o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ed-no-m
Other cognates: Gk. њedna `bride-price, wedding-gifts' [Nompn]; OE weotuma `bride-price' [m]
Notes: {1} According to Hamp (1970), the SCr. form adopted the accentuation of vije°nac `wreath', which came to mean `wedding'.
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕja
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `branch'
Old Church Slavic: vĕja `branch' [f ѓ]
Slovene: ve•?ja `branch, twig, foliage' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoHi-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. vayѓґ- `branch, twig' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕ°jati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `blow (of wind), winnow'
Old Church Slavic: vĕjati (Supr.) `blow (of wind)' [verb], vĕjǫ [1sg], vĕjetъ [3sg]
Russian: veґjat' `winnow, blow (of wind)' [verb], veґju [1sg], veґet [3sg]
Czech: vaґti `blow (of wind)' [verb], vĕji [1sg]
Old Czech:: vaґti `blow (of wind)' [verb], vĕju [1sg]; #OCz. vieti `blow (of wind)' [verb], vĕju [1sg]
Slovak: viat' `blow (of wind)' [verb]
Polish: wiacґ `blow (of wind)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?jati `winnow, fall heavily (snow), vi?jЊm [1sg]' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?jati (Vrgada) `rise (steam), winnow' [verb], vi?ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?jat (Orbanicґi) `sieve, winnow' [verb], vie?je [3sg]
Slovene: ve•ґti `blow (of wind), winnow' [verb], ve•?jem [1sg]; #Sln. ve•?jati `winnow, blow (of wind)' [verb], ve•?jam [1sg], ve•?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: veґja `blow (of wind), blow away, winnow' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ueh1-
Other cognates: Skt. vѓґti `blow (of wind)'[verb]; Gk. Ґhsi [2.537.2.3] `blows (of wind)' [verb 3sipa]; OHG wѓen `to blow (of wind)' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕ°ko
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `lid, eyelid'
Old Church Slavic: vĕkoma (Ps. Sin.) `eyelids' [datdn o]
Russian: veґko `eyelid, (dial.) cover of a bast basket or punnet' [n o]
Czech: viґko `lid' [n o]
Old Czech:: vieko `lid' [n o]
Slovak: veko `lid' [n o]
Polish: wieko `lid' [n o]
Slovene: ve•ґka `lid, eyelid' [f ѓ]; #Sln. ve•ґko• `eyelid' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *voґЂko; veґЂko
Lithuanian: voґkas `eyelid, envelope' [m o] 1/3
Latvian: va^ks `lid, eyelid' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕ°ra
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `faith, belief'
Old Church Slavic: vĕra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Russian: veґra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Czech: viґra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Slovak: viera `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Polish: wiara `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vje?ra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?ra (Vrgada) `faith, belief' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?ra (Orbanicґi) `faith, belief, religion' [f ѓ]
Slovene: vęґra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vjaґra `faith, belief' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ueh1-r-eh2
Other cognates: Lat. vЊrus `true' [adj]; OHG wѓra `treaty, loyalty, protection' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕtjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `say'
Old Church Slavic: vĕštati `say' [verb], vĕštajǫ [1sg]
Russian: veščaґt' `broadcast, (obs.) prophesy, (coll.) pontificate, lay down the line' [verb], veščaґju [1sg] {1}
Old Czech:: vĕcĕch (vecĕch, vecech) `said' [1sgaor], vĕcĕ (vecĕ, vece) `said' [3sgaor]
Serbo-Croatian: vije°cґati `deliberate' [verb], vi?jecґѓm§ [1sg]
Slovene: vęґčati `cry' [verb], večiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: veštaґja `proclaim, prophesy' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoitiaЂtei
Old Prussian: waitiѓt `say' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoit-
Notes: {1} A church slavicism.
Proto-Slavic form: *vĕ°trъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `wind'
Old Church Slavic: vĕtrъ `wind' [m o]
Russian: veґter `wind' [m o]
Czech: viґtr `wind' [m o]
Slovak: vietor `wind' [m o]
Polish: wiatr `wind' [m o]
Slovincian: vja~teўr `wind' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: wĕtr `wind' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vje?tar `wind' [m o], vje?tra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?tar (Vrgada) `wind' [m o], vi?tra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?tѓr (Novi) `wind' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ve?tar (Orbanicґi) `wind' [m o]
Slovene: ve•?tЌr `wind' [m o], ve•?tra [Gens]
Bulgarian: vjaґtaўr `wind' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ueЂtr-
Lithuanian: ve†ґtra `storm' [f ѓ]; #Lith. ve†ґjas `wind' [m o]
Latvian: vę~tra `storm' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ueh1-tr-o-
Other cognates: Skt. vѓґti `blow (of wind)' [verb]; Gk. Ґhsi [2.537.2.3] `blows (of wind)' [verb 3sipa]; OHG wѓen `to blow (of wind)' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vi°dĕti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `see'
Old Church Slavic: vidĕti `see' [verb], viždǫ [1sg], viditъ [3sg]
Russian: viґdet' `see' [verb], viґžu [1sg], viґdit [3sg]
Czech: vidĕti `see' [verb]
Slovak: videt' `see' [verb]
Polish: widziecґ `see' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?djeti `see' [verb], vi?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vi°ti (Vrgada) `see' [verb], vi?d–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?dit (Novi) `see' [verb], vi?d–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?dit (Hvar) `see' [verb], vi?din [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?det (Orbanicґi) `see' [verb], vi?din [1sg]
Slovene: viґde•ti `see' [verb], vi?dim [1sg]
Bulgarian: viґdja `see' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёeiЂd-
Lithuanian: veizde†ґti (Z№em.) `look, look for' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ueid-
IE meaning: see
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Gk. eЌdon `see' [1saor]; Lat. vidЊre `see' [verb]; Go. witan `observe' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vi?dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `sight, view, appearance'
Old Church Slavic: vidъ `sight, view, appearance' [m o]
Russian: vid `appearance, species, sort' [m o]
Czech: vid `appearance' [m o]
Slovak: vid `appearance' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?d `sight, appearance' [m o], vi?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?d `sight, appearance' [m o], vi?da [Gens]
Slovene: vi?d `sight, appearance' [m o]
Bulgarian: vid `sight, appearance' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёeiЂdus
Lithuanian: veґidas `face' [m o] 1/3
Latvian: vei~ds `form, external appearance' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ueid-u-
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. veґdas- `knowledge, insight' [n]; Gk. eЌdoj `appearance' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *virъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `whirlpool'
Russian: vir `whirlpool, deep spot in a river or a lake' [m o]
Czech: viґr `whirlpool' [m o]
Slovak: vir `whirlpool' [m o]
Polish: wir `whirlpool' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?r `whirlpool, deep spot in a river' [m o], viґra [Gens]
Slovene: vi?r `source, whirlpool' [m o]
Bulgarian: vir `deep spot in a river, pond' [m o]
Lithuanian: vy~ris `whirlpool' [m io]; #Lith. vy~rius `whirlpool' [m ju]
Proto-Slavic form: *viti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `twist, wind'
Old Church Slavic: viti `twist, wind' [verb], vьjǫ [1sg]
Russian: vit' `twist, wind' [verb], v'ju [1sg], v'eЁt [3sg]
Czech: viґti `twist, wind' [verb]
Slovak: vit' `twist, wind' [verb]
Polish: wicґ `twist, wind' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?ti `twist, wind' [verb], vi?jЊm [1sg], vi?jem [1sg]
Slovene: viґti `twist, wind' [verb], viґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: viґja `twist, wind' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёЂitei
Lithuanian: vyґti `twist, wind' [verb]
Latvian: vi^t `twist, wind' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uHi-
Other cognates: Lat. viЊre `wind, bend' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vitь
GRAM: f. i
Russian: vit' `something that has been plaited' [f i]
Slovincian: vji~c `pole of willow wood for tying up a thatched roof' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: pa?vit `vine' [f i]
Slovene: vi?t `screw, turn' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёЂitis
Lithuanian: vyti°s `twig' [f i] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *uHi-
Other cognates: Av. vaЊti- `willow' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vixъrъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `whirlwind'
Russian: vixr' `whirlwind' [m jo]; #Ru. vixoґr `forelock' [m o]; #Ru. viґxor (dial.) `whirlwind' [m o]; #Ru. vixoґr (dial.) `whirlwind' [m o]
Old Russian:: vixъrь `whirlwind' [m jo]
Czech: vichr `stormwind' [m o]
Slovak: viґchor `stormwind' [m o]
Polish: wicher `whirlwind, storm' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: wichor `storm' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: wichor `storm' [m o]; #LSrb. wichar (arch.) `storm' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?hѓr `whirlwind' [m o]
Slovene: viґhЌr `storm, lock of hair' [m o], viґhra [Gens]; #Sln. vihaґr `storm' [m jo], vihaґrja [Gens]; #Sln. vi?hra `storm' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: viґxaўr `stormwind' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёeЂis•ur/los
Lithuanian: viґesulas `whirlwind' [m o] 3a; #Lith. viґesula `whirlwind' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: vie~sulis `whirlwind' [m io]; #Latv. vie~suls `whirlwind' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ueH1i-s-
Other cognates: Lat. viЊre `wind, bend' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *voda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `water'
Old Church Slavic: voda `water' [f ѓ]
Russian: vodaґ `water' [f ѓ], voґdu [Accs]
Czech: voda `water' [f ѓ]
Slovak: voda `water' [f ѓ]
Polish: woda `water' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vo°da `water' [f ѓ], vo?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. voda? (Vrgada, Novi, Hvar) `water' [f ѓ], vo?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. voda? (Orbanicґi) `water' [f ѓ], vo?do [Accs]
Slovene: voґda `water' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vodaґ `water' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёondЎr
Lithuanian: vanduo~ `water' [m n] 3a
Latvian: u^dens `water' [m o]
Old Prussian: wundan `water'; #OPr. unds `water'
Indo-European reconstruction: *The origin of *voda° is the heteroclitic noun *uod-r/n- `water'. The fact that the etymon was not affected by Winter's law calls for an explanation. Kortlandt (1979: 60-61, cf. 1988: 388-389) claims that the vocalism of *voda continues the Gsg. *(v)undnes of a Balto-Slavic noun *vondЎr, with a nasal infix originating from a suffix, as in Latv. unda (cf. Thurneysen 1883). The sequence ndn blocked Winter's law (cf. the regular acute in Lith. vanduo~). The vocalism *vod- arose in Proto-Slavic when *un was lowered before a tautosyllabic stop, which development was followed by the dissimilatory loss of the *n (cf. -> *ogn'ь).
Other cognates: Skt. udaґn- (RV+) `water' [n]; Hitt. uёѓtar `water' [n], uёetenas [Gens]; Gk. Ыdwr `water' [n]; Lat. unda `wave' [f]; Go. wato `water' [n]; OS watar `water' [n]; OIc. vatn `water' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *vodi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `lead, conduct'
Old Church Slavic: voditi `lead, conduct' [verb], voždǫ [1sg]
Russian: vodiґt' `lead, conduct' [verb], vožuґ [1sg], voґdit [3sg]
Czech: voditi `lead, conduct' [verb]
Slovak: voditi `lead, conduct' [verb]
Polish: wodzicґ `lead, conduct' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vo°diti `lead, conduct' [verb], vo?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vo°diti (Vrgada) `lead, conduct' [verb], vo?d–m [1sg]
Slovene: voґditi `lead, conduct' [verb], vǫґdim [1sg]
Bulgarian: voґdja `lead, conduct' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *vodiЂtei
Lithuanian: vadyґti `lead' [verb]
Latvian: vadi^t `lead' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uodh-
Other cognates: OIr. fedid `go, bring' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?lkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Russian: voґlok `portage' [m o], voґloka [Gens]
Ukrainian: voloґka `part of a field, measure of an area' [f ѓ]
Czech: vlak `drag-net' [m o]; #Cz. vlaka (Mor. dial.) `drag-net' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vlak `drag-net' [m o]
Polish: wљok `seine, sweep-net' [m o]; #Pl. wљoґk `seine, sweep-net' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vla?k `portage' [m o]
Slovene: vla?k `tug, drag-net' [m o]
Bulgarian: vlak `train' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёolkoґs
Lithuanian: valka° (dial.) `draught' [f ѓ] 2
Latvian: va°lka2 `draught' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2uolk-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?lsъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hair'
Old Church Slavic: vlasъ `hair' [m o]
Russian: voґlos `hair' [m o], voґlosa [Gens]
BeloRussian: voґlas `hair' [m o], voґlasa [Gens]
Ukrainian: voґlos `hair' [m o], voґlosa [Gens]
Czech: vlas `hair' [m o]
Polish: wљos `hair' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: wљoґs `hair' [m o], wљosa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: vla?s `hair' [m o], vla?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vlaІ?s (Vrgada) `hair' [m o], vlaІ?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vla?s (Novi, Orbanicґi) `hair' [m o], vla?sa [Gens]; #SCr. Kajk. la?os (Bednja) `hair' [m o], la?osa [Gens]
Slovene: la?s `hair' [m o/u], la?sa [Gens], lasu? [Gens]; #Sln. la?s `hair' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolkґ-o-??
Other cognates: Skt. vaґlsґa- (RV, AV+) `sprout, twig' [m]; LAv. varЌsa- `hair (on the head)' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?rgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `foe'
Old Church Slavic: vragъ `foe' [m o]
Russian: voґrog (folk poet.) `foe, fiend' [m o]
Czech: vrah `foe' [m o]
Slovak: vrah `murderer' [m o]
Polish: wroґg `foe' [m o], wroga [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: wroґh `murderer' [m o], wroha [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: vra?g `devil' [m o], vra?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vra?g (Vrgda) `devil' [m o], vra?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vra?h (Orbanicґi) `devil' [m o], vra?ga [Gens]
Slovene: vra?g `devil' [m o]
Bulgarian: vrag `enemy' [m o]
Lithuanian: var~gas `hardship, misery' [m o] 2/4
Latvian: vѓ°rgs2 (dial.) `misery' [m o]; #Latv. va~rgs `pining, miserable' [adj o]
Old Prussian: wargan `misery, suffering, danger' [Accs]; #OPr. wargs `evil' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(h1)uorg-o- {1}
COMM: The reconstruction of an initial laryngeal hinges on Gk. e‡rgw `shut in, shut out' [verb], which may or may not be cognate.
Other cognates: Go. wrikan `persecute' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?rnъ I
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `raven'
Old Church Slavic: vranъ `raven' [m o]
Russian: voґron `raven' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vra?n `raven' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. vra?n (Vrgada) `a kind of dark-coloured fish' [m o]
Slovene: vra?n `raven' [m o]
Bulgarian: vran `black' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoruёos
Lithuanian: var~nas `raven' [m o]
Old Prussian: warnis (EV) `raven'
Indo-European reconstruction: *uor-uo-
Page in Pokorny: 1166
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?rnъ II
Accent paradigm: c
Church Slavic: vranъ (Hval., Rumj.) `black' [adj o]; #CS vranyi (RuCS) `black' [adj o]
Russian: voronoґj `black' [adj o]
Old Russian:: voronyi `black' [adj o]
Slovene: vra?n `black' [adj o], vraґna [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: vran `black' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoruёos
Indo-European reconstruction: *uor-uo-
Page in Pokorny: 1166
Proto-Slavic form: *vo?zъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cart'
Old Church Slavic: vozy (Supr.) `carts' [Accpm o]
Russian: voz `cart' [m o], voґza [Gens]
BeloRussian: voz `cart' [m o], voґza [Gens]
Ukrainian: viz `cart' [m o], voґza [Gens]
Czech: vu•z `cart' [m o]
Slovak: voz `cart' [m o]
Polish: woґz `cart' [m o], wozu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: woґz `cart' [m o], woza [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: vo?z `cart' [m o], vo?za [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. (v)uo?z `waggon, cart' [m o], vo?za [Gens]
Slovene: vo•?z `cart' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uogґh-o-
Other cognates: Gk. Ф^ГћГ› `cart' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vojьna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `war'
Russian: vojnaґ `war' [f ѓ]
Czech: vojna `war' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vojna `war' [f ѓ]
Polish: wojna `war' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vo?jna (obs.) `war' [f ѓ]
Slovene: voґjna `war, army' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vojnaґ `war' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoiH-neh2
Proto-Slavic form: *vojь; voinъ
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `soldier'
Old Church Slavic: voi `soldier' [m jo]; #OCS voinъ `soldier' [m o]
Russian: voґinъ `soldier, warrior' [m o]
Old Russian:: voinъ `soldier' [m o], voi [Nomp]
Czech: vojiґn `soldier' [m o]; #Cz. vojaґk `soldier' [m o]
Slovak: vojiґn `soldier' [m o]; #Slk. vojaґk `soldier' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vo°jn–k `soldier' [m o]
Slovene: vojniґk `soldier' [m o]
Bulgarian: vojniґk `soldier' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoiH-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *voldĕti; voldati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rule'
Church Slavic: vladĕti `rule' [verb]
Russian: vladeґt' `own, control, wield' [verb]; #Ru. volodeґt' (dial.) `own, control, wield' [verb]
Slovak: vlaґdat' `be able' [verb]
Polish: wљadacґ `rule, reign' [verb]
Old Polish: wљodacґ `rule, reign' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vlaґdati `rule' [verb], vla?dam [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vlaґdati (Vrgada) `rule' [verb], vla?dam [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vlaІЇda?ti (Vrgada) `rule' [verb], vlaІ~daš [2sg]
Slovene: vlaґdati `lead, direct, rule, own' [verb], vlaґdam [1sg]; #Sln. laґdati `lead, direct, rule, own' [verb], laґdam [1sg]
Lithuanian: valdyґti `rule, govern, wield' [verb], val~do [3ps], val~de† [3pt]
Latvian: va°ldi^t `rule, govern, wield' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolH-dh-
COMM: Apparently, the suffix became part of the root.
Other cognates: Go. waldan `rule' [verb]; OHG waltan `rule' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vo°lga
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `moisture, liquid food'
Old Church Slavic: vlaga `moisture' [f ѓ]
Russian: voloґga (dial.) `moisture, liquid food, additional ingredients, side-dish, butter, bacon, fat' [f ѓ]; #Ru. voґloga (dial.) `moisture, liquid food, additional ingredients, side-dish, butter, bacon, fat' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: vologa `liquid food or additions to it, butter, fat' [f ѓ]
Czech: vlaґha `moisture' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vlaha `moisture' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wљoha `humidity' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vla?ga `moisture, dampness' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vla?ga (Vrgada {1}, Orbanicґi) `moisture, dampness' [f ѓ]
Slovene: vlaґga `moisture, rain, soup' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vlaґga `moisture' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёolЂgaЂ
Lithuanian: valga° (E. Lith.) `food, victuals' [f ѓ]; #Lith. pavalga° `food, victuals, additional ingredient' [f ѓ]
Latvian: paval~ga `additional ingredient, side-dish' [f ѓ]; #Latv. pavalgs `additional ingredient, side-dish' [m o]
Old Prussian: welgen (EV) `cold' [`snuppe']
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolg-eh2
Other cognates: OHG wolchan `cloud' [n]
Notes: {1} Also u?laga.
Proto-Slavic form: *voliti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wish, choose'
Old Church Slavic: voliti `want, wish' [verb], voljǫ [1sg]
Czech: voliti `choose' [verb]
Slovak: volit' `choose' [verb]
Slovene: voґliti `choose, wish, bequeath, prefer' [verb], vǫґlim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uel(H)-
Proto-Slavic form: *volka°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
Russian: voloґka (dial.) `part of a field, measure of an area' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: voloґka `part of a field, measure of an area' [f ѓ]
Polish: wљoґka (dial.) `pasture' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. vlѓka? (Novi) `lumber road' [f ѓ], vlѓku? [Accs]
Slovene: vlaґka `tugging, harrowing' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoґlkaЂ
Lithuanian: valka° (dial.) `draught' [f ѓ] 2
Latvian: va°lka2 `draught' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2uolk-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *volkno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `fibre'
Russian: voloknoґ `fibre' [n o]
Czech: vlaґkno `fibre' [n o]
Slovak: vlaґkno `fibre' [n o]
Polish: wљoґkno `fibre' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: vlaґkno `fibre' [n o]
Slovene: vlaґkno• `fibre' [n o]
Bulgarian: vlaknoґ `fibre' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolkґ-nom
Other cognates: valkaґ- (TS+) `bark, bast, rind' [m/n]; OE wlЎh `fibre, fringe' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *volsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rule'
Old Church Slavic: vlasti `rule' [verb], vladǫ [1sg]
Czech: vlaґsti (obs.) `rule' [verb]
Lithuanian: valdyґti `rule, govern, wield' [verb], val~do [3ps], val~de† [3pt]
Latvian: va°ldi^t `rule, govern, wield' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolH-dh-tei {1}
COMM: Apparently, the suffix became part of the root.
Other cognates: Gk. РlkТj `windlass' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *volstь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `rule'
Old Church Slavic: vlastь `power, sovereignty, rule' [f i]
Russian: voґlost' `volost (smallest administrative unit in Tsarist Russia)' [f i]; #Ru. vlast' `power, authority' [f i]
Czech: vlast' `homeland' [f i]
Slovak: vlast' `homeland' [f i]
Polish: wљosґcґ `farmstead, village' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: vla?st `rule' [f i]
Slovene: la?st `property' [f i]; #Sln. vla?st `property' [f i]
Bulgarian: vlast `power, authority' [f i]
Latvian: va°lsts `state, realm' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolH-dh-ti-
Other cognates: Go. waldan `rule' [verb]; OHG waltan `rule' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *volžiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wet, moisten'
Russian: voložiґt' (dial.) `wet, become wet, pour' [verb] {1}
Czech: vlažiti `wet, moisten' [verb]
Slovene: vlaґžiti `wet, moisten' [verb], vla?žim [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёolЂgiЂtei
Lithuanian: vaґlgyti `eat' [verb]
Latvian: val~g§i^t `eat in a hurry, gobble' [verb] {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *uolg-
Notes: {1} Also Ru. (dial.) voložnič'at' `eat something filling, tasty, live in luxury'. {2} According to ME, a borrowing from Lithuanian.
Proto-Slavic form: *vo°l§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `will, wish'
Old Church Slavic: volja `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Russian: voґlja `will, wish, freedom' [f jѓ]
Czech: vu•le `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Slovak: vo^l'a `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Polish: wola `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: wola• `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wola `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Lower Sorbian: wola `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vo?lja `will, wish' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vo?l§a (Vrgada, Novi) `wish, desire' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vo?lja (Orbanicґi) `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Slovene: vǫґlja `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: voґlja `will, wish' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uol(H)-ieh2
Other cognates: Skt. vaґra- `wish, desire' [m]; OHG wala `choice' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vo°n§a; vo°n§ь
GRAM: f. jѓ; f. i
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `smell'
Old Church Slavic: vonja `smell' [f jѓ]
Russian: von' `stench' [f i]
Old Russian:: vonja `fragrance, smell' [f jѓ]
Czech: vuІn№e `fragrance, smell' [f jѓ]
Slovak: vo^n№e `smell' [f jѓ]
Polish: wonґ `smell' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: woґn `smell' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: vo?nj `smell, odour, stench' [m jo], vo°nja [Gens]; #SCr. vo°nja `smell, odour, stench' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vo?nґ (Vrgada, Hvar) `smell, odour' [m jo], vo?n§a [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. voґnґ (Novi) `smell, odour' [m jo], vo?n§a [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vuo~nj (Orbanicґi) `smell' [m jo], vo?nja [Gens]
Slovene: vo°nj `smell' [m jo], vǫґnja [Gens]; #Sln. vǫґnja `smell' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: vonjaґ `stench' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2enh1-i-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *vo°rna
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `crow'
Church Slavic: vrana (RuCS) `crow' [f ѓ]
Russian: voroґna `crow' [f ѓ]
Czech: vraґna `crow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vrana `crow' [f ѓ]
Polish: wrona `crow' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wroґna `crow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vra?na `crow' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vra?na (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `crow' [f ѓ]
Slovene: vraґna `crow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vraґna `crow' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoґrЂnaЂ
Lithuanian: vaґrna `crow' [f ѓ]
Latvian: va~rna `crow' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: warne `crow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *uor-Hn-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 1166
Proto-Slavic form: *vorta
GRAM: Nompn. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `door, gate'
Old Church Slavic: vrata `gate, door' [Nompn o]
Russian: voroґta `gate' [Nompn o]; #Ru. vorotaґ (coll.) `gate' [Nompn o]
Czech: vrata `gate' [Nompn o]; #Cz. vraґta (dial.) `gate' [Nompn o]
Slovak: vraґta `gate' [Nompn o]
Polish: wrota `gate' [Nompn o]
Upper Sorbian: wrota `gate' [Nompn o]
Serbo-Croatian: vraґta `door, gate' [Nompn o]; #SCr. C№ak. vraІ~taІЇ (Vrgada) `door, gate' [Nompn o]; #SCr. C№ak. vra~ta (Orbanicґi) `door, gate' [Nompn o]; #SCr.
Slovene: vraґta `door, gate' [Nompn o]
Bulgarian: vrataґ `door, gate' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёortaЂ
Lithuanian: var~tai `gate' [Nompm o]
Latvian: vѓ°rti `gate' [Nompm o]
Old Prussian: warto (EV) `gate'
Indo-European reconstruction: *uort-o-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Proto-Slavic form: *vorti°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `turn, return'
Old Church Slavic: vratiti sę `return, turn' [verb], vraštǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: vorotiґt' `bring back, turn aside' [verb], voročuґ [1sg], voroґtit [3sg]
Czech: vraґtiti `return, send back' [verb]
Slovak: vraґtit' `return, send back' [verb]
Polish: wroґcicґ `return' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vraґtiti `return' [verb], vra?t–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vraІЇti?ti (Vrgada) `return' [verb], vraІ~t–š [2sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёortiЂtei
Lithuanian: vartyґti `turn, turn over' [verb]
Latvian: vѓ°rti^t `turn, turn over' [verb]
Old Prussian: wartint `turn' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uort-o-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Proto-Slavic form: *voskъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b?/c
PSLMEAN: `wax'
Old Church Slavic: voskъ (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `wax' [m o]
Russian: vosk `wax' [m o], voґska [Gens]
Ukrainian: viґsk `wax' [m o], voґsku [Gens]
Czech: vosk `wax' [m o]
Slovak: vosk `wax' [m o]
Polish: wosk `wax' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vo?sak `wax' [m o], vo?ska [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. (v)o?sak (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `wax' [m o], (v)o?ska [Gens]
Slovene: vo•?sЌk `wax' [m o], vo•?ska [Gens]; #Sln. vo•?sk `wax' [m o]
Bulgarian: voґsaўk `wax' [m o]
Lithuanian: va~škas `wax' [m o] 4
Latvian: vasks `wax' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uokґs-ko-m??
Other cognates: OIc. vax `wax' [n]; OHG wahs `wax' [n]; OE weax `wax' [n]; Fi. vaha `wax'; Est. vaha `wax'
Proto-Slavic form: *vozi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `cart, lead, convey'
Church Slavic: voziti sę (Christ.) `sail' [verb], vožǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: voziґt' `cart, convey' [verb], vožuґ [1sg], voґzit [3sg]
Czech: voziti `lead, convey' [verb]
Slovak: vozit' `lead, convey' [verb]
Polish: wozicґ `lead, convey' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vo°ziti `lead, convey' [verb], vo?z–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vozi?ti (Vrgada) `lead, convey' [verb], vo?z–š [2sg]
Slovene: voґziti `cart, drive' [verb], vǫґzim [1sg]
Bulgarian: voґzja `cart, drive' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *vozґ-
Lithuanian: važioґti `lead, convey' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uogґh-
Other cognates: Skt. vaґhati `carry, drive, lead' [verb]; Lat. vehere `drive, lead' [verb]; OIc. vega `move, swing, lift' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vy
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `you (pl.)' {1}
Old Church Slavic: vy `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Russian: vy `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Czech: vy `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Slovak: vy `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Polish: vy `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Serbo-Croatian: vi? `you (pl.)' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. vi~ (Vrgada) `you (pl.)' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. viґ (Hvar) `you (pl.)' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. vi? `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Slovene: vi? `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *iёuЂ(s)
Lithuanian: jі~s `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Latvian: ju~s `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Old Prussian: ioіs `you (pl.)' [prnps]
Indo-European reconstruction: *iuH
COMM: The anlaut of the pronoun was apparently remodelled after the oblique cases. This must have occurred before the delabialization of µ, which was an allophone of /u/ after a preceding *j.
Notes: {1} In the modern languages also second person singular as a formal mode of address.
Proto-Slavic form: *vy-
GRAM: pref.
PSLMEAN: `out'
Old Church Slavic: vy- `out' [pref]
Russian: vy- `out' [pref]
Czech: vy- `out' [pref]
Slovak: vy- `out' [pref]
Polish: wy- `out' [pref]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(H)ud
Other cognates: Skt. uґd (RV+) `up, away, out of' [prevb]; Go. ut `from, out of' [prep]; OIc. uґt `from, out of' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *v°ydra
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `otter'
Russian: vyґdra `otter' [f ѓ]
Czech: vydra `otter' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vydra `otter' [f ѓ]
Polish: wydra `otter' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?dra `otter' [f ѓ]
Slovene: vi?dra `otter' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: viґdra `otter' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uґЂdraЂ
Lithuanian: іґdra `otter' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: wudro `otter'
Indo-European reconstruction: *ud-r-eh2
Other cognates: Av. udra- `otter' [m]; Gk. Ыdroj `watersnake' [m]; Gk. Ыdra `watersnake' [f]; OHG ottar [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vy°gъn§ь; vy°gъn§a
GRAM: m jo; f jѓ
PSLMEAN: `forge'
Czech: vyґhen№ `forge, hearth, blazing heat' [f i/jѓ]
Slovak: vyhn№a `forge, hearth' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wuhenґ `chimney, stove-pipe' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?ganj `forge' [m jo]
Slovene: viґgЌnj `forge, hearth, sledge-hammer' [m jo]
COMM: The root *vyg- reflects *unЂg < *h1ngє-. Here Winter's law was not blocked by a cluster *ngn, nor was the root affected by lowering (-> o°gn'ь, *ǫ°glь). There is no reason to assume that the initial *v is the preposotion `in', cf. *vy°dra.
Proto-Slavic form: *vy°knǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `get used to, accustom oneself'
Old Church Slavic: vyknǫti `get used to, accustom oneself' [verb], vyknǫ [1sg]
Czech: vyknouti `get used to, accustom oneself' [verb] {1}
Upper Sorbian: wuknycґ `learn' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?knuti `get used to' [verb]
Lithuanian: ju°nkti `get used to' [verb]
Latvian: ju^kt `get used to' [verb]
Other cognates: Skt. ucyati `be accustomed to' [verb]; Go. biіhts `accustomed to' [adj]
Notes: {1} Usually preceded by another prefix, e.g. pr№ivyknouti `make smb. get used to, accustom'.
Proto-Slavic form: *vy°mę
GRAM: n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `udder'
Russian: vyґmja `udder' [n n], vyґmeni [Gens]
Old Russian:: vymja `udder' [n n], vymene [Gens]
Czech: vyґmĕ (obs.) `udder' [n n]; #Cz. vyґmeno (obs., dial.) `udder' [n o]; #Cz. vemeno `udder' [n o]
Slovak: vem„ `udder' [n n]; #Slk. vemeno `udder' [n o]
Polish: wymię `udder' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?me `udder' [n n], vi?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vi?me (Vrgada, Hvar) `udder' [n n], vi?mena [Gens]
Slovene: viґme `udder' [n n], viґmena [Gens]
Bulgarian: viґme `udder' [n n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *H(o)uHdh-r/n-
COMM: The Slavic firm apparently replaced the suffix *-en- by *-men-. The root has zero grade, cf. #Lith. pa-іґdre† `underbelly of a sow'.
Other cognates: Skt. іґdhar- `udder' [n]; Gk. oвqar [n]; OE іder `udder' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *vypь
GRAM: f. i
Church Slavic: vypl'ь `seagull' [f i]
Russian: vyp' `bittern' [f i]
Latvian: u~pis `eagle owl' [m io] {1}
COMM: The long root variant *іp- may be of onomatopoetic origin.
Other cognates: OIc. uґfr `owl' [m]; OHG іvo `eagle owl' [m]
Notes: {1} There are many attestations of the accentual variants u°pis2 and u^pis2.
Proto-Slavic form: *vyso°kъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `high'
Old Church Slavic: vysokъ `high' [adj o]
Russian: vysoґkij `high, tall' [adj o]; #Ru. vysoґk `high, tall' [adj o], vysokaґ [Nomsf], vysokoґ [Nomsn]
Czech: vysokyґ `high, tall' [adj o]
Slovak: vysokyґ `high' [adj o]
Polish: wysoki `high, tall' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: vi°sok `high, tall' [adj o], viso°ka [Nomsf], viso°ko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. viso?k (Vrgada) `high, tall' [adj o], visoka? [Nomsf], visoko? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. viso?k (Orbanicґi) `high, tall' [adj o], viso?ka [Nomsf], viso?ko [Nomsn]
Slovene: viso°k `high' [adj o]
Bulgarian: visoґk `high, tall' [adj o]
COMM: For the suffix *-okъ, cf. -> *glǫbo°kъ, *dale°kъ. The suffix is absent in the comparative, e.g. Ru. vyґše, SCr. vi°šЊ, Sln. vi?še, where we also find the original acute tone. The root is usually reconstructed as *іps-, cf. Gk. ШyhlТj `high'. Kortlandt (1977) has argued that in Balto-Slavic initial *u yielded acute "long" *u (Lith. іґ, PSl. *vy) under the stress and short *u in pretonic position. The acute variant is supposed to have originated from a Balto-Slavic prothetic laryngeal. Now that an number of examples can be explained by Winter's law, the evidence for Kortlandt's explanation has been weakened. Nevertheless, the Slavic situation regarding initial *u undeniably resembles the situation regarding initial *i, where I have claimed (2003) that stressed *i- yielded *(j)i under the stress, but *jь in unstressed position. In my opinion, it is likely that the reflex *vy- originated in stressed position, cf. vy°sь and the comparative vy°še.
Other cognates: Gk. ШyhlТj `high' [adj]; OIr. uґasal `high, lofty' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *vysь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `height'
Russian: vys' `height, (usu. pl.) summit' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: vi?s `height, summit' [m o]
COMM: See -> vyso°kъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *vъ?šь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `louse'
Russian: voš' `louse' [f i], vši [Gens]
Old Russian:: vъšь `louse' [f i]
Czech: veš `louse' [f i]
Slovak: voš `louse' [f i]
Polish: wesz `louse' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: woš `louse' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: va?š `louse' [f i], va?ši [Gens]; #SCr. u?š `louse' [f i], u?ši [Gens]
Slovene: u°š `louse' [f i], uši? [Gens]; #Sln. u?š `louse' [f i]
Lithuanian: ute†le†~ `louse' [f Њ] 3b; #Lith. uti°s (Z№em.) `louse' [f i] 4
Latvian: uts `louse' [f i]
COMM: It is unclear if and how Slavic *vъšь and Baltic *ut- are related. The forms may have been distorted for reasons of taboo. It cannot be excluded that OHG lіs f. `louse' also belongs here.
Other cognates: OHG lіs `louse' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vъ(n)
GRAM: prep. / pref.
PSLMEAN: `in(to)'
Old Church Slavic: vъ(n) `in(to)' [prep/pref]
Russian: v(o) `in(to)' [prep/pref]; #Ru. vn- `in(to)' [pref]
Czech: v `in(to)' [prep]; #Cz. v(n)- `in(to)' [pref]
Slovak: v(o) `in(to)' [prep/pref]
Polish: w(e) `in(to)' [prep/pref]; #Pl. wn- `in(to)' [pref]
Serbo-Croatian: u `in(to)' [prep/pref]; #SCr. va- `in(to)' [pref]
Slovene: v `in(to)' [prep/pref]
Bulgarian: v `in(to)' [prep/pref]
Lithuanian: i§ `in(to)' [prep/pref]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1nё
Other cognates: Gk. ў- `in' [pref]
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnoziti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `thrust'
Old Church Slavic: vъnozišę (Supr.) `thrust' [3plaor]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1nogґh-eie-
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnu°kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `grandchild, grandson'
Russian: vnuґk `grandchild, grandson' [m o], vnuґka [Gens]; #Ru. unuґk (dial.) `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Old Russian:: vъnukъ `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
BeloRussian: unuґk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Ukrainian: onuґk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Czech: vnuk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Slovak: vnuk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Polish: wnuk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Old Polish: wnęk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: u°nuk `grandchild, grandson' [m o], u°nuka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. unu?k (Vrgada, Hvar) `grandchild, grandson' [m o], unu?ka [Gens]
Slovene: vnuґk `grandchild, grandson' [m o]; #Sln. vnu°k `grandchild, grandson' [m o], vnuґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: vnuk `grandchild, grandson, descendant' [m o]; #Bulg. unuґk (coll.) `grandchild, grandson, descendant' [m o]
Lithuanian: anі~kas `grandchild, grandson' [m o] 2; #Lith. unі~kas (dial.) `grandchild, grandson' [m o] 2; #Lith. unі~ke† `granddaughter' [f Њ] 2 {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2n-
Notes: {1} A borrowing from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnъ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `outside, away'
Old Church Slavic: vъnъ `outside, away, out of' [adv/prep]
Russian: von `away, off' [adv]; #Ru. vne `outside, out of' [prep]
Czech: ven `away, out' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: va?n `out, out of, except, besides' [adv/prep]; #SCr. va?n `out, out of, except, besides' [adv/prep]; #SCr. C№ak. va~n (Novi, Orbanicґi) `out, except, besides' [adv/prep]
Slovene: vЌ°n `out, away' [adv]; #Sln. vЌne•? `outside, on the outside' [adv]; #Sln. vne•? `outside (of)' [prep/adv]
Bulgarian: vaўn `out, outside' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *unH-o-m??
Other cognates: Skt. vaґna- (RV+) `tree, wood, forest' [n]; LAv. vanѓ- `tree' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnьziti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `plunge, thrust'
Russian: vonziґt' `plunge, thrust' [verb], vonžuґ [1g], vonziґt [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ngґh-
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnьznǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `drive into'
Old Church Slavic: vъnъznǫti (Supr.) `drive into' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ngґh-
Proto-Slavic form: *vъnьzti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: vъnьzi (Zogr., Mar. Ass.) `put up' [imper]; #OCS vonьze (Ps. Sin.) `pierced' [3sgaor] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ngґh-
Notes: {1} The SJS classifies these forms under "vъnisti vel vъnьzǫti".
Proto-Slavic form: *vъpi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cry out'
Old Church Slavic: vъpiti `call, cry out' [verb], vъpijǫ [1sg], vъpiješi [2sg]
Russian: vopiґt' `cry out, wail' [verb], vopljuґ [1sg], vopiґt [3sg]
Czech: uґpĕti `wail, howl' [verb]
Old Czech:: uґpiti `wail, howl' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: va°piti `cry out, summon' [verb], va°pijЊm [1sg]; #SCr. u°piti `cry out, summon' [verb], u°pijЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. va?piti (Vrgada) `summon' [verb], va?p–š [2sg]
Slovene: vpiґti `cry out, call' [verb], vpi?jem [1sg]
Latvian: іpe^t `howl' [verb]; #Latv. іpuo^t `howl' [verb]
COMM: Verb in *-iti from the zero grade *vъp- < *up-.
Other cognates: Av. ufyeimi `call out' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vъsuje
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `in vain'
Old Church Slavic: vъsuje `in vain' [adv]
Russian: vsuґe `in vain' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1nё-kґouH-io-
Other cognates: Skt. sґіyaґ- `empty' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *vъtorъjь
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `second, secondary
Old Church Slavic: vъtorъ `second, secondary' [num o] {1}
Russian: vtoroґj `second, secondary' [num o] {2}
Ukrainian: vtoґryj `second, secondary' [num o]
Polish: wtoґry (arch.) `second, secondary' [num o]
Slovene: vtoґri `second' [num o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(h1)ui-tor-o-
COMM: The PIE form may have had initial *h1- < *d- as a result of dissimilation before a following dental. It is not very likely that the PIE form was *n-toro-, with an unparallelled zero grade of the root reflected in Lith. an~tras `second', etc.
Other cognates: Skt. vitaraґm (RV) `again, further' [adv]; YAv. v–tarЌm `further' [adv]
Notes: {1} The variant vьtor- only occurs in the Codex Suprasliensis, where we have vьtorĕĕmь Lsg.m. against 12 occurrences of vъtor-. In the Codex Assemanianus, there are two occurrences of vьtoricejǫ `for the second time'. {2} AP (a) - vъtoґrъjь - in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 133).
Proto-Slavic form: *vъtorьnikъ; vъtorъkъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `Tuesday'
Old Church Slavic: vъtorъnikъ `Tuesday' [m o] {1}
Russian: vtoґrnik `Tuesday' [m o]
Czech: uґteryґ `Tuesday' [m o]
Slovak: utorok `Tuesday' [m o]
Polish: wtorek `Tuesday' [m o]
Slovene: vtoґrЌk `Tuesday' [m o], vtoґrka [Gens]
Bulgarian: vtoґrnik `Tuesday' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *n-tor-o-
Notes: {1} The variant vьtor- only occurs in the Codex Suprasliensis, where we have vьtorĕĕmь Lsg.m. against 12 occurrences of vъtor-.
Proto-Slavic form: *vьčera
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `yesterday'
Old Church Slavic: vьčera `yesterday' [adv]
Russian: včeraґ `yesterday' [adv]
Czech: včera `yesterday' [adv]
Slovak: včera `yesterday' [adv]
Polish: wczoraj `yesterday' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: ju°čЊ `yesterday' [adv]; #SCr. ju°čЊr(a) `yesterday' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. uče~r(a), juče~r (Vrgada) `yesterday' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. čeґra (Novi) `yesterday' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. \čie?r(a) (Orbanicґi) `yesterday' [adv]
Slovene: včęґra `yesterday' [adv]; #Sln. včęґraj `yesterday' [adv]
Bulgarian: včeґra `yesterday' [adv]
Lithuanian: va~kar `yesterday' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ueksper-oh1
Other cognates: Gk. ›speroj `evening' [m]; Lat. vesper `evening' [m]; MW ucher `evening' [m]; Arm. gišer `evening'
Proto-Slavic form: *vьdova°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `widow'
Old Church Slavic: vъdova `widow' [f ѓ]; #OCS vъdovica `widow' [f jѓ] {1}
Russian: vdovaґ `widow' [f ѓ], vdovuґ [Accs]
Czech: vdova `widow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vdova `widow' [f ѓ]
Polish: wdowa `widow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: udo°vica `widow' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. udovi?ca (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `widow' [f jѓ]
Slovene: vdo•?va `widow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vdoviґca `widow' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёideuH
Old Prussian: widdewі `widow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1uidh-(e)uh2-
COMM: According to Kortlandt (1997: 161), this etymon continues a hysterodynamic uh2-stem. In his view, the e-grade of the Asg. must have spread to the Nsg at an early stage of Balto-Slavic, i.e. before the development *eu > *ou before a vowel because otherwise the medial front vowel of OPr. widdewі is hard to explain.
Other cognates: Skt. vidhaґvѓ- (RV+) `widow' [f]; Gk. є…qeoj `unmarried youth' [m]; Lat. uidua `widow' [f]; OIr. fedb `widow' [f]; Go. widuwo `widow' [f]
Notes: {1} Variants with ь are rare in both vъdova (1 : 12) and its more frequent synonym vъdovica (3 : 35).
Proto-Slavic form: *vь?lkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `wolf'
Old Church Slavic: vlьkъ `wolf' [m o]
Russian: volk `wolf' [m o], voґlka [Gens]
Czech: vlk `wolf' [m o]
Slovak: vlk `wolf' [m o]
Polish: wilk `wolf' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vu?k `wolf' [m o], vu?ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vu?k (Vrgada, Hvar) `wolf' [m o], vu?ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. (v)u?k (Orbanicґi) `wolf' [m o], (v)u?ka [Gens]
Slovene: vo?љk `wolf' [m o], vo?љka [Gens], voљka? [Gens]
Bulgarian: vaўlk `wolf' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёilkoґs
Lithuanian: vil~kas `wolf' [m o] 4
Latvian: vi°lks `wolf' [m o]
Old Prussian: wilkis `wolf'
Indo-European reconstruction: *ulkє-o-s
IE meaning: wolf
Page in Pokorny: 1178
Other cognates: Skt. vrёґka- `wolf' [m]; Go. wulfs `wolf' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vьlgъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `moist'
Russian: voґlgkij (W. dial.) `moist' [adj o]
Ukrainian: voґhkyj `moist' [adj o]
Czech: vlhkyґ `moist' [adj o]
Slovak: vlhkyґ `moist' [adj o]
Polish: wilgi `moist' [adj o] {1}
Slovene: voґљgЌk `moist' [adj o], voґљhka [Nomsf]; #Sln. voґљhЌk `moist' [adj o], voґљhka [Nomsf]; #Sln. voљga?k `moist' [adj o], voљhka° [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: voґhkyj `moist' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёilЂg-
Lithuanian: vi°lgšnas (Z№em.) `moist' [adj o] 3
Latvian: vilgans `moist' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ulg-
Page in Pokorny: 1147
Other cognates: OHG welc `moist, mild, withered' [adj]
Notes: {1} From *vьlgъ(jь).
Proto-Slavic form: *vь°lna
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `wool'
Old Church Slavic: vlьna `wool' [f ѓ]
Russian: voґlna (dial.) `wool' [f ѓ]; #Ru. volnaґ (dial.) `wool' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: voґvna `wool' [f ѓ]
Czech: vlna `wool' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vlna `wool' [f ѓ]
Polish: weљna `wool' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vu?na `wool' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. (v)u?na (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `wool' [f ѓ]
Slovene: voґљna `wool' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vaўґlna `wool' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *viґlnaЂ
Lithuanian: vi°lna `wool' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: vil~na `wool' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: wilna `skirt'
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hulh1-neh2
IE meaning: wool
Page in Pokorny: 1139
Other cognates: Skt. іґrn•a- `wool' [f]; Lat. lѓna `wool' [f]; Go. wulla `wool' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *vьlna°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `wave'
Old Church Slavic: vlьna `wave' [f ѓ]
Russian: volnaґ `wave' [f ѓ], volnuґ [Accs] {1}
Czech: vlna `wave' [f ѓ]
Polish: weљna `wave' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: vaўlnaґ `wool' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: vilni°s `wave' [f i] 4; #Lith. vilnia° (E. Lith., DP) `wave' [f i] 2
Latvian: vil^n§a (E. Latv.) `wave' [f i] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *ulH-neh2
Other cognates: Skt. іrmiґ- `wave' [m]
Notes: {1} In Old Russian:: usually AP (c), occasionally (b) (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *vьrĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `boil'
Old Church Slavic: vьręštę (Supr.) `boiling' [Nompf ptcprsa]
Russian: vret' (dial.) `sweat profusely' [verb], vreґju [1sg]
Czech: vr№iґti `boil' [verb]
Slovak: vriet' `boil' [verb]
Polish: wrzecґ `boil' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vre?ti `boil' [verb], vri?m [1sg]
Slovene: vre•ґti `boil, gurgle' [verb], vre°m [1sg]
Bulgarian: vrja `boil, seethe' [verb], vriš [2sg]
Lithuanian: vi°rti `boil' [verb], veґrda [3sg]
Latvian: vir^t `boil' [verb], vęr^d [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *urH-eh1-
Proto-Slavic form: *vьrgnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `throw'
Russian: otveґrgnut' `reject, turn down' [verb]
Old Russian:: vьrgnuti `throw' [verb]
Czech: vrhnouti `throw' [verb]
Slovak: vrhnuґt' `throw' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *urgє-
Other cognates: Go. wairpan `throw' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vьrsta; vьrstva
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `row, line, age, kind'
Old Church Slavic: vrьsta (Euch., Supr.) `age, generation' [f ѓ]
Russian: verstaґ `verst' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: vьrsta `age, pair, person of the same age, verst' [f ѓ]
Czech: vrstva `layer' [f ѓ]
Slovak: vrstva `layer' [f ѓ]
Polish: wrstwa `row, layer' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vrґsta `kind, species' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vrsta? (Vrgada) `kind, species' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vr?sta (Orbanicґi) `kind, species' [f ѓ]
Slovene: vrґsta `row, line, sort, age' [f ѓ]; #Sln. vrsta° `row, line, sort, age' [f ѓ]; #Sln. vr?st `row, sort, age' [f i], vrsti? [Gens]
Lithuanian: var~stas `turn of the plough' [m o]
Old Prussian: ainawarst `once' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *urt-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Other cognates: Lat. versus `furrow, row, line' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *vь°rša
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `fishing-basket, fishing-trap made of osiers'
Russian: veґrša `fishing-basket, fishing-trap made of osiers' [f jѓ]
Czech: vrše `fishing-basket' [f jѓ]
Polish: wiersza `fishing-basket' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: vr?ša `fishing-basket' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. vr?ša (Vrgada) `fishing-basket' [f jѓ]
Slovene: vrґša `fishing-basket' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: vaґržas `fishing-basket, fishing-trap made of osiers' [m o] 1/3
Latvian: varz^a `fishing-basket, fishing-trap made of osiers' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *urgґ-s-ieh2
Other cognates: OHG werc `work' [n]; OHG wirken `manufacture by sowing, stitching or weaving' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *vьrtĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `turn'
Old Church Slavic: vrьtitъ sę (Supr.) `turns' [3sg]
Russian: verteґt' `turn' [verb], verčuґ [1sg], veґrtit [3sg] {1}
Czech: vrtĕti `turn' [verb]
Slovak: vrtet' `turn' [verb]
Polish: wiercicґ `turn' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: vrґtjeti `turn' [verb], vrґt–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vrti?ti (Vrgada) `turn' [verb], vrti~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. vrte?t (Orbanicґi) `turn' [verb], vrЇti~š [2sg]
Slovene: vrte•ґti `turn' [verb], vrtiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: vaўrtjaґ `turn' [verb]
Lithuanian: vir~sti `fall, collapse, turn into' [verb]
Old Prussian: w–rst `become' [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *urt-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1156
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *vь°rxъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `top, upper part'
Old Church Slavic: vrьxъ `top' [m u]
Russian: verx `top, upper part' [m o], veґrxa [Gens], verxuґ [Locs] {1}
BeloRussian: verx `top, upper part' [m o], veґrxu [Gens]; #Bel. verx (dial.) `top, upper part' [m o], verxuґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: verx `top, upper part' [m o], verxuґ [Gens]
Czech: vrch `top, upper part' [m o]; #Cz. vrґch (dial.) `top, upper part' [m o]
Slovak: vrch `top, upper part' [m o]
Polish: wierzch `top, upper part' [m o]
Slovincian: vje†ґr№» `top, upper part' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: vr?h `top, upper part' [m o], vr°ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vr?h (Vrgada, Novi) `top, upper part' [m o], vrha? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. vr?h (Orbanicґi) `top, tip, point (of a plant, a needle etc.), mountain' [m o], vrha? [Gens]
Slovene: vr?h `top, upper part' [m o], vr?ha [Gens], vrha? [Gens]
Bulgarian: vraўx `top, tip' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёirs•u(s)
Lithuanian: viršu°s `top, addition, victory, cover' [m u] 4; #Lith. vir~šus `top, addition, victory, cover' [m u] 2
Latvian: vi°rsus `upper part, top' [m u]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ur-s-u-
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 134).
Proto-Slavic form: *vьsь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `village'
Old Church Slavic: vьsь `village' [f i]
Russian: ves' (obs.) `village' [f i], veґsi [Gens] {1}
Czech: ves `village' [f i]
Slovak: ves `village' [f i]
Polish: wiesґ `village' [f i]
Slovincian: vji°eёs `village' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: wjes `village' [f i], wsy [Gens]
Slovene: va?s `village' [f i], vasi? [Gens]
Lithuanian: vie~špats `lord' [m i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uikґ-i-
Other cognates: Skt. viґsґ- (RV+) `settlement, community, tribe' [f]; Gk. oЌkoj `house' [m]; Lat. v–cus `neighbourhood, street, village' [m]; Go. weihs `village' [n]
Notes: {1} In Old Russian:: both AP (b) and (c) are attested (Zaliznjak 1985: 136, 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *vьsґь
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `all'
Old Church Slavic: vьsь `all' [prn], vьsja [f], vьse [n]
Russian: ves' `all' [prn], vsja [f], vseЁ [n]
Old Russian:: vxu (Novg.) `all' [Accsf], vxe (Novg.) `all' [Nompm]
Old Czech:: veš `all' [prn], všĕ [f], vše [n]
Old Polish: wszy `all' [prn], wsza [f], wsze [n]
Serbo-Croatian: sa?v `all' [prn], sva? [Nomsf], sve? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. sva?s (Vrgada) `all' [prn], sva? [Nomsf], sve? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. va?s (Hvar) `all' [prn], sva? [Nomsf], sve? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. s(v)a? (Orbanicґi) `all, the whole' [prn], sva? [Nomsf], svo? [Nomsn]
Slovene: vЌ°s `all' [prn], vsa° [Nomsf], vse° [Nomsn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёis•os
Lithuanian: vi°sas `all' [prn]
Latvian: vi°ss `all' [prn]
Old Prussian: wissa- `all'
Indo-European reconstruction: *uiso-
COMM: The origin of this etymon may be a Lpl. *uis•u-. In Lithuanian, the š < *s• may have been replaced with s when the variant -su of the Lpl. was generalized (F. Kortlandt, p.c.). Slavic generalized the ending -xъ < *-s•u in the Lpl., which is why the pronoun has *sґ < *x as a result of the progressive palatalization. In North Russian:, we still find forms with x (cf. Vermeer 2000: passim).
Other cognates: Skt. viґs•u- `in all directions' {1}
Notes: {1} Only in compounds.

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