Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*U)


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Всего на U (У) – 21 слово.

Proto-Slavic form: *u
GRAM: prep. / pref.
PSLMEAN: `from, by, at, (pref.) away'
Old Church Slavic: u `from, at' [prep]; #OCS u- `away' [pref]
Russian: u `by, at' [prep]; #Ru. u- `away' [pref]
Polish: u `by, at' [prep]; #Pl. u- `away' [pref]
Serbo-Croatian: u `by, at' [prep]; #SCr. u- `away' [pref]
Slovene: u- `away' [pref]
Bulgarian: u `by, at' [prep]; #Bulg. u- `away' [pref]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *au
Lithuanian: au- `away' [pref]
Latvian: au- `away' [pref]
Old Prussian: aumіsnan `ablution' [Accs]; #OPr. aulaіt `die' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu
IE meaning: away from
Other cognates: Skt. aґva (RV+) `off, away, down' [prep/pref]; Lat. au- `away' [prep]; OIr. oґ (uґa) `from' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *uči°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `teach'
Old Church Slavic: učiti `teach' [verb], učǫ [1sg]
Russian: učiґt' `teach' [verb], učuґ [1sg], uґčit [3sg] {1}
Czech: učiti `teach' [verb]
Slovak: učit' `teach' [verb]
Polish: uczycґ `teach' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: u°čiti `teach' [verb], u°č–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. uči?ti (Vrgada) `teach' [verb], uči~š [2sg]
Slovene: učiґti `teach' [verb], učiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: uґča `teach' [verb]
Lithuanian: jauki°nti `tame, domesticate' [verb]
Latvian: jau^ce^t `accustom' [verb]
Old Prussian: iaukint `exercize' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Houk-
Other cognates: Skt. ucyati `be accustomed to' [verb]; Go. biіhts `accustomed to' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 140).
Proto-Slavic form: *udariti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `strike, hit'
Old Church Slavic: udariti `strike, hit' [verb], udarjǫ [1sg]
Russian: udaґrit' `strike, hit' [verb], udaґrju [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: u°dariti `strike, hit' [verb], u°dar–m [1sg]
Slovene: udaґriti `strike, hit' [verb], uda?rim [1sg]
Bulgarian: udaґrja `strike, hit' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dЎr-
Page in Pokorny: 206
Other cognates: Skt. daґrti `scatter, split' [3sgaorinj]; Gk. dљrw `flay' [verb]; Go. distaiґran `tear apart' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *u°diti
GRAM: v.
Russian: uґdit' (Dal') `ripen, fill (with)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *HouHdh-
Other cognates: Skt. іґdhar- `udder' [n]; OE іder `udder' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *u?tro
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `morning, dawn'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 200-202
Old Church Slavic: utro `morning, dawn' [n o]; #OCS jutro `morning, dawn' [n o]; #OCS utro `in the morning, tomorrow' [adv]; #OCS jutro `in the morning, tomorrow' [n o]; #OCS utrĕ `tomorrow' [adv]; #OCS jutrĕ (Mar.) `tomorrow' [adv]; #OCS zautra `in the morning' [adv] {1}
Russian: uґtro `morning' [n o]; #Ru. zaґvtra `tomorrow' [adv]
Old Russian:: utro `morning, dawn' [n o]; #ORu. zautra `tomorrow' [adv]
Czech: jitro `morning' [n o]; #Cz. jutro (dial.) `tomorrow' [adv]; #Cz. ziґtra `tomorrow' [adv]
Slovak: zajtra `tomorrow' [adv]
Polish: jutro `morning' [n o]; #Pl. jutro `tomorrow' [adv] {2}
Serbo-Croatian: ju?tro `morning' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ju?tro (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `morning' [n o]; #SCr. su?tra `tomorrow' [adv]; #SCr. sju?tra `tomorrow' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. su?tra (Vrgada, Hvar) `tomorrow' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. ju?tre (Orbanicґi) `tomorrow' [adv]
Slovene: juґtro• `morning, East' [n o]; #Sln. ju?tri `tomorrow' [adv]; #Sln. jutre `tomorrow' [adv]; #Sln. za?jtra `tomorrow morning' [adv]; #Sln. za?jtre• `tomorrow morning, tomorrow' [adv]; #Sln. za?jtro• `tomorrow morning, tomorrow' [adv]; #Sln. za?utra `early in the morning' [adv]
Bulgarian: uґtro `morning' [n o]; #Bulg. utґre `tomorrow' [adv]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aus•(t)ro
Lithuanian: aušra° `dawn' [f ѓ] 4; #Lith. auštra° (dial.) `dawn' [f ѓ] 4 {3}
Latvian: a°ustra `dawn' [f ѓ]; #Latv. au~stra `dawn' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eus-rom
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 86
COMM: The traces of s in this etymon are too many to be ignored. It must be admitted, however, that the loss of s in PSl. *justro is irregular. According to Nieminen (1956), the s was lost as a result of dissimilation in syntagms such as *za ustra and *sъ ustra. The main problem of the etymology *h2eus-ro- is not the absence of s but the PSl. acute intonation of the root. I suspect that we are dealing with an instance of contamination here, but for the time being a proper candidate seems to be lacking.
Other cognates: Gk. aЬrion `tomorrow' [adv]; Lat. auster `south wind' [m]; OIc. austr `East' [m] {4}
Notes: {1} In the Psalterium Sinaiticum there is a single occurrence of zaustra `in the morning'. In view of Bulg. zaґstra, Mcd. dzaґstra, this is unlikely to be a writing error. {2} In Old Polish: we find such forms as justrzejszy `tomorrow's', justrzenka `dawn'. {3} Aušra° 2 is also
Proto-Slavic form: *u?xo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ear'
Old Church Slavic: uxo `ear' [n s/o], ušese [Gens], uxa [Gens], uši [Nomd]
Russian: uґxo `ear' [n o], uґši [Nomp]
Czech: ucho `ear' [n o]
Slovak: ucho `ear' [n o]
Polish: ucho `ear' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: u?ho `ear' [n o], u?ši [Nompf]; #SCr. u?vo `ear' [n o], u?ši [Nompf]; #SCr. C№ak. u?ho (Vrgada, Hvar) `ear' [n o], u?ha [Gens], u?ši [Nompm]; #SCr. C№ak. u?ho (Novi) `ear' [n o], u?ši [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. u?ho (Orbanicґi) `ear' [n o], іha? [Gens], u?ši [Nompf]
Slovene: uho•? `ear' [n s], ušęґsa [Gens]
Bulgarian: uxoґ `ear' [n o], ušiґ [Nomp]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aus•-
Lithuanian: ausi°s `ear' [f i] 4
Latvian: a°uss `ear' [f i]
Old Prussian: ѓusins `ear' [Accp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eus-
IE meaning: ear
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Lat. auris `ear' [f]; Go. auso [f]; OIr. aґu `ear' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *ujь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `uncle on mother's side'
Russian: uj `uncle on mother's side' [m jo], uґja [Gens]; #Ru. vuj (dial.) `uncle on mother's side' [m jo]
Czech: ujec `uncle on mother's side' [m jo]
Slovak: uґjec `uncle on mother's side' [m jo]
Polish: wuj `uncle on mother's side' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: u?jѓk `uncle on mother's side' [m o]; #SCr. u?jac `uncle on mother's side' [m jo], u?jca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. u?jac (Vrgada) `uncle on mother's side' [m jo], u~jca [Gens]
Slovene: u?jЌc `uncle on mother's side' [m jo], u?jca [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *au(Ђ)(i)o-
Lithuanian: avyґnas `uncle on mother's side' [m o] 1
Old Prussian: awis `uncle'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu(H)-i-o-
Page in Pokorny: 89
Other cognates: Lat. avus `grandfather' [m]; Go. awo `grandmother' [f]; Arm. haw `grandfather'; OIr. aue `grandson' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *u°lica
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `street'
Russian: uґlica `street' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: ulica `square, street, passage' [f jѓ]
Czech: ulice `street' [f jѓ]
Slovak: ulica `street' [f jѓ]
Polish: ulica `street' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: u?lica `yard, street' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. u?lica (Orbanicґi) `street' [f jѓ]
Slovene: uґlica `alley, street' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: uґlica `street' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: aulis `shin'
COMM: Derivative based on the stem *ul- < *h2eul- (-> *ulьjь).
Other cognates: Gk. aЩlТj `pipe, flute' [m]; Gk. aЩlиn `hollow, channel, strait' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ulьjь
GRAM: m. io
PSLMEAN: `(bee)hive'
Church Slavic: ulii (RuCS) `(bee)hive' [m io]
Russian: uґlej `(bee)hive' [m jo], uґl'ja [Gens]
Czech: uґl `(bee)hive' [m jo]
Slovak: uґl' `(bee)hive' [m jo]
Polish: ul `(bee)hive' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. u~lj (Orbanicґi) `beehive' [m jo], іlja? [Gens]
Slovene: u?lj `hollow tree, (bee)hive' [m jo]
Bulgarian: uґlej `pipe, opening' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aulios
Lithuanian: auly~s `(bee)hive' [m io]
Latvian: au~lis `(bee)hive' [m io]
Old Prussian: aulis `shin'
Other cognates: Gk. aЩlТj `pipe, flute' [m]; Gk. aЩlиn `hollow, channel, strait' [m]; Nw. aul (dial.) `hollow stalk of angelica' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *uґmъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `mind'
Old Church Slavic: umъ `mind' [m o]
Russian: um `mind' [m o]
Czech: um (lit.) `mind, skill' [m o]
Slovak: um `mind' [m o]
Polish: um `mind' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: u?m `mind' [m o], uґma [Gens]
Slovene: uґm `mind, wrath' [m o]; #Sln. u°m `mind, wrath' [m o], uґma [Gens]
Bulgarian: um `mind' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aum(en)-
Lithuanian: aumuo~ `mind' [m n] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-m-
COMM: A derivative of the root *h2eu, which underlies such forms as Skt. ѓviґs• `evidently' < *h2ouis and Gk. aisqŽnomai `perceive' < *h2euis-dh-.
Proto-Slavic form: *un§ьjь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `better'
Old Church Slavic: un'ii `better' [adj jo], unje [Nomsn]; #OCS unĕi `better' [adj jo], unĕje [Nomsn]
Church Slavic: unje (RuCS) `better' [adj Nomsn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *oun-
Proto-Slavic form: *ustiti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: ustiti (Supr.) `incite, persuade' [verb]
Slovene: uґstiti `say, talk, agitate' [verb], uґstim [1sg]
Lithuanian: aґusčioti `gossip, talk nonsense' [verb]
Latvian: au~ša^t `chatter, talk nonsense' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hous-t- (h2/3eus-t-??)
Other cognates: Skt. oґs•t•ha- (RV+) `(upper) lip' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ustь°je
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `mouth, estuary'
Russian: uґst'e `mouth, estuary, orifice' [n io]
Old Russian:: ustьe `mouth, estuary' [n io]
Czech: uґstiґ `estuary' [n io]
Slovak: uґstie `estuary' [n io]
Polish: ujsґcie `estuary' [n io]
Slovene: u?stje `estuary' [n io]
Bulgarian: uґstie `estuary, opening' [n io]
Old Prussian: austo `mouth'; #OPr. ѓustin `mouth' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hous-t- (h2/3eus-t-??)
Other cognates: Skt. oґs•t•ha- (RV+) `(upper) lip' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ustьna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `lip'
Old Church Slavic: ustьna `lip, mouth' [f ѓ] {1}
Russian: ustnaґ (dial.) `lip' [Nompn o]
Slovene: u?stna `lip' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: uґstna `lip' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hous-t- (h2/3eus-t-??)
Other cognates: Skt. oґs•t•ha- (RV+) `(upper) lip' [m]
Notes: {1} Usually dual or plural.
Proto-Slavic form: *usъnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `fall asleep'
Old Church Slavic: usъnǫti `fall asleep' [verb], usъnǫ [1sg]
Russian: usnuґt' `fall asleep' [verb]
Czech: usnouti `fall asleep' [verb]
Slovak: usnuґt' `fall asleep' [verb]
Polish: usna§cґ `fall asleep' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-sup-
IE meaning: sleep
Page in Pokorny: 1048
Other cognates: Skt. svaґpati- `sleep' [verb]; Skt. svaґpiti- `sleep' [verb]; Lat. sЎp–re `fall asleep' [verb]; OE swefan `sleep' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *uvędati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `fade, wither'
Old Church Slavic: neuvędajǫštiimъ (Supr.) `unfading' [Isgm ptcprsa]
Russian: uvjadaґt' `fade, wither' [verb]
Czech: uvadati `fade, wither' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-u(e)ndh-
Page in Pokorny: 1047
Other cognates: OHG swintan `fade, pine away, wither' [verb]; OE swindan `subside, fade' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *uvęsti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: uvęsti (Supr.) `tie (to, around), crown' [verb], uvęzǫ [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-h2ongґh-
Notes: {1} The origin of the initial *v remains unclear.
Proto-Slavic form: *užasъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `amazement, horror'
Old Church Slavic: užasъ `ecstasy, horror' [m o]
Russian: uґžas `horror' [m o]
Czech: uґžas `amazement, horror' [m o]
Slovak: uґžas `amazement, horror' [m o]
Bulgarian: uґžas `dismay, dread, horror' [m o]
Lithuanian: gesyґti `extinguish' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-gєЊs-??
Proto-Slavic form: *іslo°(?)
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `woven fabric on a loom'
Russian: usloґ (Kostrom.) `woven fabric on a loom' [n o] {1}
COMM: The most plausible etymology for this obscure form involves a connection with Lith. aґusti (1sg. aґudžiu) `weave'. Vasmer (s.v.) reconstructs the suffix as *-slo, but I find *-tlo more attractive. In this case, the correspondence between AP (b) in Slavic and an acute root in Baltic would not pose a problem because the glottal stop originating from Winter's law would be lost in pretonic position (see Derksen 1996: 105-111).
Notes: {1} As far as I know, this form has only been recorded by Dal', who adds a question mark. The word is illustrated by the sentence Сколъ велико усло? `Много ли наткала'?'
Proto-Slavic form: *іsta°
GRAM: Nompn. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `mouth'
Old Church Slavic: usta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Russian: ustaґ (obs., poet.) `mouth' [Nompn o]
Czech: uґsta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Slovak: uґsta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Polish: usta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Serbo-Croatian: uґsta `mouth' [Nompn o]; #SCr. C№ak. u~staІЇ `mouth' [Nompn o]; #SCr. C№ak. u~sta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Slovene: uґsta `mouth' [Nompn o]
Bulgarian: ustaґ `mouth, opening' [Nompn o]; #Bulg. ustaґ `mouth, opening' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: uґostas `port, harbour, (dial., arch.) mouth of a river' [m o] 1 {1}
Latvian: uo~sta `port, harbour, mouth of a river' [f ѓ] {1}
Old Prussian: austo `mouth'; #OPr. ѓustin `mouth' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hous-t- (h2/3eus-t-??)
Other cognates: Skt. oґs•t•ha- (RV+) `(upper) lip' [m]
Notes: {1} The vocalism of the East Baltic forms may have been adopted from *h3oh1-(e/o)s- `mouth', cf. Lat. Ўstium `mouth of a river' (EIEC 387, Derksen 2002: 40-41).
Proto-Slavic form: *іzda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bridle'
Old Church Slavic: uzda (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `bridle' [f ѓ]
Russian: uzdaґ `bridle' [f ѓ]
Czech: uzda `bridle' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: uґzda `bridle' [f ѓ]
Slovak: uzda `bridle' [f ѓ]
Polish: uzda `bridle' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: u°zda `bridle' [f ѓ]; #SCr. іzda? (C№ak.) `bridle' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. u?zda (Orbanicґi) `bit (of a bridle)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: uґzda `bridle' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hous-dhh1-eh2 (h2eus-dhh1-eh2??)
Other cognates: Skt. oґs•t•ha- (RV+) `(upper) lip' [m]

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