Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*T)


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Всего на T (Т) – 67 слов.

Proto-Slavic form: *ta°jati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `melt'
Old Church Slavic: tajati (Ps. Sin.) `melt' [verb], tajǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: tajati (SerbCS) `melt, thaw' [verb]
Russian: taґjat' `melt, thaw, dwindle' [verb]
Czech: taґti `melt, thaw' [verb]
Polish: tajacґ `melt, thaw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ta?jati `thaw' [verb]
Slovene: taґjati `melt, thaw' [verb], ta?jam [1sg]
Bulgarian: taґja `melt slowly' [verb], taґiš [2sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *teh2-
Other cognates: Gk. t»kw `melt' [verb]; Lat. tѓbЊre `melt, dwindle' [verb]; W tawdd `dripping'
Proto-Slavic form: *taji°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hide, conceal'
Old Church Slavic: taiti `conceal' [verb], tajǫ [1sg]
Russian: taiґt' `hide, conceal' [verb], tajuґ [1sg], taiґt [3sg]
Czech: tajiґti `hide, conceal' [verb]
Slovak: tajit' `hide, conceal' [verb]
Polish: taicґ `hide, conceal' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: taґjiti `hide, conceal' [verb], taґj–m [1sg]
Slovene: tajiґti `deny' [verb], tajiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: tajaґ `hide in one's inner self' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)teh2-
Other cognates: Hitt. tai- `steal' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tatь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `thief'
Old Church Slavic: tatь `thief' [m jo]
Russian: tat' `thief' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ta?t `thief' [m o]
Slovene: ta?t `thief' [m o/u], ta?ta [Gens], tatu? [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)teh2-ti-o-
Other cognates: Skt. tѓyuґ- (RV) `thief' [m]; OIr. taґid `thief' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *tekti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `flow, run'
Old Church Slavic: tešti `flow, run' [verb], tekǫ [1sg]
Russian: teč' `flow' [verb], tekuґ [1sg], tečeЁt [3sg]
Old Russian:: teči `flow, move, run' [verb], teku [1sg]
Czech: teґci `flow' [verb], teku [1sg]
Slovak: tiect' `flow' [verb], tečiem [1sg]
Polish: ciec `flow' [verb], ciekę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: te°cґi `flow, run' [verb], te°čЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. te?cґi (Vrgada) `flow, run' [verb], teče~ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. te?cґ (Orbanicґi) `run, flow' [verb], teče? [3sg]
Slovene: teґči `flow, run' [verb], teґčem [1sg]
Bulgarian: tekaґ `flow, run' [verb], tečeґš [2sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tek(eЂ)tei
Lithuanian: teke†ґti `flow, run' [verb], te~ka [3sg]
Latvian: tece^t `flow, run' [verb], teku [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tekє-
Other cognates: Skt. taґkti `rush' [verb]; OIr. techid `flee' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tekъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `course'
Church Slavic: tekъ (RuCS) `course' [m o]
Russian: teЁk `source' [m o]
Slovene: tę?k `course' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tekos
Latvian: tęks `foot-path' [m o]; #Latv. tęka `foot-path' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tekє-o-
Other cognates: OIr. intech `road' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *telkti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pound'
Old Church Slavic: tlĕšti `pound' [verb], tlъkǫ [1sg]
Russian: toloґč' `pound' [verb], tolkuґ [1sg], tolčeЁt [3sg]
Czech: tlouci `pound' [verb], tluku [1sg]
Slovak: tlct' `pound' [verb], tlčiem [1sg]
Polish: tљuc `pound' [verb], tљukę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: tuґcґi `beat, hit, (refl.) fight' [verb], tuґčЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tu~cґi (Vrgada) `beat, hit, (refl.) fight' [verb], tіče?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tu~cґ (Orbanicґi) `beat, hit, (refl.) fight' [verb], tіče?n [1sg]
Slovene: tle•ґči `beat' [verb], toґљčem [1sg]; #Sln. toґљči `beat' [verb], toґљčem [1sg]
COMM: It is unclear if *telkti is in any way connected with -> *tolka° and therefore with Lith. talka° `unpaid work, party of workers' and tel~kti `call together for unpaid work'.
Proto-Slavic form: *teneto°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `net, snare'
Church Slavic: teneto (RuCS) `net, snare' [n o]; #CS tonoto (RuCS) `net, snare' [n o]
Russian: teneЁto `snare' [n o]; #Ru. tenetoґ (dial.) `snare' [n o]
Czech: teneto `net, snare' [n o]
Slovene: tenę?t `net' [m o]; #Sln. tenę?tva `net' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: tin~klas `net' [m o] 2/4
Latvian: ti°kls `net' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ten-
Proto-Slavic form: *teplъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `warm'
Old Church Slavic: toplъ `warm' [adj o] {1}
Russian: teЁplyj `warm' [adj o]; #Ru. teЁpel `warm' [adj o], teplaґ [Nomsf], teploґ [Nomsn]
Czech: teplyґ `warm' [adj o]
Slovak: teplyґ `warm' [adj o]
Polish: ciepљy `warm' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: cґopљy `warm' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: sґopљy `warm' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: to?pao `warm' [adj o], to?pla [Nomsf], to°pla [Nomsf], to?plo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. te?paІЇ (Vrgada) `warm' [adj o], tepla? [Nomsf], te?plo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. te?pal (Orbanicґi) `warm' [adj o], te?pla [Nomsf], te?plo [Nomsn]
Slovene: toґpЌљ `warm' [adj o], toґpla [Nomsf]
Other cognates: Lat. tepidus `lukewarm, warm' [adj]
Notes: {1} With e-grade we find teplostijǫ (Supr.) Isg. `warmth'.
Proto-Slavic form: *te°rti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rub'
Church Slavic: trĕti (SerbCS) `rub' [verb], tьrǫ [1sg]
Russian: tereґt' `rub' [verb], tru [1sg], treЁt [3sg]
Czech: tr№iґti `rub' [verb], tr№u [1sg]; #Cz. tr№iґti (arch.) `rub' [verb], tru [1sg]
Slovak: triet' `rub' [verb]
Polish: trzecґ `rub' [verb], trę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: tr?ti `rub' [verb], tre?m [1sg]; #SCr. tr?ti `rub' [verb], ta?rЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?ti (Vrgada) `rub' [verb], ta?reš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?t (Orbanicґi) `rub' [verb], ta?ren [1sg]
Slovene: tre•ґti `rub, crush' [verb], tre°m [1sg], taґrem [1sg]
Lithuanian: ti°rti `investigate' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *terH-
Other cognates: Gk. te…rw `oppress, distress, weaken' [verb]; Lat. terere `rub' [verb]; OHG drѓen `turn' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tesa°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `hew'
Old Church Slavic: tesati (Supr.) `hew' [verb], tešǫ [1sg]
Russian: tesaґt' `hew' [verb], tešuґ [1sg], teґšet [3sg]
Czech: tesati `hew' [verb]
Slovak: tesat' `hew' [verb]
Polish: ciosacґ `hew' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: te°sati `cut, trim, Polish' [verb], te?šЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tesa?t (Orbanicґi) `cut, Polish, hew, trim' [verb], te?šen [1sg]
Slovene: teґsati `hew, chisel' [verb], tęґšem [1sg]
Lithuanian: tašyґti `hew' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tetkґ-
Other cognates: Skt. taґks•ati (RV+) `cut, manufacture' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tesla; teslo°
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. o
PSLMEAN: `adze'
Church Slavic: tesla (RuCS) `adze' [f ѓ]
Russian: teslaґ `adze' [f ѓ]; #Ru. tesloґ `adze' [n o]
Ukrainian: tesloґ `adze' [n o]
Czech: tesla `adze' [f ѓ]
Polish: ciosљa `adze' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: te?sla `adze' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. (Vrgada) te?sla `adze' [f ѓ]
Slovene: teґsla `adze' [f ѓ]; #Sln. teґslo• `adze' [n o]
Bulgarian: teslaґ `adze' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: tašyґti `hew' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tetkґ-dhl-
Other cognates: OHG ±exla `axe' [f]; OHG dehasala `axe, adze' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *tesъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `timber'
Russian: teЁs `boards, planks' [m o]
Czech: tes `timber' [m o]
Polish: cios `timber' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tetkґ-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *teti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `beat'
Old Church Slavic: teti `beat, flog, whip' [verb], tepǫ [1sg]
Russian: te(p)tiґ (dial.) `hew, cut, prod, hit' [verb] {1}; #Ru. tepstiґ (dial.) `pull, drag' [verb]; #Ru. teЁpat' (dial.) `hew, cut' [verb]
Czech: tepati `beat, hammer' [verb], tepu [1sg], tepaґm [1sg]
Slovak: tepat' `beat' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: cґepacґ `beat' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: sґepasґ `beat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: te°psti se `loiter' [verb], te°pЊm se [1sg]
Slovene: teґpsti `beat, chastise, (se) loiter' [verb], teґpem [1sg]
Bulgarian: teґpam `full, walk' [verb]
Lithuanian: te°pti `smear, grease, soil' [verb], tepu° [1sg]
Notes: {1} Apparently influenced by *tęti.
Proto-Slavic form: *tędzati; tęgati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pull, extract'
Old Church Slavic: tęži (Ps. Sin.) `try' [imper]; #OCS tęžǫ (Supr.) `inquire' [1sg]
Russian: tjagaґt' `pull, extract, elicit' [verb], tjagaґju [1sg]
Czech: taґzati se `ask, inquire' [verb]
Polish: cia§gacґ `pull' [verb]
Slovene: tęґzati `pull, torture' [verb], tęґzam [1sg], tęґžem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tengh-
Other cognates: REF="response.cgi?flags=endnnnn&root=leiden&basename=/data/ie/slav&first=1&text_protoslav=te{,}gti;+0te{,}g[`]&method_protoslav=substring" target="_blank">tęgti; 0tęgъ; tęga; tęgnǫti; tęžъkъ(jь); tЎ§ga°; tǫgъ(jь)
Proto-Slavic form: *tęgnǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `pull'
Russian: tjanuґt' `pull' [verb], tjanuґ [1sg], tjaґnet [3sg]
Czech: taґhnouti `pull' [verb]
Slovak: tiahnout' `pull' [verb]
Polish: cia§gna§cґ `pull' [verb]
Slovene: tęґgniti `provide, stretch' [verb], tęґgnem [1sg]
Lithuanian: tinge†ґti `be lazy' [verb], ti°ngi [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *t(e)ngh-
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Proto-Slavic form: *tęgti
GRAM: v.
Church Slavic: rastęšti `tear apart' [verb], rastęgǫ [1sg]
Lithuanian: ti°ngti `become slow' [verb], ti°ngsta [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *t(e)ngh-
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Other cognates: OIc. ±ungia `burden' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tęgъ; tęga
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `traction, weight'
Russian: tjaґga `traction' [f ѓ]
Czech: tiґha `weight, burden' [f ѓ]
Polish: cia§g `traction, continuity' [f ѓ], cia§gu
Old Polish: cia§g `traction, continuity' [f ѓ], cięgu
Serbo-Croatian: te?g `weight, traction, seed' [m o]
Slovene: tę?g `traction, pull, burden, grain' [m o], tę?ga [Gens], tega? [Gens]
Bulgarian: tjaґga `traction' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *t(e)ngh-
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Proto-Slavic form: *tęti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cut, chop, beat'
Russian: tjat' (arch.) `beat' [verb], tnu [1sg]
Old Russian:: tjati `chop, cut' [verb], tьnu [1sg]
Ukrainian: tjaґty `chop, cut, beat' [verb], tnu [1sg]
Czech: tiґti `cut' [verb], tnu [1sg]
Polish: cia§cґ `cut' [verb], tnę [1sg]
Slovene: tęґti `chop' [verb], tne°m [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tinЂtei
Lithuanian: ti°nti `whet' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tmh1-tei
Other cognates: Gk. tљmnw `cut' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tęžъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `heavy'
Old Church Slavic: tęžъkъ `heavy, difficult, serious' [adj o]
Russian: tjaґžkij `heavy, severe' [adj o]
Ukrainian: tjažkyґj `heavy' [adj o]
Czech: tĕžkyґ `heavy' [adj o]
Slovak: t'ažkyґ `heavy' [adj o]
Polish: cięz†ki `heavy' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: teґžak `heavy, difficult, serious' [adj o], teґška [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. te?žak (Vrgada) `heavy, difficult, serious' [adj o], tЊška? [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. težaІ~k (Orbanicґi) `heavy, difficult, serious' [adj o], te?ška [Nomsf]
Slovene: teґžЌk `heavy' [adj o], teґžka [Nomsf]; #Sln. teža?k `heavy' [adj o]
Bulgarian: teґžaўk `heavy, difficult, serious' [adj o]
Lithuanian: tingu°s `lazy' [adj u] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *t(e)ngh-
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Other cognates: OIc. ±ungr `heavy' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *tĕ?sto
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dough'
Russian: teґsto `dough' [n o]
Czech: tĕsto `dough' [n o]
Slovak: cesto `dough' [n o]
Polish: ciasto `dough' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: cґĕsto `dough' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ti?jesto `dough' [n o], ti?jesta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ti?sto (Vrgada, Hvar) `dough' [n o], ti?sta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tie?sto `dough' [n o], tie?sta [Gens]
Slovene: te•sto•? `dough' [n o]
Bulgarian: testoґ `dough' [n o]
Other cognates: Gk. stai~j (sta…j) `flour of spelt mixed and made into dough' [m], staitТj [Gens]; OHG theismo (deismo) `leaven' [m]; W toes `dough' [m]; OIr. taґis `dough' [m]; W toes `dough' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *tĕ°mę
GRAM: n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sinciput, top of the head'
Russian: teґmja `sinciput, top of the head' [n n], teґmeni [Gens]
Czech: teґmĕ `sinciput, top of the head' [n n]
Slovak: tem„ `sinciput, top of the head' [n n]
Polish: ciemię `sinciput, top of the head' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: tje?me `sinciput, top of the head' [n n], tje?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ti?me (Vrgada) `sinciput, top of the head' [n n], tji?mena [Gens]
Slovene: te•ґme `sinciput, top of the head' [n n], te•ґmena [Gens]
Bulgarian: teґme `sinciput, top of the head' [n nt]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tinЂtei
Lithuanian: ti°nti `whet' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tЊmh1-en-
Other cognates: Gk. tљmnw `cut' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tĕnь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `shadow'
Russian: ten' `shadow' [f i]
Ukrainian: tin' `shadow' [f i]
Czech: tiґn (Mor. dial.) `shadow' [m o]; #Cz. tin№ (Lach dial.) `shadow' [m jo]
Slovak: tien№ `shadow' [m jo]
Polish: cienґ `shadow' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: te•ґnja `shadow (image)' [f jѓ]
COMM: Probably a transformation of *s(t)ĕnь on the basis of *tьma `darkness', *tьmьnъ `dark'.
Proto-Slavic form: *tĕsnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `narrow'
Old Church Slavic: tĕsnъ `narrow' [adj o]
Russian: teґsnyj `crowded, narrow, tight' [adj o]
Czech: tĕsnyґ `narrow' [verb]
Slovak: tesnyґ `narrow' [verb]
Polish: ciasny `narrow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: tije°san `tight, narrow' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. ti?san `tight, narrow' [adj o], t–sna? [Nomsf], ti?sno [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. tie?san `tight, narrow' [adj o], tie?sna [Nomsf], tie?sno [Nomsn]
Slovene: teґsЌn `narrow' [adj o], teґsna [Nomsf]; #Sln. te•sa?n `narrow' [adj o], te•sna° [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: teґsaўn `narrow' [adj o], tjaґsna [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *toiH-sk-no-
Proto-Slavic form: *ti°skati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `press, squeeze'
Church Slavic: tiskati `press, squeeze' [verb]
Russian: tiґskat' `press, squeeze' [verb]
Polish: ciskacґ `hurl' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ti?skati `press, squeeze' [verb]
Slovene: tiґskati `press, print' [verb], tiґskam [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *teiH-sk-
Proto-Slavic form: *to?kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stream, current, course'
Old Church Slavic: tokъ (Mar.) `stream' [m o]
Russian: tok `current, course' [m o], toґka [Gens]
BeloRussian: tik `current, course' [m o], tokaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: tik `current, course' [m o], toґka [Gens]; #Ukr. tik (dial.) `current, course' [m o], tokaґ [Gens]
Czech: tok `current, course' [m o]
Slovak: tok `current, course' [m o]
Polish: tok `current, course' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: to?k `current, course' [m o], to?ka [Gens]
Slovene: to°k `stream, current' [m o], tǫґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: tok `stream, current' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tokos
Lithuanian: ta~kas `(foot-)path' [m o] 4
Latvian: taks `(foot-)path' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tokє-o-
Other cognates: Av. taka- `course' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *toliti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `calm, soothe'
Old Church Slavic: utoliti `convince' [verb], utoljǫ [1sg]
Russian: utoliґt' ` quench, satisfy, soothe' [verb], utoljuґ [1sg], utoliґt [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: uto°liti `calm down' [verb]
Slovene: toґliti `calm, soothe, quench' [verb], tǫґlim [1sg]
Lithuanian: taґldyti (dial.) `silence, soothe' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tolH-
Proto-Slavic form: *tolka°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `neighbourly help (of farmworkers)'
Ukrainian: tolokaґ `occasional help by fellow villagers, fallow land, pasture' [f ѓ], toґloku [Accs]
Polish: tљoka `neighbourly help (of farmworkers), crowd' [f ѓ]; #Pl. tљoґka (dial.) `neighbourly help (of farmworkers)' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: tљuka `neighbourly help (of farmworkers)' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: tlu°oka `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: tlaґka `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Slovene: tlaґka `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tolkaЂ
Lithuanian: talka° `unpaid work, party of workers (called together for help)' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: ta°lka `party of workers' [f ѓ]
COMM: The proposed connection with Toch. B telki n. `sacrifice' (cf. Adams 1999: 306) is interesting but highly speculative.
Proto-Slavic form: *topi°ti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `heat'
Russian: topiґt' `stoke, heat, melt' [verb], topljuґ [1sg], toґpit [3sg]
Czech: topiti `heat' [verb]
Slovak: topit' `melt' [verb]
Polish: topicґ `melt, fuse' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: to°piti `melt' [verb], to°p–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se topi?t (Orbanicґi) `melt' [verb], se to?pi [3sg]
Slovene: topiґti `warm, heat, melt' [verb], topiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: topjaґ `melt' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *top-eie-
Other cognates: Skt. tѓpaґyati `heat, torment' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *topi°ti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `drown'
Old Church Slavic: potopiti `drown, destroy' [verb], potopljǫ [1sg]
Russian: topiґt' `sink, drown' [verb], topljuґ [1sg], toґpit [3sg]
Czech: topiti `drown' [verb]
Slovak: topit' `drown' [verb]
Polish: topicґ `sink, drown' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: to°piti `flood' [verb], to°p–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se topi?t (Orbanicґi) `drown' [verb], se to?pi [3sg]
Slovene: topiґti `sink, immerse' [verb], topiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: topjaґ `dive, dunk' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *top-eie-
Proto-Slavic form: *tǫ?gъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `tight, solid, tough'
Church Slavic: tǫgъ `hard to retain' [adj o]
Russian: tugoґj `tight' [adj o]
Czech: tuhyґ `solid, tough' [adj o]
Slovak: tuhyґ `solid, tough' [adj o]
Polish: tęgi `stout' [adj o]
Slovene: tǫ?g `tight, tough, strong' [adj o], tǫґga [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tongh-
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Other cognates: OIc. ±ungr `heavy' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *tЎ§ga°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sadness, melancholy'
Old Church Slavic: tǫga `confusion, melancholy, difficulties, misfortune' [f ѓ]
Russian: tugaґ `grief' [f ѓ]; #Ru. tuґga (dial.) `grief' [f ѓ]
Czech: touha `longing, yearning, desire' [f ѓ]
Slovak: tuґha `melancholy' [f ѓ]
Polish: tęga `melancholy' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: tuґga `sorrow, sadness, melancholy' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. tіga? (Vrgada, Novi) `sorrow, sadness, melancholy' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. tu?ga `sorrow, sadness' [f ѓ]
Slovene: tǫґga `slowness, unpleasantness, melancholy' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: taўgaґ `sorrow, sadness, hurt, desire' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tongh-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 1067
Proto-Slavic form: *trѓva°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `grass'
Old Church Slavic: trava (Ps. Sin.) `grass, plants' [f ѓ]
Russian: travaґ `grass' [f ѓ]
Czech: traґva `grass' [f ѓ]
Slovak: traґva `grass' [f ѓ]
Polish: trawa `grass' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: traґva `grass, herb, plant, weed' [f ѓ], tra?vu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. traІЇva? (Vrgada) `grass, herb, plant, weed' [f ѓ], traІЇvu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. trѓva? (Orbanicґi) `grass, herb, plant, weed' [f ѓ], tra?vo [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. trava? (Cres) `grass' [f ѓ], travu? [Accs]
Slovene: traґva `grass' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: travaґ `grass' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trЎuH-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *trѓvi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
Old Church Slavic: travęštiima (Supr.) `devouring' [Datpm ptcprsa] {1}
Russian: traviґt' `exterminate (by poisoning), (coll.) poison' [verb], travljuґ [1sg], traґvit [3sg]
Czech: traґviti `digest, consume, poison' [verb]
Polish: trawicґ `digest, spend (time), consume' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: traґviti `feed with grass' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trЎuH-
Notes: {1} For travęštiimъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *tretь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `third'
Old Church Slavic: tretii `third' [adj jo]
Russian: treґtij `third' [adj jo]
Czech: tr№etiґ `third' [adj jo]
Slovak: tretiґ `third' [adj jo]
Polish: trzeci `third' [adj jo]
Serbo-Croatian: tre?cґ– `third' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. tre?cґ–, tre?t– (Vrgada) `third' [adj (j)o]; #SCr. C№ak. tre?t– (Novi) `third' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. tre?ti (Orbanicґi) `third' [adj jo]
Slovene: tręґtji `third' [adj jo]
Bulgarian: treґti `third' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tretios
Lithuanian: tre~čias `third' [adj jo]
Latvian: trešs `third' [adj jo]
Old Prussian: t–rts `third' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tr-et-i-o-
Other cognates: Skt. trёt–ґya- (RV+) `third' [adj]; Lat. tertius `third' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *tręsti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `shake (tr.)'
Old Church Slavic: tręsti `shake (tr.)' [verb], tręsǫ [1sg]
Russian: trjastiґ `shake (tr.)' [verb], trjasuґ `shake' [verb], trjaseЁt [3sg]
Czech: tr№aґsti `shake (tr.)' [verb], tr№esu [1sg]
Old Czech:: tr№iesti `shake (tr.)' [verb]
Slovak: triast' `shake (tr.)' [verb], trasiem [1sg]
Polish: trza§sґcґ `shake (tr.)' [verb], trzęsę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: treґsti `shake (tr.)' [verb], treґsem [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tre~sti (Vrgada) `shake (tr.)' [verb], trЊse?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. treґsti (Hvar) `shake (tr.)' [verb], trЊse?n [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. trie~s (Orbanicґi) `shake (tr.)' [verb], triese? [3sg]
Slovene: tręґsti `shake (tr.)' [verb], tręґsem [1sg]
Bulgarian: tresaґ `shake (tr.)' [verb]
COMM: Vasmer (s.v. trjasuґ) may be right in assuming that *tręs represents a contamination of *tres-, cf. Skt. traґsati `shiver', and *trem-, cf. Gk. trљmw, Lat. tremЎ `id.'.
Proto-Slavic form: *trĕЇva°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `grass'
Old Church Slavic: trĕva `grass, plants' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: trevaґ `grass' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trЊuH-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *trovati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `poison'
Serbo-Croatian: tro°vati `poison' [verb], tru?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. trova?ti (Vrgada) `poison' [verb], tru?ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. trova?t (Hvar) `poison' [verb], tru?jen [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. trova~t (Orbanicґi) `poison' [verb], trіje? [3sg]
Slovene: trovaґti `poison' [verb], truґjem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trouH-eh2-
Proto-Slavic form: *trǫdъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `tree fungus, tinder, mould'
Old Church Slavic: trǫdъ `illness' [m o]
Church Slavic: trǫdъ `tree fungus' [m o]
Russian: trut `tinder, amadou' [m o]
Old Russian:: trudъ `tree fungus' [m o]
Czech: troud `mould' [m o]
Polish: tra§d `leprosy' [m o], tra§du [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: tru?d `punk, tinder' [m o], tru?da [Gens]
Slovene: trǫ?d `punk, colic' [m o]
Lithuanian: trandi°s `woodworm, moth' [m i]
Latvian: tru^di `mould' [Nompm o]
Proto-Slavic form: *trǫtъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `drone'
Church Slavic: trutъ (SerbCS) `wasp' [m o]
Russian: truґten' `drone, parasite' [m jo]
Slovak: truґt `drone' [m o]
Polish: trutenґ `drone' [m o]; #Pl. trut `drone' [m o]; #Pl. tra§t (obs.) `drone' [m o]
Old Polish: trant `drone' [m o]
Slovincian: tro†ґu§d `drone' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: tru?t `drone' [m o], tru?ta [Gens]
Slovene: trǫ?t `drone, parasite' [m o]
Lithuanian: tra~nas `drone' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *trudъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `labour, trouble'
Old Church Slavic: trudъ `labour, work' [m o]
Russian: trud `labour, work, difficulty, trouble' [m o], trudaґ [Gens]
Czech: trud `difficulty, trouble' [m o]
Slovak: trud (eccl.) `pains, grief' [m o]
Polish: trud `trouble, labour, work, pains' [m o]
Slovincian: tru†ґd `labour, trouble' [m o], tru†ґdu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: tru?d `effort, labour, work' [m o], truґda [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tru~d (Vrgada) `effort, labour, work' [m o], trіda? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. truґd (Novi, Hvar) `effort, labour, work' [m o], trіda? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tru~t (Orbanicґi) `work, labour, effort, fatigue' [m o], trіda? [Gens]
Slovene: tru?d `effort, difficulty' [m o]
Bulgarian: trud `labour, work, effort' [m o]
Lithuanian: triі~sas `work, effort, pains' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *troud-o-
Other cognates: OIc. ±raut `trial of strengh, distress' [f]; MHG drЎz `distress, burden' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *tru?pъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `trunk, corpse'
Old Church Slavic: trupъ `corpse' [m o]
Russian: trup `corpse, carcass' [m o]
Old Russian:: trupъ `tree-trunk, corpse, carnage' [m o]
Czech: trup `trunk' [m o]
Slovak: trup `trunk' [m o]
Polish: trup `corpse' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: tru?p `trunk, corpse' [m o], tru?pa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tru?p (Vrgada) `trunk, corpse' [m o], tru?pa [Gens]
Slovene: tru?p `trunk, body, corpse, log' [m o]
Bulgarian: trup `trunk, body, corpse, carcass' [m o]
Old Prussian: trupis `log'
Proto-Slavic form: *truti
GRAM: v.
Old Church Slavic: natruti `feed' [verb], natrovǫ [1sg]
Old Russian:: truti `consume' [verb], trovu [1sg]
Polish: trucґ `poison, disturb, torment' [verb], truję [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trouH-
Proto-Slavic form: *tryti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rub'
Church Slavic: tryti `rub' [verb]
Bulgarian: triґja `rub' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *truH-
Other cognates: Gk. trЪw `use up' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *trъ?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `reed'
Old Church Slavic: trьstь `reed' [f i]; #OCS trъstь `reed' [f i]
Russian: trost' `cane' [f i]; #Ru. trest' (dial.) `reed' [f i]
Czech: trest' (obs.) `reed' [f i]; #Cz. trst (obs.) `reed' [f i]
Old Czech:: trest' `reed' [f i]; #OCz. trest `reed' [f i]
Slovak: trst' `reed' [f i]
Polish: tresґcґ `reed' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: tr?st `reed' [m o]
Slovene: tr?st `reed' [m o], tr?sta [Gens], trstu^ [Gens]; #Sln. tr?st `reed' [f i], trsti? [Gens]
Bulgarian: traўst `reed' [m o]
Lithuanian: triuši°s `reed' [f i] 4
Latvian: trusis `reed' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *t/dhrus-
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. qrЪon `reed' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *tr§ьje; tri
GRAM: num.
PSLMEAN: `three'
Old Church Slavic: trije `three' [num i], tri [fn]
Russian: tri `three' [num]
Czech: tr№i `three' [num]
Old Czech:: tr№ie `three' [num i], tr№i [fn]
Slovak: tri `three' [num]
Polish: trzy `three' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: tri? `three' [num]; #SCr. C№k. tri? (Vrgada, Hvar, Orbanicґi)) `three' [num]
Slovene: triję? `three' [num i], tri? [fn]
Bulgarian: tri `three' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *treiёes
Lithuanian: try~s `three' [num] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *trei-es
IE meaning: three
Other cognates: Skt. tray- (RV+) `three' [num]; Gk. trei~j `three' [num]; Lat. trЊs [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *tučьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `fat, rich'
Old Church Slavic: tučьnъ (Euch., Ps. Sin.) `fat, rich' [adj o]
Russian: tuґčnyj `fat, rich, succulent' [adj o]
Czech: tučnyґ `fat' [adj o]
Slovak: tučnyґ `fat' [adj o]
Polish: tuczny `fat' [adj o]
Slovene: tuґčЌn `fat' [adj o], tuґčna [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: tuґčen `fertile, rich, succulent' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *touЂkinos
Lithuanian: tau~kinas `fat' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *touHk-
Page in Pokorny: 1081
Proto-Slavic form: *tu?kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `fat'
Old Church Slavic: tukъ (Ps. Sin. En.) `fat' [m o]
Russian: tuk `fat' [m o]
Old Russian:: tukъ `fat' [m o]
Czech: tuk `fat' [m o]
Slovak: tuk `fat' [m o]
Polish: tuk `fat' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. tu?k (Novi, Orbanicґi) `fat' [m o], tu?ka [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *touЂkoґs
Lithuanian: taukai~ `fat' [Nompm o] 3
Latvian: ta°uki `fat' [Nompm o]
Old Prussian: taukis `lard' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *touHk-o-
Page in Pokorny: 1081
Other cognates: OHG dioh `thigh' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *tu?rъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `aurochs'
Old Church Slavic: turomъ (Supr.) `bull' [Inssm o]
Russian: tur `aurochs' [m o], tuґra [Gens]
Ukrainian: tur `aurochs' [m o], tuґra [Gens]
Czech: tur `aurochs' [m o]
Slovak: tur `aurochs' [m o]
Polish: tur `aurochs' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: tu?r `aurochs' [m o], tu?ra [Gens]
Slovene: tu?r `aurochs' [m o]
Bulgarian: tur `aurochs' [m o]
Lithuanian: tau~ras `aurochs' [m o]
Latvian: ta°urs `aurochs' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *th2euro- (tauro-)
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. tau~roj `bull' [m]; Lat. taurus `bull' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *tva?rь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `creation, creature'
Old Church Slavic: tvarь `creation, creature' [f i]
Russian: tvar' `creature' [f i], tvaґri [Gens]
Czech: tvaґr№ `face, cheek' [f i]
Slovak: tvaґr `face, cheek' [f i]
Polish: twarz `face, cheek' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: tva?r `creation, creature' [m o]
Slovene: tva?r `matter' [m o], tvari? [Gens]
Bulgarian: tvar `creature' [m o]
Lithuanian: tvora° `fence' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuЎrH-eh2
COMM: The length attested in Czech: and Slovak is irregular, cf. Cz., Slk. tvar `form'.
Proto-Slavic form: *tvori°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `make'
Old Church Slavic: tvoriti `do, make' [verb], tvorjǫ [1sg]
Russian: tvoriґt' `create, do' [verb], tvorjuґ [1sg], tvoriґt [3sg]
Czech: tvor№iti `do, make' [verb]
Slovak: tvorit' `do, make' [verb]
Polish: tworzycґ `do, make' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: tvo°riti `do, make' [verb], tvo°r–m [1sg]
Slovene: tvoriґti `form, make' [verb], tvoriґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: tvoriґti `create' [verb]
Lithuanian: tveґrti `seize, form' [verb]
Latvian: tver^t `seize, hold' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuorH-
Proto-Slavic form: *tvorъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `creation, creature'
Old Church Slavic: tvorъ (Ps. Sin., Euch.) `creation, ulcer' [m o]
Old Russian:: tvorъ `appearance' [m o]
Czech: tvor `creation, creature' [m o]
Slovak: tvor `creation, creature' [m o]
Polish: twoґr `creation, creature' [m o], tworu [Gens]
Slovene: tvo•?r `creation, furuncle' [m o]
Lithuanian: a~ptvaras `fence' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuorH-o-
Other cognates: Gk. sorТj `urn' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *tvь?rdъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hard, firm, solid'
Old Church Slavic: tvrьdъ `firm, solid' [adj o]
Russian: tveЁrdyj `hard, solid' [adj o]; #Ru. tveЁrd `hard, solid' [adj o], tverdaґ [Nomsf], tveЁrdo [Nomsf]
Czech: tvrdyґ `hard, solid' [adj o]
Slovak: tvrdyґ `hard, solid' [adj o]
Polish: twardy `hard, solid' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: tvr?d `hard, firm' [adj o], tvrґda [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. tvr?d (Vrgada) `hard, firm' [adj o], tvrda? [Nomsf], tvr?do [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?d (Orbanicґi) `hard, firm' [adj o], tr~da [Nomsf], trЇda? [Nomsf], tr?do [Nomsn]
Slovene: tr?d `hard' [adj o], trґda [Nomsf]; #Sln. tvr?d `hard' [adj o], tvrґda [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: tvaўrd `firm, solid, hard' [adj o]
Lithuanian: tvi°rtas `strong, firm, solid' [adj o] 3
Latvian: tvir^ts `strong, firm, solid' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *turH-dho-
Proto-Slavic form: *tvьrdь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `citadel, firmament'
Old Church Slavic: tvrьdь `base, citadel, firmament' [f i]
Russian: tverd' `firmament (nebesnaja t.), earth (zemnaja t.)' [f i]
Old Russian:: tvьrdь `firmament, darkness' [f i]
Bulgarian: tvaўrd (arch.) `citadel, earth, sky, firmament' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *turH-dh-i-
Proto-Slavic form: *ty
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `you'
Old Church Slavic: ty `you' [prnprs]
Russian: ty `you' [prnprs]
Czech: ty `you' [prnprs]
Slovak: ty `you' [prnprs]
Polish: ty `you' [prnprs]
Serbo-Croatian: ti? `you' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. ti~ `you' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. tiґ (Hvar) `you' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. ti? (Orbanicґi) `you' [prnprs]
Slovene: ti? `you' [prnprs]
Bulgarian: ti `you' [prnprs]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tuЂ
Lithuanian: tu° `you' [prnprs]
Latvian: tu `you' [prnprs]
Old Prussian: tou `you' [prnprs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuH
IE meaning: you
Page in Pokorny: 1097
Other cognates: Lat. tі `you' [prnprs]
Proto-Slavic form: *ty°lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `back of the neck'
Church Slavic: tylъ (SerbCS) `neck' [m o]
Russian: tyl `back' [m o]
Czech: tyґl `back of the neck, nape' [m o]
Slovak: tylo `back of the neck, nape' [n o]
Polish: tyљ `back' [m o]
Slovene: ti?љ `back of the neck, nape, rear part' [m o], ti?la [Gens]
Bulgarian: til `back of the neck, nape' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tuґЂlum
Lithuanian: tіґlas `many' [adj o] 3
Old Prussian: tіlan `much' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuH-lo-
Other cognates: Skt. tіґla- (AV+) `tuft of grass or reeds, panicle of a flower or plant' [n]; Gk. tЪ?lh `bulge, lump, hump' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *ty°sǫti; ty°sęti
GRAM: num.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `thousand'
Old Church Slavic: tysǫšti `thousand' [num iѓ]; #OCS tysęšti `thousand' [num iѓ]
Russian: tyґsjača `thousand' [num jѓ]
Czech: tisiґc `thousand' [num jo]
Slovak: tisiґc `thousand' [num jo]
Polish: tysia§c `thousand' [num jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ti?sucґa (dial.) `thousand' [num jѓ]
Slovene: tisǫґča `thousand' [num jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tuЂsonti-
Lithuanian: tіґkstantis `thousand' [num io] 1
Latvian: tu~kstuo~tis `thousand' [num jo]; #Latv. tu~kstuo^tis `thousand' [num jo]
Old Prussian: tіsimtons `thousand' [num Accp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuHs-ont-; tuHs-ent-
Page in Pokorny: 1083
Other cognates: Go. ±іsundi `thousand' [numf]
Proto-Slavic form: *ty°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `become fat'
Church Slavic: tyti (RuCS) `become fat' [verb]
Czech: tyґti `become fat' [verb]
Slovak: tyt' `become fat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ti?ti `become fat' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tuH-
Page in Pokorny: 1080
Other cognates: Skt. tav–ti `be strong' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *tъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `this, that'
Old Church Slavic: tъ `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Russian: tot `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Old Russian:: tъ `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Czech: ten `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Slovak: ten `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Polish: ten `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Upper Sorbian: toґn `this, that' [prn], ta [Nomsf], to [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: ta?j `this, that' [prn], ta? [Nomsf], to? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ta?, ta? (Orbanicґi) `that' [prn], ta? [Nomsf], to? [Nomsn], to? [Nomsn]
Slovene: ta? `this, that' [prn], ta? [Nomsf], to•? [Nomsn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tos
Lithuanian: ta°s `this, that' [prn], ta° [Nomsf], tai~ [Nomsn]
Latvian: tas `this, that' [prn], ta~ [Nomsf]
Old Prussian: stas `the, this, that' [artcl/pron], sta(i) [Nomsf], sta [Nomsn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *so
COMM: The PIE demonstrative pronoun *so, f. *seh2, n. tod was remodelled to Balto-Slavic *tos, *taЂ, *tod.
Other cognates: Skt. saґ `this, that' [prn], sѓґ [Nomsf], taґd [Nomsn]
Proto-Slavic form: *tъrgati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `tear'
Russian: rastorgaґt' `cancel, annul' [verb]
Ukrainian: toґrhaty `tear, pull' [verb]
Czech: trhati `tear, pull' [verb]
Slovak: trhat' `tear, pull' [verb]
Polish: targacґ `tear, pull' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: tr?gati `tear, pluck' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?gati (Vrgada) `pick grapes' [verb], tr?gaІЇš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?gat (Orbanicґi) `pick, (harvest) grapes' [verb], tr?gan [1sg]
Slovene: trґgati `tear, pull' [verb], tr?gam [1sg]
Bulgarian: taўґrgam `tear, pull' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trgґ-??
Proto-Slavic form: *tъ°ščь(jь)
GRAM: adj. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `empty'
Old Church Slavic: tъštъ `empty' [adj jo]
Russian: toґščij `gaunt, empty, poor' [adj jo]; #Ru. toґšč `gaunt, empty, poor' [adj jo], toščaґ [Nomsf], toґšče [Nomsn] {1}
Old Czech:: tštiґ `empty' [adj jo]
Polish: czczy `empty' [adj jo]
Old Polish: tszczy `empty' [adj jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ta?št `empty, vain, conceited' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. ta?šcґ (vrgada) `empty' [adj o], tašcґa? [Nomsf], ta?šcґo [Nomsn]
Slovene: tЌ°šč `empty' [adj jo], tЌšča° [Nomsf]; #Sln. ta?šč `empty' [adj jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *tuskios
Lithuanian: tu°ščias `empty' [adj jo]
Latvian: tukšs `empty, poor' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tus-sk-io-
Other cognates: Skt. tucchyaґ- (RV) `empty, vain' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *tь?nьkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `thin'
Old Church Slavic: tъnъčaje `thinner' [Nomsn adj o]
Russian: toґnkij `thin, slender, fine' [adj o]; #Ru. toґnok `thin, slender, fine' [adj o], tankaґ [Nomsf], toґnko [Nomsn]
Czech: tenkyґ `thin, slender, fine' [adj o]
Slovak: tenkyґ `thin, slender, fine' [adj o]
Polish: cienki `thin, slender, fine' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ta?nak `thin, slender, fine' [adj o], ta°nka [Nomsf], taґnka [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. ta?nak (Vrgada) `thin, slender, fine' [adj o], tanka? [Nomsf], ta?nko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ta?nak (Orbanicґi) `thin, slender, fine' [adj o], ta~nka [Nomsf], ta~nko [Nomsn]
Slovene: tЌnЌ°k `thin, meagre, exact' [adj o], tЌnka° [Nomsf]; #Sln. ta?nki `thin, meagre, exact' [adj o], ta?nka [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: taўґnaўk `thin, slender, fine' [adj o]
Lithuanian: tęґvas (Z№em.) `thin, fine' [adj o] 3
Latvian: tie^vs `thin, fine' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tenh2-u-oґ-
Other cognates: Skt. tanuґ- (Br+) `thin, slender' [adj]; Gk. tanaТj `outstretched' [adj]; Lat. tenuis `fine, thin' [adj]; OIr. tanae `thin, slender' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *tьlĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `decay, smoulder'
Old Church Slavic: tьlĕti `decay' [verb], tьlĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: tlet' `rot, decay, smoulder' [verb], tleґju [1sg]
Czech: tliґti `decay, rot, mould' [verb]
Slovak: tliet' `smoulder' [verb]
Polish: tlecґ `smoulder' [verb], tleję [1sg]
Slovene: tle•ґti `smoulder' [verb], tliґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: tleґja `smoulder' [verb]
Latvian: til^t2 `become soft, become retted' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tlH-eh1-
COMM: The connection with *utoliti `quench, satisfy, relieve' and Lith. tyle†ґti `be silent, soothe' is uncertain.
Proto-Slavic form: *tьlo°; tьla
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `ground'
Old Church Slavic: na tьlĕxъ (Supr.) `on the ground' [Locpn o]
Russian: tlo (obs.) `foundation, bottom' [n o]
Old Russian:: tьlo `foundation, bottom' [n o]
Czech: tlo (dial.) `ceiling' [f ѓ]; #Cz. tla (dial.) `ceiling' [f ѓ]
Polish: tљo `ground, background' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: tlo? `ground, earth, soil' [n o], tla? [Gens], tla? [Nomp]; #SCr. tle? `soil, earth' [Nompf ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. tlo?h (Vrgada) `ground, earth, soil' [m o], tloha? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tla? (Novi) `ground, earth, soil' [Nompn o], taґl [Genp]; #SCr. C№ak. tlo? (Orbanicґi) `ground, terrain' [n o], tla? [Gens], tla? [Nomp] {1}
Slovene: tla° `ground, earth' [Nompn o], taґљ [Genp]
Lithuanian: ti°le†s `bottom of a barge, flooring' [Nompf Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tlH-o-
Notes: {1} Usually plural, except the Gsg. tla?.
Proto-Slavic form: *tьma
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `darkness'
Old Church Slavic: tьma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Russian: tьma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Czech: tma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Slovak: tma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Polish: cґma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: cґma `darkness' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: taґma `darkness, dusk, fog' [f ѓ]
Slovene: tЌma° `darkness' [f ѓ]; #Sln. tma° `darkness' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: taўmaґ `darkness' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *timaЂ `darkness' [f ѓ]
Latvian: tima `darkness' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tmёH-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. taґmas- `darkness' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *tьmьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `dark'
Old Church Slavic: tьmьnъ `dark' [adj o]
Russian: teЁmnyj `dark' [adj o]; #Ru. teЁmen `dark' [adj o], temnaґ [Nomsf], temnoґ [Nomsn]
Czech: temnyґ `dark' [adj o]
Slovak: temnyґ `dark' [adj o]
Polish: ciemny `dark' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: cґĕmny `dark' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: taґman `dark' [adj o], taґmna [Nomsf], taґmno [Nomsn]; #SCr. ta?man `dark' [adj o], taґmna [Nomsf], ta?mno [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. taІ?man (Vrgada) `dark' [adj o], taІЇmna? [Nomsf], taІ?mno [Nomsn]
Slovene: tЌmЌ°n `dark' [adj o], tЌmna° [Nomf]
Bulgarian: taўґmen `dark' [adj o]
Lithuanian: tamsu°s `dark' [adj u] 3
Latvian: tu°mšs `dark' [adj u] 3; #Latv. ti°mšs2 (E. Latv.) `dark' [adj u] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *tmёH-ino-
Other cognates: Skt. timiraґ- `dark' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *tь°rnъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `thorn'
Old Church Slavic: trъnъ (Ps. Sin.) `thorn' [m o]
Russian: teЁrn `blackthorn, sloe' [m o]; #Ru. teЁren (dial.) `blackthorn, sloe' [m o], teЁrna [Gens]
Ukrainian: tereґn `thorn' [m o], ternuґ [Gens]
Czech: trn `thorn' [m o]
Slovak: trґn№ `thorn' [m o]
Polish: ciernґ `thorn' [m jo]
Old Polish: tarn `thorn' [m o]; #OPl. cirnґ `thorn' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: tr?n `thorn' [m o], tr?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?nґ (Vrgada) `thorn' [m o], trnґa? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. tr~n (Orbanicґi) `thorn' [m o], tr?na [Gens]; #SCr. Kajk. te~rn (Bednja) `thorn' [m o], terna? [Gens]
Slovene: trґn `thorn, thornbush, quill, hook' [m o]
Bulgarian: traўn `thorn, thistle' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *tr-n-o-m
Other cognates: Skt. trёґn•a- `grass, blade of grass' [n]; Go. ±aurus `thorn' [m]; OIc. ±orn `thorn' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *tьrzati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `tear, pull'
Old Church Slavic: trьzati (Supr.) `pull, tear' [verb], trĕžǫ [1sg], trьzajǫ [1sg]
Russian: terzaґt' `tear apart, torment' [verb], terzaґju [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: tr?zati `pull, jerk' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. tr?zat `jerk, snatch, tug' [verb], tr?zaš [2sg]
Slovene: trґzati `tear, pull out, pluck' [verb], tr?zam [1sg]
Bulgarian: taўґrzam `tear, pull out, pluck' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *trgґ-

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