Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*S)


> > *S
Праславянский словарь: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ѣ | Ж | З | И | К | Л | М | Н | О | Ѫ | П | Р | С | Т | У | Х | Ц | Ч | Ш | Щ | Ю | Ѭ | Я | Ѩ
Труды-источники: Дерксен-Старостин | Покорный | ЭССЯ (Трубачев)
Славянские словари: Старославянский | Русский | Белорусский | Болгарский | Лужицкие | Македонский | Польский | Сербохорватский | Словацкий | Словенский | Украинский | Чешский

Словарь Дерксена: A | B | C | Č | D | E | Ę | Ĕ | Ę2 | G | I | Ju | | K | L | M | N | O | Ǫ | Ǫ2 | P | R | S | Šč | Š | T | U | V | X | Z | Ž

Всего на S (С) – 161 слово.

Proto-Slavic form: *sadi°span>
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `plant'
Old Church Slavic: saditi `plant' [verb], saždǫ [1sg]
Russian: sadiґt' `plant' [verb], sažuґ [1sg], saґdit [3sg] {1}
Czech: saditi (arch.) `set, plant' [verb]
Slovak: sadit' `set, plant' [verb]
Polish: sadzicґ `set, plant' [verb]
Slovincian: sa~Ѕaўc `set, plant' [verb], saІґuёЅaў [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: saґditi `plant, seat' [verb], sa?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. saІЇdi?ti (Vrgada) `plant' [verb], saІ~d–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sѓdi?t (Orbanicґi) `plant' [verb], sa~din [1sg]
Slovene: sadiґti `set, plant' [verb], sadiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: sadjaґ `sow, set, plant' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *soЂdiЂtei
Lithuanian: sodi°nti `set, plant' [verb]
Old Prussian: saddinna `set' [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sod-iH-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 884
Other cognates: Skt. sѓdaґyati `set' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 140).
Proto-Slavic form: *sa?dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `plant, garden'
Old Church Slavic: sadъ `plant' [m o]
Russian: sad `garden' [m o]
Old Russian:: sadъ `tree, plant, garden' [m o]
Czech: sad `orchard, (pl.) park' [m o]
Slovak: sad `garden, park' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sa?d `new planting' [m o], sa?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. saІ?d `new planting' [m o], saІ?da [Gens]
Slovene: sa?d `fruit, plantation' [m o], sa?da [Gens], sadu? [Gens]
Lithuanian: so~das `orchard, garden, park, (dial.) plant' [m o] {1}
Latvian: sa°ds `garden, orchard' [m o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *sЎd-o-
Page in Pokorny: 884
Notes: {1} Possibly a borrowing from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *sanь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `sleigh, sledge'
Church Slavic: sanь (RuCS) `snake' [f i]
Russian: saґni `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Old Russian:: sani `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Ukrainian: saґny `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Czech: saґnĕ `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]; #Cz. sanĕ `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]; #Cz. san№ `dragon, tapeworm' [f i]
Polish: sanie `sleigh, sledge' [f i]
Old Polish: sani `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Serbo-Croatian: sa?oni `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]; #SCr. sa?one `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf ѓ]; #SCr. sa?ni (NW dial.) `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Slovene: sani? `sleigh, sledge' [Nompf i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *saЂnos; saЂnis
Lithuanian: šoґnas `side, flank' [m o] 1
Latvian: sa~ns `side' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґeh2no- ??
Proto-Slavic form: *se°dmъ
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `seventh'
Old Church Slavic: sedmъ `seventh' [num o]
Russian: sed'moґj `seventh' [num o] {1}
Czech: sedmyґ `seventh' [num o]; #Cz. seґdmyґ (dial.) `seventh' [num o]
Old Czech:: seґdmyґ `seventh' [num o]
Slovak: siedmy `seventh' [num o]
Polish: sioґdmy `seventh' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: se?dm– `seventh' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. se~dm– (Vrgada) `seventh' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. seґdm–ў (Novi) `seventh' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. sie~dmi `seventh' [num o]
Slovene: sęґdmi `seventh' [num o]
Bulgarian: seґdmi `seventh' [num o]
Macedonian:
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *septmos
Lithuanian: septin~tas `seventh' [num]
Latvian: septi^ts `seventh' [num]
Old Prussian: septmas `seventh' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *septm-oґ-
IE meaning: seventh
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 909
Other cognates: Skt. saptaґtha- (RV) `seventh' [num]; Skt. saptamaґ- (VS+) `seventh' [num]; Gk. ›bdomoj `seventh' [adj]; Lat. septimus `seventh' [num]; OHG sibunto `seventh' [num]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *se°dmь
GRAM: num.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `seven'
Old Church Slavic: sedmь `seven' [num i]
Russian: sem' `seven' [num i], semiґ [Gens]
Czech: sedm `seven' [num]
Slovak: sedem `seven' [num]
Polish: siedem `seven' [num jo]; #Pl. siedm (arch.) `seven' [num jo]
Slovincian: se†^teўm `seven' [num]
Upper Sorbian: sydom `seven' [num]
Lower Sorbian: sedym `seven' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: se?dam `seven' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. se?dan (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `seven' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. se?dam (Novi) `seven' [num]
Slovene: sęґdЌm `seven' [num]
Bulgarian: seґdem `seven' [num]
Lithuanian: septyni° `seven' [num]
Latvian: septin§i `seven' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *septm
IE meaning: seven
Page in Pokorny: 909
COMM: The cardinal was reshaped under the influence of the ordinal.
Other cognates: Skt. saґpta `seven' [num]; Gk. ˜ptŽ `seven' [num]; Lat. septem `seven' [num]; Go. sibun `seven' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *sedъlo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `saddle'
Church Slavic: sedьlo `saddle' [n o]
Russian: sedloґ `saddle' [n o]
Old Russian:: sedьlo `saddle' [n o]
Czech: sedlo `saddle' [n o]
Slovak: sedlo `saddle' [n o]
Polish: siodљo `saddle' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: se°dlo `saddle' [n o], se?dla [Nompn]; #SCr. C№ak. sedlo? (Vrgada) `saddle' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. sedlo? (novi) `saddle' [n o], se?dla [Nompn]; #SCr. C№ak. se?dlo (Orbanicґi) `seat (on a bicycle), saddle' [n o], se?dla [Nomp]
Slovene: seґdlo• `saddle' [n o]
Bulgarian: sedloґ `saddle' [n o]
Other cognates: OIc. sǫ?ull `saddle' [m]; OHG satul `saddle' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *seloґ
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
Old Church Slavic: selo `field, abode, tabernacle, village' [n o]
Russian: seloґ `village' [n o]
Old Czech:: selo `field' [n o]
Polish: sioљo (poet.) `soil, hamlet, village' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: se°lo `village, country' [n o], se?la [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. selo? (Vrgada) `village, country' [n o], se?laІЇ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. selo? (Novi) `village, country' [n o], se?la [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. selo? (Orbanicґi) `village' [n o], sie~la [Nomp]
Slovene: seґlo• `building lot, colony, hamlet, village' [n o]
Bulgarian: seґlo `village' [n o], selaґ [Nomp]
Lithuanian: sala° `island, (dial.) field surrounded bij meadows (or vice versa), (E. Lith.) village' [f ѓ] 4
Other cognates: OIc. salr `hall, room, house' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *serda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `middle, Wednesday'
Old Church Slavic: srĕda `middle, community, Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Russian: seredaґ (obs.) `Wednesday' [f ѓ], seґredu [Accs]
Czech: str№eda `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Slovak: streda `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Polish: sґroda `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: srjeda `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: srije°da `Wednesday' [f ѓ], sri?jedu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. sr–da? (Vrgada) `Wednesday' [f ѓ], sri?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. srieda? `Wednesday' [f ѓ], srie?du [Accs]
Slovene: sre•ґda `middle, centre' [f ѓ]; #Sln. sre•?da `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: sredaґ `middle, centre, environment' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. srjaґda `Wednesday' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґerd-
Lithuanian: šerdi°s `core, kernel, pith' [f i] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґerd-
IE meaning: heart
Page in Pokorny: 579
Other cognates: Go. hairto `heart' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *sermъša; sermuša
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `ramson, bird cherry'
Serbo-Croatian: sri?jemuša `ramson' [f jѓ]
Slovene: srę?mša `bird cherry' [f jѓ]; #Sln. srę?msa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґerm-(o)us•-; kerm-(o)us•-
Lithuanian: šermu°kšnis `rowan tree, rowan berry' [m io] 2
Latvian: sЊ§°rmu^kslis `rowan tree, rowan berry' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґerm-(o)us-
Proto-Slavic form: *seґrnъ; seґrn§ь
GRAM: m. o; m jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `hoarfrost, crust of ice'
Church Slavic: srĕnъ `white, greyish white (horses)' [adj o]
Russian: sereЁn (dial.) `crust of ice' [m o]; #Ru. seґren (dial.) `crust of ice' [m o]; #Ru. seґren (dial.) `crust of ice' [f i]
Ukrainian: sereґn `frozen hard snow' [m o]
Czech: str№iґn (dial.) `ice on branches' [m o]; #Cz. str№iґn№ (dial.) `ice on branches' [f i/jѓ]
Slovak: srien№ `hoarfrost' [m jo]
Polish: szron `hoarfrost' [m o] {1}
Slovene: sre•?n `hoarfrost, frozen crust of snow' [m o]; #Sln. sre•?nj `hoarfrost, frozen crust of snow' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґer(s)nos
Lithuanian: šerkšnas `hoarfrost' [m o]; #Lith. šerkšnas `grey, whitish' [adj o]
Latvian: sЊ§rsna `hoarfrost' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґer(H)-no-m
Other cognates: OIc. hjarn `frozen snow' [n]; Arm. sar†n `ice'
Notes: {1} Older spellings sґron, sґrzon.
Proto-Slavic form: *sestra°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sister'
Old Church Slavic: sestra `sister' [f ѓ]
Russian: sestraґ `sister' [f ѓ], sestruґ [Accs]
Czech: sestra `sister' [f ѓ]
Slovak: sestra `sister' [f ѓ]
Polish: siostra `sister' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: se°stra `sister' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sestra? (Vrgada) `sister' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sestra? (Orbanicґi) `sister' [f ѓ], sestro? [Accs]
Slovene: seґstra `sister' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: sestraґ `sister' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: sesuo~ `sister' [f r] 3b, seser~s [Gens]
Old Prussian: swestro `sister' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sues-r-
IE meaning: sister
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. svaґsar- `sister' [f]; Lat. soror `sister' [f]; Go. swistar [f]; OIr. siur `sister' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *sę°dzati; sę°gati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `reach for, attain'
Russian: posjagaґt' `encroach, infringe' [verb]
Czech: sahati `touch, reach for' [verb]
Old Czech:: sahati `touch, reach for' [verb], sahu [1sg], sĕžeš [2sg]
Polish: sięgacґ `reach for, reach' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: se?zati `reach, attain' [verb], se?žЊm [1sg]
Slovene: sęґzati `reach for' [verb], sęґzam [1sg]; #Sln. sęґgati `reach for' [verb], sęґgam [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *seng-
Lithuanian: se°gti `fasten, pin' [verb]
Other cognates: Skt. saґjati `adhere to' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sęgnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `reach for, attain'
Old Church Slavic: {1}
Russian: sjagnuґt' (Dal') `reach for, attain' [verb]
Czech: saґhnouti `touch, reach for' [verb]
Slovak: siahnut' `reach for' [verb]
Polish: sięgna§cґ `reach for, reach' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: seґgnuti `reach' [verb]; #SCr. se?gnuti se (Vuk) `reach for' [verb]
Slovene: sęґgniti `reach for' [verb], sę?gnem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *se(n)g
COMM: According to Kortlandt (1988: 389), the fact that Winter's law apparently did not operate in this verb is due to the cluster *-ngn-, which blocked the law.
Notes: {1} Only prefixed verbs, e.g. prisęgnǫti (Supr.) `touch'.
Proto-Slavic form: *sęgti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `reach for'
Old Church Slavic: prisęšti sę `touch' [verb], prisęgo sę§ [1sg]
Czech: dosiґci `reach' [verb]
Slovene: sęґči `reach for, try to grab' [verb], šęґžem
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *se(n)g
Lithuanian: se°gti `fasten, pin' [verb]
Other cognates: Skt. saґjati `adhere to' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sęknǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `run dry'
Old Church Slavic: isęknǫti `run dry' [verb], isęknǫ [1sg]
Russian: issjaґknut' `run dry' [verb]
Czech: saґknouti `ooze, trickle, wet' [verb]
Polish: sia§kna§cґ `run dry' [verb]
Bulgarian: seґkna `stop, fade away' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *se(n)k-
Lithuanian: se°kti `subside (water), diminish (strength)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *senk-
Other cognates: Skt. sasґcasi (RV) `dry out' [2sipa]; Gk. њsketo fwn» (Hom.) `his voice broke down' [formula]
Proto-Slavic form: *sętjь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `sensible, wise'
Church Slavic: sęštъ `sensible, wise' [adj jo]
Lithuanian: sinte†ґti (Z№em.) `think' [verb]
Other cognates: Lat. sent–re `feel' [verb]; OHG sinnan `desire' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕdĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sit'
Old Church Slavic: sĕdĕti `sit' [verb], sĕždǫ [1sg]
Russian: sideґt' `sit' [verb], sižuґ [1sg], sidiґt [3sg]
Czech: sedĕti `sit' [verb]
Slovak: sediet' `sit' [verb]
Polish: siedziecґ `sit' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sje°djeti `sit' [verb]; #SCr. sje°diti `sit' [verb], sje°d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sidi?ti (Vrgada) `sit' [verb], sidi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sede?t (Orbanicґi) `sit, be seated' [verb], sedi~n [1sg]
Slovene: se•de•ґti `sit' [verb], se•diґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: sedjaґ `sit' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *seЂdeЂtei
Lithuanian: se†de†ґti `sit' [verb], se†ґdi [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sed-eh1-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 884
Other cognates: Gk. њzomai `to sit down' [verb]; Lat. sedЊre `sit' [verb]; Go. sitan `sit' [verb]; OIc. sitia `sit' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕЇdloґ
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `seat'
Czech: siґdlo `seat, residence' [n o]; #Cz. Sedlo PN [n o]
Slovak: siґdlo `seat, residence' [n o]
Polish: Dљugosiodљo PN [n o]
Upper Sorbian: sydљo `residence' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: sedљo `residence' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sed-lo-m {1}
COMM: If this is a Proto-Slavic formation, we must assume that in those languages where *dl- > *l- the etymon merged with *selo°. In West Slavic as as well these two etyma seem to have infuenced one another, cf. Pl. Dљugosiodљo with *e in the root.
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ?no
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hay'
Old Church Slavic: sĕno `hay, grass' [n o]
Russian: seґno `hay' [n o]
Czech: seno `hay' [n o]
Slovak: seno `hay' [n o]
Polish: siano `hay' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: syno `hay' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?jeno `hay' [n o], si?jena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. se?no (Vrgada) `hay' [n o], se?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. se?no (Novi) `hay' [n o], se?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sie?no (Orbanicґi) `hay' [n o], sie?na [Gens]
Slovene: se•no•? `hay' [n o]
Bulgarian: senoґ `hay' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґoґino
Lithuanian: šie~nas `hay' [m o] 4
Latvian: si°ens `hay' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґoi-n-oґ-m??
Other cognates: Gk. koinŽ (Hesych.) `hay' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕkti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cut, mow'
Old Church Slavic: sĕšti (Euch., Supr.) `cut' [verb], sĕkǫ [1sg] {1}
Russian: seč' `cut to pieces, beat' [verb], sekuґ [1sg], sečeЁt [3sg]
Czech: siґci `mow' [verb], seku [1sg], seču [1sg]
Old Czech:: sieci `mow' [verb], sĕku [1sg]
Polish: siec `hew, beat' [verb], siekę [1sg]
Upper Sorbian: syc `hew, beat' [verb], syku [1sg]
Lower Sorbian: sec `hew, beat' [verb], seku [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sje?cґi `cut' [verb], sije°čЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. si?cґi (Vrgada) `cut' [verb], s–če?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se?cґ (Orbanicґi) `cut, chop, hew' [verb], sieče?n [1sg]
Slovene: se•ґči `cut' [verb], se•ґčem [1sg]
Bulgarian: sekaґ `chop, fell' [verb], sečeґš [1sg]
Notes: {1} The attested forms are sĕky Nsg.m. ptc. prs. act. (Euch.) and sĕčete 2pl. (Supr.)
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ°mę
GRAM: n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `seed'
Old Church Slavic: sĕmę `seed' [n n], sĕmene [Gens], sĕmeni [Gens]
Russian: seґmja `seed' [n n]
Czech: siґmĕ `seed' [n n]
Polish: siemię `seed' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: sje?me `seed' [n n], sje?mena [Gens], sjeme°na [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. si?me (Vrgada) `seed' [n n], si?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. si?me (Hvar) `seed' [n n], si?mena [Gens], simena? [Nomp]
Slovene: se•ґme `seed' [n n], se•ґmena [Gens]
Bulgarian: seґme `seed' [n n], semenaґ [Nomp]
Lithuanian: se†ґmenys `linseed, flaxseed' [m n] 1/3a
Old Prussian: semen `seed'
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh1-men-
Other cognates: Lat. sЊmen `seed' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ°nь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `shadow'
Old Church Slavic: sĕnь `shadow' [f i]
Russian: sen' (obs., poet.) `canopy' [f i]
Czech: siґn№ `(entrance) hall' [f i]
Old Czech:: sien№ `(entrance) hall' [f i]
Slovak: sien№ `(entrance) hall' [f i]
Polish: sienґ `(entrance) hall' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: sje?n `shadow' [m o]
Latvian: seja `face' [f ѓ]; #Latv. sei~ja (dial.) `face' [f ѓ]; #Latv. paseijѓ `behind one's back' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *skoHi-n(-i)-?? {1}
Other cognates: Skt. chѓyѓґ- (RV+) `shadow, reflection' [f ѓ]; Gk. skiŽ? `shadow' [f]; Alb. hie 'shadow'
Notes: {1} The *s- was adopted from forms with zero grade of the root, cf. *sijati.
Proto-Slavic form: *sґĕrъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `grey'
Church Slavic: sĕrъ (RuCS) `grey' [adj o]
Russian: seґryj `grey' [adj o]; #Ru. ser `grey' [adj o], seraґ [Nomsf], seґro [Nomsn]
Ukrainian: siґryj `grey' [adj o]
Czech: šeryґ `grey' [adj o]
Old Czech:: šĕryґ `grey' [adj o]
Slovak: šeryґ `grey' [adj o]
Polish: szary `grey' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: šĕry `grey' [adj o]
Slovene: sęґr `grey' [adj o], sęґra [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґh2e/oiro-
COMM: The initial fricative results from the palatalization of *x- before *ĕ < * oi/ai. According to Kortlandt (1994: 112), *kґh2 was depalatalized to *kH in Balto-Slavic, which sequence ultimately yielded k in Lithuanian and *x in Proto-Slavic. Heidermanns (1993: 269), seems to ignore the problem.
Other cognates: OIc. haґrr `grey-haired, old' [adj]; OE hѓr `grey, grey-haired' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sit down'
Old Church Slavic: sĕsti `sit down' [verb], sędǫ [1sg]
Russian: sest' `sit down' [verb], sjaґdu [1sg], sjaґdet [3sg]
Czech: siesti `sit down' [verb], sadu [1sg], sĕdĕš [2sg]
Polish: sia§sґcґ `sit down' [verb], sia§dę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sje?sti `sit down' [verb], sje?dЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se?sti (Vrgada) `sit down' [verb], se?deš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se?s `sit down' [verb], sie?den [1sg]
Slovene: se•ґsti `sit down' [verb], sę?dem [1sg]
Bulgarian: sjaґdam `sit down' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *seЂstei
Lithuanian: se†ґsti `sit down' [verb], se†ґda [3sg]
Old Prussian: sindants `sitting'
Indo-European reconstruction: *sed-eh1-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 884
Other cognates: Gk. њzomai `to sit down' [verb]; Lat. sedЊre `sit' [verb]; Go. sitan `sit' [verb]; OIc. sitia `sit' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ°ti II; sĕ°jati II
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sift'
Old Church Slavic: sĕti `sift' [verb], sĕjǫ [1sg]; #OCS sĕjati `sift' [verb], sĕjǫ [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: si?jati `sift' [verb], si?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se?jat (Orbanicґi) `sift, sieve' [verb], sie?jen [1sg]
Slovene: se•jaґti `sift' [verb], se•?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: seґja `sift' [verb]
Lithuanian: sijoґti `sift' [verb]
Latvian: sija^t `sift' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh1i-
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ°ti I; sĕ°jati I
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sow'
Old Church Slavic: sĕti `sow' [verb], sĕjǫ [1sg]; #OCS sĕjati `sow' [verb], sĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: seґjat' `sow' [verb], seґju [1sg]
Czech: siґti `sow' [verb]
Slovak: siat' `sow' [verb]
Polish: siacґ `sow' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: sycґ `sow' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: sesґ `sow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: si?jati `sow' [verb], si?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. si?jati (Vrgada) `sow' [verb], si?ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se?jat (Orbanicґi) `sow; #SCr. sift, sieve' [verb], sie?jen [1sg]
Slovene: se•jaґti `sow' [verb], se•?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: seґja `sow' [verb]
Lithuanian: se†ґti `sow' [verb]
Latvian: se~t `sow' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh1-
Other cognates: Lat. serere `sow' [verb]; Go. saian `sow' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕtь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a?
PSLMEAN: `snare, net'
Old Church Slavic: sĕtь `snare, trap' [f i]
Russian: set' `net' [f i], seґti [Gens] {1}
Czech: siґt' `net' [f i]
Slovak: siet' `net' [f i]
Polish: siecґ `net' [f i]
Lithuanian: sie~tas `tie' [m o] 2; #Lith. sai~tas `tie' [m o] 2/4 {1}
Old Prussian: saytan `strap, belt'
Indo-European reconstruction: *s(H)oi-t-i-
COMM: If one does not wish to posit PIE *seH- alongside *sei- (Insler 1971: 581 ff), Lith. sie~ti, Latv. si°et `tie' must reflect *sHei- (Schrijver 1991: 519).
Other cognates: Skt. seґtu- (RV+) `band, fetter, dam' [m]; OHG seid `cord' [n]
Notes: {1} AP (a) is also attested in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 132).
Proto-Slavic form: *sĕ°verъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `North'
Old Church Slavic: sĕverъ `North, north wind' [m o]
Russian: seґver `North' [m o]
Czech: sever `North' [m o]
Slovak: sever `North' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: sowjer `(high altitude) haze' [m o] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: sje?vЊr `North' [m o]
Slovene: se•ґver `north wind, North' [m jo], se•ґverja [Gens]; #Sln. se•ґver `north wind, North' [m o], se•ґvera [Gens]; #Sln. se•ґvЌr `north wind, North' [m o], se•ґvra [Gens]; #Sln.
Bulgarian: seґver `North' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґeґЂuёer-; sґiёoґЂur-
Lithuanian: šiaґure† `North' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґeh1uer-o-
Other cognates: Lat. caurus `northwestern wind' [m]
Notes: {1} Sewjer `North' is a 19th century borrowing from Czech: (Schaarschmidt 1997: 150).
Proto-Slavic form: *sija°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `shine'
Old Church Slavic: sijati `shine' [verb], sijajǫ [1sg]
Russian: sijaґt' `shine' [verb], sijaґju [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sja?ti `shine' [verb], sja?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sja?ti se (Vrgada) `shine' [verb], sja?jЊ se [3sg]
Slovene: sijaґti `shine' [verb], si?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: sijaґja `shine' [verb]
Other cognates: Go. skeinan `shine' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *si°la
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `strength, force'
Old Church Slavic: sila `strength, force, miracle' [f ѓ]
Russian: siґla `strength, force' [f ѓ]
Czech: siґla `strength, force' [f ѓ]
Slovak: sila `strength, force' [f ѓ]
Polish: siљa `strength, force' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: si?la `strength, force' [f ѓ]
Slovene: siґla `force, mass, need' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: siґla `strength, force, power' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *seґЂilaЂ
Lithuanian: siґela `soul' [f ѓ] 1
Old Prussian: seilin `diligence' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh1i-l-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *si°to
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sieve'
Russian: siґto `sieve' [n o]
Czech: siґto `sieve' [n o]
Slovak: sito `sieve' [n o]
Polish: sito `sieve' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?to `sieve' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. si?to (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `sieve' [n o]
Slovene: siґto• `sieve' [n o]
Bulgarian: siґto `sieve' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *seґЂito
Lithuanian: siґetas `sieve' [m o]
Latvian: sie^ts `sieve' [m o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh1i-to-
Notes: {1} Barytone neuter o-stems with an acute root became mobile in Latvian.
Proto-Slavic form: *siґtъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
Old Czech:: siґt `twining' [m o]
Slovene: si?t `rush' [m o]; #Sln. si?t `rush' [f i]; #Sln. siґta `rush' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *soi-t-o-m; sei-t-o-m
Lithuanian: sie~tas `tie' [m o] 2; #Lith. sai~tas `tie' [m o] 2/4sai~te `string, cord, tie, leash' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: saytan `strap, belt'
Indo-European reconstruction: *s(H)ei-t-o-m
COMM: See *sĕtь.
Other cognates: Skt. seґtu- (RV+) `band, fetter, dam' [m]; OHG seid `cord' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *si°vъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `grey'
Russian: siґvyj `grey' [adj o]
Czech: sivyґ `grey' [adj o]
Slovak: sivyґ `grey' [adj o]
Polish: siwy `grey' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?v `grey' [adj o]
Slovene: si°v `grey' [adj o], siґva [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: siv `grey' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґiґЂvos
Lithuanian: šyґvas `light grey' [adj o] 3
Old Prussian: sijwan `grey' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґih1-uёoґ-
Other cognates: Skt. sґyѓvaґ- `dark brown, dark' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *s–dlo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `noose, snare'
Old Church Slavic: silo (Supr.) `noose, snare' [n o]
Russian: siloґ (dial.) `noose, snare' [n o]; #Ru. siґlo (dial.) `noose, snare' [n o]
Old Russian:: silo `noose, snare' [n o]
Polish: sidљo `snare, trap' [n o]
Lithuanian: a~tsaile† `cross-bar between beam and axle' [f Њ]
Latvian: saiklis `string, band' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *s(H)ei-dhlom
COMM: See *sĕtь.
Other cognates: OHG seil `rope, snare, fetter' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *skora° (sko°ra)
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bast, skin'
Czech: skuІra (obs., dial.) `(tanned) skin' [Nompf ѓ]; #Cz. skura (obs., dial.) `(tanned) skin' [Nompf ѓ]; #Cz. skora (obs., dial.) `(tanned) skin' [Nompf ѓ]
Polish: skoґra `skin' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: sko†ґuёraў `skin, bast, leather' [f ѓ]
Slovene: skǫґrja `bark, crust' [f ѓ]; #Sln. sko•?rja `bark, crust' [f ѓ]
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 938
COMM: As in the case of -> *kora°, a number of forms behave as if they belong to the *vo°lja type, e.g. Sln. skǫґrja. According to Bulaxovskij (1953: 45), we must reckon with influence of the semantically similar ko°ža. The widely attested long o in the root may be somehow connected with the following r (cf. Zaliznjak 1985: 135-136).
Proto-Slavic form: *skorda
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `harrow'
Russian: skorodaґ (dial.) `harrow' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: skardyґti `dig up, crush' [verb]
Latvian: skѓ°rdi^t `pound, crush' [verb]
Old Prussian: scurdis `dibstone, mattock'
Indo-European reconstruction: *skordh-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *sla°bъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `weak'
Old Church Slavic: slabъ `weak' [adj o]
Russian: slaґbyj `weak' [adj o]
Czech: slabyґ `weak' [adj o]
Slovak: slabyґ `weak' [adj o]
Polish: sљaby `weak' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?b `weak' [adj o], sla?ba [Nomsf]; #SCr. sla?b `weak, bad' [adj o], sla°ba [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?b (Vrgada) `weak' [adj o], slaba? [Nomsf], sla?bo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?p (Orbanicґi) `weak, bad' [adj o], sla?ba [Nomsf], sla?bo [Nomsn]
Slovene: sla°b `weak, bad' [adj o], slaґba [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: slab `weak, bad' [adj o]
Lithuanian: sla~bnas (Z№em.) `weak' [adj o]; #Lith. slo~bnas (E. Lith.) `weak' [adj o] {1}
Latvian: sla~bs `weak' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *slob-o-
COMM: Though Latv. sla~bs matches the Slavic etymon perfectly, I am inclined to regard the Baltic forms as borrowings. Rasmussen (1992: 72) mentions sla~bnas as an example of his blocking rule, according to which Winter's law, did not operate for resonants. Since he also claims that Winter's law applied exclusively to the syllable immediately preceding the stress, his version of Winter's law cannot account for PSl. *sla°bъ.
Other cognates: MLG slap `weak, slack' [adj]
Notes: {1} According to Fraenkel (151), the vocalism of slo~bnas may be due to an East Lithuanian development (cf. Zinkevičius 1966: 103).
Proto-Slavic form: *sla°va
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `glory, fame'
Old Church Slavic: slava `glory, fame, magnificence' [f ѓ]
Russian: slaґva `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Czech: slaґva `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Slovak: slaґva `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Polish: sљawa `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?va `glory, fame' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?va (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `glory' [f ѓ]
Slovene: slaґva `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: slaґva `glory, fame' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґlЎu(Ђ)
Lithuanian: šlove†~ `honour, fame' [f Њ] 3/4; #Lith. šloґve† (Z№em.) `honour, fame' [f Њ] 1
Latvian: slava `rumour, reputation, fame' [f ѓ]; #Latv. slave `rumour, reputation, fame' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlЊuH-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
Other cognates: Skt. sґraґvas- `fame, honour' [n]; Gk. klљoj `fame' [n]; OIr. cluґ `fame' [??]
Proto-Slavic form: *slimakъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `snail'
Russian: slimaґk (dial.) `snail, slug' [m o]
Czech: slimaґk `snail' [m o]
Slovak: slimak `snail' [m o]
Polish: sґlimak `snail' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sleh1i-m-
Other cognates: Gk. le…ma?x `slug' [m]; Lat. l–mѓx `snail, slug' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *sli°na
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `saliva'
Old Church Slavic: sliny (Euch.) `saliva' [Nompf ѓ]
Russian: sliґna (dial.) `saliva' [f ѓ]; #Ru. slinaґ (dial.) `saliva' [f ѓ]
Czech: slina `saliva' [f ѓ]
Slovak: slina `saliva' [f ѓ]
Polish: sґlina `saliva' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sli?na `saliva' [f ѓ]
Slovene: sliґna `saliva' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sleЂinaЂ
Latvian: slie~nas `saliva' [Nompf ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sleh1i-n-eh2
Other cognates: OIc. sliґm `slime' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *sli°va
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `plum, plum-tree'
Russian: sliґva `plum, plum-tree' [f ѓ]
Czech: sliґva `plum, plum-tree' [f ѓ]
Polish: sґliwa `plum-tree' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: šlji?va `plum (tree)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sli?va (Vrgada, Hvar) `plum (tree)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sli?va (Orbanicґi) `yellow plum (tree)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: sliґva `plum' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: sliґva `plum, plum-tree' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sliH-u-eh2
Other cognates: Lat. l–vЊre `be livid, bluish' [verb]; OIr. liґ `colour' [??]
Proto-Slavic form: *slo?vo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `word'
Old Church Slavic: slovo `word' [n s]
Russian: sloґvo `word' [n o]
Czech: slovo `word' [n o]
Slovak: slovo `word' [n o]
Polish: sљowo `word' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: slo?vo `letter (of the alphabet)' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. slo?vo `letter (of the alphabet)' [n o], slo?vaІЇ [Nomp], slovaІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. slo?vo (Orbanicґi) `letter' [n o], slo?va [Nomp]
Slovene: slovo•? `good-bye, farewell' [n s], slovę?sa [Gens]; #Sln. sloґvo• `letter (of the alphabet), word' [n o], sloґva [Gens]
Bulgarian: sloґvo `word' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґlouёo
Lithuanian: šla~ve† (E. Lith.) `honour, respect, fame' [f Њ]
Latvian: slava `rumour, reputation, fame' [f ѓ]; #Latv. slave `rumour, reputation, fame' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґleu(H)-os- (kґleu-Hs-??)
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
Other cognates: Skt. sґraґvas- `fame, honour' [n]; Gk. klљoj `fame' [n]; OIr. cluґ `fame' [??]
Proto-Slavic form: *slǫ°ka
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `snipe, woodcock'
Russian: sluґka `woodcock' [f ѓ]
Czech: sluka `snipe, (s. lesniґ) woodcock' [f ѓ]
Slovak: sluka `snipe' [f ѓ]
Polish: sљomka `snipe' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: šlju?ka `snipe, (šumska š.) woodcock' [f ѓ]
Slovene: slǫґka `woodcock' [f ѓ]
Latvian: slu°oka `snipe' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: slanke `snipe'
Indo-European reconstruction: *slonk-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *slu?xъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hearing, rumour'
Old Church Slavic: sluxъ `hearing, rumour' [m o]
Russian: slux `hearing, rumour' [m o]
Czech: sluch `hearing' [m o]
Slovak: sluch `hearing' [m o]
Polish: sљuch `hearing' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: slu?h `hearing' [m o]; #SCr. slu?h `hearing' [m o]
Slovene: slu?h `hearing, rumour' [m o]
Bulgarian: slux `hearing, rumour' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlou(H)-s-o- (kґlou-Hs-??)
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
Other cognates: Skt. sґraґvas- `fame, honour' [n]; Gk. klљoj `fame' [n]; OIr. cluґ `fame' [??]
Proto-Slavic form: *slu°šati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `listen'
Old Church Slavic: slušati `listen' [verb], sluґšajǫ [1sg]
Russian: sluґšat' `listen' [verb]
Czech: slušeti `become, befit' [verb]
Slovak: slušat' `become, befit' [verb]
Polish: sљuszacґ `listen to, obey' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: slu?šati `listen' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. slu?šati `listen' [verb]
Slovene: sluґšati `listen, follow' [verb], sluґšam [1sg]
Bulgarian: sluґšam `listen, follow, obey' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *klou(Ђ)s•- {1}
Lithuanian: klaґusti `ask' [verb]; #Lith. klausyґti `listen' [verb], klau~so [3sg]
Old Prussian: klausiton `hear' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlouH-s- (kґlou-Hs-??)
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
COMM: Slavic *s- < *sґ- was adopted from forms with e-grade.
Other cognates: Skt. sґroґs•ati `listen, obey' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sluti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `be called'
Old Church Slavic: sluti `be called' [verb], slovǫ [1sg]
Czech: slouti `be called, have a reputation (for)' [verb], sluji [1sg], (obs.) slovu [1sg]
Old Czech:: sluґti `be called, have a reputation (for)' [verb], slovu [1sg]
Slovene: sluґti `be famous (for), sound' [verb], sloґvem [1sg], sluґjem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlou(H)-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
COMM: Slavic *s- < *sґ- was adopted from forms with e-grade.
Other cognates: Skt. sґrutaґ- `heard, famous' [ppp]
Proto-Slavic form: *slu°xati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `listen'
Ukrainian: sluґxaty `listen' [verb]
Polish: sљuchacґ `listen' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *klou(Ђ)s•-
Lithuanian: klaґusti `ask' [verb]; #Lith. klausyґti `listen' [verb], klau~so [3sg]
Old Prussian: klausiton `hear' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlouH-s- (kґlou-Hs-??)
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
COMM: Slavic *s- < *sґ- was adopted from forms with e-grade.
Other cognates: Skt. sґroґs•ati `listen, obey' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sly°šati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hear'
Old Church Slavic: slyšati `hear' [verb], slyšǫ [1sg], slyšiši [2sg]
Russian: slyґšat' `hear' [verb]
Czech: slyšeti `hear' [verb]
Polish: sљyszecґ `hear' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sli?šati `hear' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. sli?šati (Vrgada) `hear' [verb]
Slovene: sliґšati `hear' [verb], sli?šim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґluH-s- (kґlu-Hs-??)
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
Other cognates: Skt. sґroґs•ati `listen, obey' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *slyti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `have a reputation (for)'
Russian: slyt' `have a reputation (for)' [verb], slyvuґ [1sg], slovuґ (arch.) [1sg], slyveЁt [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґlu(H)-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 605
Proto-Slavic form: *smĕxъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b (c)
PSLMEAN: `laughter, laugh'
Old Church Slavic: smĕxъ (Euch., Supr.) `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Russian: smex `laughter, laugh' [m o], smeґxa [Gens]
Czech: smiґch `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Slovak: smiech `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Polish: sґmiech `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: smi?jeh `laughter, laugh' [m o], smi?jeha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. smi~h (Vrgada) `laughter, laugh' [m o], sm–ha? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. smie~h (Vrgada) `laughter, laugh' [m o], smieha? [Gens]
Slovene: sme•?h `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Bulgarian: smjax `laughter, laugh' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *smoiH-so-
Other cognates: Skt. smaґyate (RV) `smile [3sipm]
Proto-Slavic form: *smo?rdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stench'
Old Church Slavic: smradъ (Supr.) `stench' [m o]
Russian: smoґrod (dial.) `stench' [m o]
BeloRussian: smaroґd `stench' [m o]
Ukrainian: smoґrid `stench' [m o], smoґrodu [Gens]
Czech: smrad `stench' [m o]
Slovak: smrad `stench' [m o]
Polish: smroґd `stench' [m o], smrodu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: smra?d `stench' [m o], smra?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. smraІ?d (Vrgada) `stench' [m o], smraІ?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. smra?d (Novi) `stench' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. smra?d (Orbanicґi) `dirt, dust' [m o], smra?da [Gens]
Slovene: smra?d `stench' [m o/u], smra?da [Gens], smradu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: smrad `stench' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *smorЂdoґs
Lithuanian: smardas (Bretk.) `odour, stench' [m o]
Latvian: smar^ds `smell, odour' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *smord-o-s
Proto-Slavic form: *smьja°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `laugh'
Old Church Slavic: smijati sę `laugh' [verb], smĕjǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: smejaґt'sja `laugh' [verb], smejuґs' [1sg], smeeЁtsja [3sg]
Czech: smaґti se `laugh' [verb]
Old Czech:: smieti se `laugh' [verb]
Slovak: smiat' sa `laugh' [verb]
Polish: sґmiacґ się `laugh' [verb], sґmieję się
Serbo-Croatian: smi°jati se `laugh' [verb], smi°jЊm se [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sm–ja?ti se (Vrgada) `laugh' [verb], smije?š se [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sm–ja?t se (Hvar) `laugh' [verb], sm–je?n se [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. smeja~t se (Orbanicґi) `laugh' [verb], smeji~n se [1sg]
Slovene: sme•ґjati se `laugh' [verb], sme•ґjem se [1sg], sme•ґjam se; #Sln. sme•jaґti se `laugh' [verb], sme•ґjem se [1sg], sme•ґjam se, sme•jiґm se [1sg]
Bulgarian: smeґja se `laugh' [verb]
Latvian: smie^t `laugh at, mock' [verb]; #Latv. smie^tie^s `laugh' [verb]; #Latv. smai~di^t `mock' [verb] {1}; #Latv. smi^di^na^t `make smb. laugh' [verb] {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *sm(e)iH-
Other cognates: Skt. smaґyate (RV) `smile [3sipm]
Notes: {1} Alongside smai^dina^t (E. Latv.) {2} Alongside smi~di^na^t (W. Latv.)
Proto-Slavic form: *smьrdĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stink'
Old Church Slavic: smrьdĕti `stink' [verb], smrьždǫ [1sg], smrьždiši [2sg]
Russian: smerdeґt' `stink' [verb], smeržuґ [1sg], smerdiґt [3sg]
Czech: smrdĕti `stink' [verb]
Slovak: smrdiet' `stink' [verb]
Polish: sґmierdziecґ `stink' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: smrґdjeti `stink' [verb], smrґd–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. smrde?ti (Vrgada) `stink' [verb], smrdi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. smrЇde?t (Orbanicґi) `smell bad, stink' [verb], smrЇdi~š [2sg]
Slovene: smrde•ґti `stink' [verb], smrdiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: smaўrdjaґ `stink' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *smirЂdeЂtei
Lithuanian: smirde†ґti `stink' [verb], smi°rdi [3ps]
Latvian: smir^de^t `smell, stink' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *snĕgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `snow'
Old Church Slavic: snĕgъ `snow' [m o]
Russian: sneg `snow' [m o], sneґga [Gens]
BeloRussian: sneh `snow' [m o], sneґhu [Gens]
Ukrainian: snih `snow' [m o], sniґhu [Gens]; #Ukr. snih (dial.) `snow' [m o], snihaґ [Gens]
Czech: sniґh `snow' [m o], snĕhu [Gens]
Slovak: sneh `snow' [m o]
Polish: sґnieg `snow' [m o]
Slovincian: snje†ґg `snow' [m o], snji°egu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: sni?jeg `snow' [m o], sni?jega [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sni?g (Vrgada) `snow' [m o], sni?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sni?g (Novi) `snow' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. snie?h (Orbanicґi) `snow, snowfall' [m o], sne?ga [Gens]
Slovene: sne•?g `snow' [m o], sne•?ga [Gens], sne•ga? [Gens]
Bulgarian: snjag `snow' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *snoigos
Lithuanian: snie~gas `snow' [m o]
Latvian: sni°egs `snow' [m o]
Old Prussian: snaygis `snow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *snoigєh-o-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 974
Other cognates: Lat. nix `snow' [f]; Go. snaiws `snow' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *snuti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `warp'
Church Slavic: snuti (RuCS) `warp' [verb], snovǫ [1sg]
Russian: snovaґt' `warp, dash about' [verb], snujuґ [1sg], snueЁt [3sg]
Czech: snouti `warp, spin, (lit.) prepare, plan' [verb], snuji [1sg], snovu (rarely) [1sg]; #Cz. snovati `warp, spin, (lit.) prepare, plan' [verb], snuji [1sg], snovu (rarely) [1sg]
Slovak: snovat' `wind' [verb]
Polish: snucґ `warp, spin' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sno°vati `warp' [verb], snu?jЊm [1sg]
Slovene: snovaґti `warp' [verb], snuґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: snovaґ `warp' [verb]
Latvian: snaujis `noose' [m? i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *snou-
Other cognates: Go. sniwan `hurry' [verb]; Go. snuґa `wind, twist, warp' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *snъxa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `daughter-in-law'
Church Slavic: snъxa (SerbCS) `daughter-in-law' [f ѓ]
Russian: snoxaґ `(father's) daughter-in-law' [f ѓ], snoxuґ [Accs]
Old Russian:: snъxa `daughter-in-law' [f ѓ]
Czech: snacha `daughter-in-law' [f ѓ] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: sna°ha `daughter-in-law' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. snaha? (Novi) `daughter-in-law' [f ѓ], snahu? [Accs]; #SCr. Kajk. sn–eho? (Bednja), sni?eho [Accs], snehoі [Accs]
Slovene: snaґha `daughter-in-law, bride' [f ѓ]; #Sln. sneґha `daughter-in-law, bride' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: snaxaґ `daughter-in-law, sister-in-law' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *snus-oґ- {2}
COMM: The form *snus-oґ- was replaced by *snus-eh2- in many languages.
Other cognates: Skt. snus•ѓґ- (AV+) `daughter-in-law' [f]; Gk. nuТj `daughter-in-law' [f]; Lat. nurus `daughter-in-law' [f]; OE snoru `daughter-in-law' [f]
Notes: {1} A borrowing from Serbo-Croatian:. The original designations synovaґ and nevĕsta (cf. Slk. nevesta) still occur in dialects.
Proto-Slavic form: *soči°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `indicate, accuse'
Church Slavic: sočiti (SerbCS) `indicate' [verb]
Russian: sočiґt' (Dal') `look for, track down, summon' [verb], sočuґ [1sg]
Old Russian:: sočiti `look for, search for, conduct an action (leg.)' [verb]
Polish: soczycґ `slander, abuse' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: so°čiti `establish the guilt of, reveal, find' [verb]
Bulgarian: sočaґ `show, indicate' [verb]
Lithuanian: sakyґti `say' [verb]
Latvian: saci^t `say' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sokє-
Page in Pokorny: 897
Other cognates: Lat. inquit `say' [3sg]; OHG sagen `say' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *so?kъ II
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `juice'
Old Church Slavic: sokomъ (Supr.) `juice' [Inssm o]
Russian: sok `juice' [m o], soґka [Gens]
Ukrainian: sik `juice' [m o], soґku [Gens]
Czech: sok (dial.) `juice' [m o]
Polish: sok `juice' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: so?k `juice' [m o], so?ka [Gens]
Slovene: so•?k `juice' [m o], so•?ka [Gens], soka? [Gens]
Bulgarian: sok `juice' [m o]
Lithuanian: sakai~ `resin, tar' [Nompm o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *sokє-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *so?lpъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `rapid, waterfall'
Czech: slap `(usu. pl.) rapid, waterfall' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?p `waterfall, stream, wave' [m o], sla?pa [Gens]
Slovene: sla?p `waterfall, stream, wave' [m o/u], sla?pa [Gens], slapu? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *solpos
Lithuanian: sal~pas `river cove, creek, backwater' [m o] 2/4; #Lith. salpa° `flood-land, river cove, creek, backwater' [m o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *solp-o-s
Proto-Slavic form: *so?lь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `salt'
Old Church Slavic: solь `salt' [f i]
Russian: sol' `salt' [f i]
Czech: su•l `salt' [f i]
Slovak: sol' `salt' [f i]
Polish: soґl `salt' [f i], soli [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: soґl `salt' [f i], sele [Gens]; #USrb. sel (dial.) `salt' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: so? `salt' [f i], so?li [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. so? (Vrgada) `salt' [f i], so?li [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. so?l (Novi, Hvar) `salt' [f i], so?li [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. suo?l (Orbanicґi) `salt' [f i], so?li [Gens]
Slovene: so•?љ `salt' [f i], soli? [Gens]
Bulgarian: sol `salt' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sal-; sѓl- {1}
Latvian: sѓ°ls `salt' [f i]
Old Prussian: sal `salt'
Indo-European reconstruction: *sh2el- {1}
Other cognates: Gk. ¤lj `salt' [m]; Lat. sѓl `salt' [m/n]; OHG salz `salt' [n]; OIr. salann `salt' [n]
Notes: {1} According to Kortlandt (1985: 119), the root shape *sh2el- originates from the Asg. of a hysterodynamic paradigm. Latv. sѓls would reflect a Nsg. *sЊh2l-s.
Proto-Slavic form: *sokъ I
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `accuser'
Church Slavic: sokъ (RuCS) `accuser' [m o]
Old Russian:: sokъ `accuser' [m o]
Czech: sok `rival, opponent' [m o]
Old Czech:: sok `plaintiff' [m o]
Slovak: sok `rival, opponent' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: so?k `accuser, prosecutor, witness' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sokє-o-
Page in Pokorny: 897
Other cognates: Lat. inquit `say' [3sg]; OHG sagen `say' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *so°ldъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sweet'
Old Church Slavic: sladъkъ `sweet' [adj o]
Russian: soloґdkij (dial.) `sweet' [adj o]
Czech: sladkyґ `sweet' [adj o]
Slovak: sladkyґ `sweet' [adj o]
Polish: sљodki `sweet' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: sљoґdki `sweet' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: sla°tk– `sweet' [adj o]; #SCr. sla?dak `sweet' [adj o], sla?tka [Nomsf], sla?tka [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. slaki? (Vrgada) `sweet' [adj o]; #SCr. sla?k (Vrgada) `sweet' [adj o], slaka? [Nomsf], sla?ko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?tki (Orbanicґi) `sweet' [adj o], sla?tka [Nomsf]
Slovene: slaґdЌk `sweet' [adj o], slaґdka [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: slaґdaўk `sweet, tasty' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *solЂdus
Lithuanian: saldu°s `sweet' [adj u] 3
Latvian: sal^ds `sweet' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sh2el-d-u-
Other cognates: Go. salt `salt' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *so°lma
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `straw'
Church Slavic: slama `straw' [f ѓ]
Russian: soloґma `straw, thatch' [f ѓ]
Czech: slaґma `straw' [f ѓ]
Slovak: slama `straw' [f ѓ]
Polish: sљoma `straw' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: sљoma `straw' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?ma `straw' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?ma (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `straw' [f ѓ]
Slovene: slaґma `straw' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: slaґma `straw' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *soґlЂm-
Latvian: sal~ms `straw' [m o]
Old Prussian: salme `straw' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґolH-m-eh2
Other cognates: Gk. kalŽmh `stubble' [f]; Gk. kŽlamoj `reed' [m]; Lat. culmus `stubble, stem (of wheat)' [m]; OHG hal(a)m `stalk' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *solna°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `hoarfrost'
Old Church Slavic: slana (Ps. Sin.) `hoarfrost' [f ѓ]
Church Slavic: slana (RuCS) `hoarfrost' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: slaґna `hoarfrost' [f ѓ], sla?nu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. slaІЇna? (Vrgada) `dew' [f ѓ]
Slovene: slaґna `hoarfrost' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: slanaґ `hoarfrost' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґolЂnaґЂ
Lithuanian: šalna° `light frost' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: sal^na `light frost' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґolH-n-eh2
Other cognates: OIc. heґla `hoarfrost' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *solnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `salt(y)'
Old Church Slavic: slanъ (Euch., Supr.) `salt(y)' [adj o]
Russian: soґlonyj (dial.) `salt(y), salted' [adj o]
Ukrainian: soloґnyj `salt(y)' [adj o]
Czech: slanyґ `salt(y)' [adj o]
Slovak: slanyґ `salt(y)' [adj o]
Polish: sљony `salt(y)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?n– `salt(y)' [adj o]; #SCr. sla?n `salt(y)' [adj o], slaґna [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. slaІ~n– (Vrgada) `salt(y)' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. slaІ?n (Vrgada) `salt(y)' [adj o], slaІЇna? [Nomsf]
Slovene: sla?n `salt(y)' [adj o], slaґna [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sh2el-
COMM: According to Kortlandt (1985: 119), the root shape *sh2el- originates from the Asg. of a hysterodynamic paradigm. Latv. sѓls would reflect a Nsg. *sЊh2-s
Other cognates: Gk. ¤lj `salt' [m]; Lat. sѓl `salt' [m/n]; OHG salz `salt' [n]; OIr. salann `salt' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *soltina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `salt marsh'
Old Church Slavic: slatina `salt-marsh' [f ѓ]
Russian: solotiґna (dial.) `sticky liquid, stagnant marsh' [f ѓ]
Czech: slatina `marsh' [f ѓ]
Slovak: slatina `marsh' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?tina `mineral spring' [f ѓ]
Slovene: sla?tina `carbonic water' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sh2el-
Other cognates: Gk. ¤lj `salt' [m]; Lat. sѓl `salt' [m/n]; OHG salz `salt' [n]; OIr. salann `salt' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *solvъ
GRAM: adj. o
Church Slavic: slavoočije `state of having green eyes, glaucitas' [n io]
Russian: soloґvyj `light bay' [adj o]; #Ru. solovoґj `yellowish grey' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sal-uo- (solH-uo-??)
Other cognates: OIc. sǫlr `dirty yellow' [adj]; OHG salwo `dirty yellow' [adj], sal(a)wes [Gens]; MoE sallow `sickly yellow, pale brown' [adj]; MoDu. zaluw `yellowish' [adj]; OIr. salach `dirty' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *solvьjь; sol(o)vikъ
GRAM: m. io; m. o
PSLMEAN: `nightingale'
Church Slavic: slavii (RuCS) `nightingale' [m jo]
Russian: soloveґj `nightingale' [m jo], solov'jaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: solovii `nightingale' [m jo]
Czech: slaviґk `nightingale' [m o]
Polish: sљowik `nightingale' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: syљobik `nightingale' [m o]; #USrb. soљobik `nightingale' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sla°vіj `nightingale' [m jo], slavuґja [Gens]; #SCr. slavu~j `nightingale' [m jo], slavіja? [Gens]
Slovene: slaґvЌc `nightingale' [m jo], slaґvca [Gens]
Bulgarian: slaґvej `nightingale' [m jo]
Old Prussian: salowis (EV) `nightingale'
Indo-European reconstruction: *sal-u- (solH-uo-??)
Other cognates: OIc. sǫlr `dirty yellow' [adj]; OHG salwo `dirty yellow' [adj], sal(a)wes [Gens]; MoE sallow `sickly yellow, pale brown' [adj]; MoDu. zaluw `yellowish' [adj]; OIr. salach `dirty' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *so°mъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sheat-fish'
Russian: som `sheat-fish' [m o], somaґ [Gens]; #Ru. som (dial.) `sheat-fish' [m o], soґma [Gens]
Ukrainian: som `sheat-fish' [m o], soґma [Gens]
Polish: sum `sheat-fish' [m o]
Old Polish: som `sheat-fish' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: so?m `sheat-fish' [m o], so°ma [Gens]
Slovene: so°m `sheat-fish' [m o], soґma [Gens]
Bulgarian: som `sheat-fish' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґomum
Lithuanian: ša~mas `sheat-fish' [m o] 2/4
Latvian: sams `sheat-fish' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґom-o-??
COMM: The sometimes advocated connection with Gk. kamas»n m. `a fish' seems a shot in the dark.
Proto-Slavic form: *sova°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `owl'
Russian: sovaґ `owl' [f ѓ]
Czech: sova `owl' [f ѓ]; #Cz. suІva (dial.) `owl' [f ѓ]
Slovak: sova `owl' [f ѓ]
Polish: sova `owl' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: soґva `owl' [f ѓ]; #SCr. so?va (Vuk) `owl' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sova? (Orbanicґi) `owl' [f ѓ], sovo? [Accs]
Slovene: soґva `owl' [f ѓ]; #Sln. so?va `owl' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: soґva `owl' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґou-eh2??
Other cognates: Lat. (Gaul.) cavannus `owl'; W cuan `owl'
Proto-Slavic form: *sovati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `shove'
Old Church Slavic: sovaatъ (Supr.) `overflows' [3sg]
Russian: sovaґt' `shove, thrust' [verb], sujuґ [1sg], sueЁt [3sg]
Czech: souvati (obs.) `shove' [verb] {1}
Old Czech:: suvati `shove' [verb], suju [1sg]
Polish: suwacґ `shove, slide' [verb]
Slovene: suvaґti `thrust, knock' [verb], suґvem [1sg], suґjem [1sg]; #Sln. suґvati `thrust, knock' [verb], suґvam [1sg]; #Sln. sovaґti `thrust, knock' [verb], suґjem [1sg]
Lithuanian: šaґuti `shoot' [verb]
Latvian: šau~t `shoot' [verb]; #Latv. sau~t (E. Latv.) `shoot' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґeuH-
Notes: {1} Still common in prefixed verbs.
Proto-Slavic form: *soxa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `forked stick'
Russian: soxaґ `(wooden) plough' [f ѓ], soxuґ [Accs]; #Ru. soxaґ (dial.) `(wooden) plough' [f ѓ], soґxu [Accs]
Old Russian:: soxaґ `stake, club, brace, plough' [f ѓ]
Czech: socha `statue, sculpture' [f ѓ]
Slovak: socha `column' [f ѓ]
Polish: socha `two-pronged fork' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: so°ha `forked stick' [f ѓ], so?hu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. soha? (Vrgada) `forked stick' [f ѓ], so?hu [Accs]
Slovene: soґha `pole, pole with a cross-beam' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: soxaґ `forked stick' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґokЂaЂ
Lithuanian: šaka° `branch' [f ѓ]; #Lith. ša~ke† `fork, pitchfork, dungfork' [f Њ] 2; #Lith. ša~ke†s `fork, pitchfork, dungfork' [Nompf Њ] 2
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґok-h2-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. sґѓґkhѓ- (RV+) `branch, twig' [f]; Go. hoha `plough' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫ-
GRAM: pref.
PSLMEAN: `together'
Old Church Slavic: sǫ- `together' [pref]
Russian: su- `together' [pref]
Czech: sou- `together' [pref]
Slovak: suґ- `together' [pref]
Polish: sa§- `together' [pref]
Slovene: so- `together' [pref]
Bulgarian: saў- `together' [pref]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *som
Lithuanian: sam- (san-, sa§-) `together' [pref]
Old Prussian: sen `with' [prep]; #OPr. sen- (san-) `together' [pref]
Indo-European reconstruction: *som
COMM: Nominal prefix.
Other cognates: Skt. saґm (RV+) `together, at the same time' [prev/prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫčiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `dry up, dry out'
Church Slavic: sǫčiti `dry up, dry out' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sonk-
Other cognates: Skt. sasґcasi (RV) `dry out' [2sipa]; Gk. (Hom.) њsketo fwn» `his voice broke down' [formula]
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫdi°
GRAM: m. –
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `judge'
Old Church Slavic: sǫdi (Zogr., Mar., Cloz., Sav., Supr., Ps. Sin.) `judge' [m iѓ]; #OCS sǫdii (Zogr., Mar., Ass., Supr.) `judge' [m iѓ]
Russian: sud'jaґ `judge' [m iѓ]
Ukrainian: suddjaґ `judge' [m iѓ]
Polish: sędzia `judge' [m jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: su°dija `judge' [m iѓ]
Slovene: soґ§dij `judge' [m io]; #Sln. sǫґdja `judge' [m iѓ]
Bulgarian: saўdijaґ `judge' [m iѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *som-dhh1-ih1
COMM: Forms such as Ru. sud'ja° reflect *sǫdьja° < *sǫdь°ja. The prefix was already in pretonic position before the operation of Dybo's law and is therefore reflected as a short vowel.
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫditi
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `judge'
Old Church Slavic: sǫditi `judge' [verb], sǫždǫ [1sg]
Russian: sudiґt' `judge' [verb], sužuґ [1sg], suґdit [3sg]
Czech: souditi `judge' [verb]
Old Czech:: suґditi `judge' [verb]
Polish: sa§dzicґ `judge' [verb]; #Pl. sędzicґ (obs.) `judge' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: suґditi `judge' [verb], su?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sіdi?ti (Vrgada) `judge' [verb], su~diš [2sg]
Slovene: sǫґditi `judge' [verb], sǫґdim [1sg]
Bulgarian: saўґdja `judge' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *som-dhh1-ih1
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫdorga; sǫdorgъ; sǫdьrga
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `fine hail'
Slovene: sǫґdraga `fine hail, frozen grains of snow' [f ѓ]; #Sln. sǫґdrag `fine hail, frozen grains of snow' [m o]; #Sln. sǫґdrga `fine hail, frozen grains of snow' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: darga° `bad, rainy weather, (dial.) retting' [f ѓ] 4; #Lith. daґrgana `bad, rainy weather' [f ѓ] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *sm-dhorg-
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫґdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `court of law, trial, verdict, judgment'
Old Church Slavic: sǫdъ `court of law, trial, verdict, judgment' [m o]
Russian: sud `court of law, trial' [m o], sudaґ [Gens]
Czech: soud `court of law, trial, verdict, judgment' [m o]
Slovak: suґd `court of law, trial, verdict, judgment' [m o]
Polish: sa§d `court of law, trial, verdict, judgment' [m o], sa§du [Gens]
Slovincian: so†ґu§d `court of law, trial' [m o], so†ґu§du† [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: su?d `court of law, trial, judgment, opinion' [m o], suґda [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. su~d (Vrgada) `court of law, trial' [m o], sіda? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. su~t (Orbanicґi) `court of law' [m o]
Slovene: sǫґd `verdict, court of law' [m o]
Bulgarian: saўd `court of law' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *sǫ?kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bough, knot (in wood), splinter'
Old Church Slavic: sǫkъ (Sav.) `splinter' [m o]
Russian: suk `bough, knot (in wood)' [m o], sukaґ [Gens]; #Ru. suk (arch.) `bough, knot (in wood)' [m o], suґka [Gens]
BeloRussian: suk `bough, knot (in wood)' [m o], sukaґ [Gens]; #Bel. suk `bough, knot (in wood)' [m o], suґka [Gens]
Ukrainian: suk `knot (in wood)' [m o], sukaґ [Gens]
Czech: suk `knot (in wood)' [m o]
Slovak: suk `knot (in wood)' [m o]
Polish: sęk `knot (in wood)' [m o]
Slovincian: sa§~k `knot (in wood)' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: Kajk. so?uk (Bednja) `knot (in wood)' [m o], so?uka [Gens]
Slovene: sǫ?k `twig, knot (in wood)' [m o]
Lithuanian: atšanke†~ `barb, funnel-shaped part of a fishing-net, branch, bough' [m o] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґonk-u-s
Other cognates: Skt. sґan†kuґ- (AV+) `peg, wooden nail' [m]; OIc. haґr `thole pin' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *spĕ?xъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `haste'
Old Church Slavic: spĕxъ (Supr., Euch.) `diligence, aspiration' [m o]
Russian: spex (coll.) `haste' [m o]
Czech: spĕch `haste' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: spĕch `haste' [m o]
Slovene: spe•?h `haste' [m o], spe•?ha [Gens], spe•hu? [Gens]
Lithuanian: spe†~kas `power' [m o]
Latvian: spę°ks `power' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *speh1-
Page in Pokorny: 983
Other cognates: OE spЎd `haste' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *spĕšiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `hurry'
Old Church Slavic: spĕšiti `strive, hurry' [verb]
Russian: spešiґt' `hurry' [verb], spešuґ [1sg], spešiґt [3sg]
Czech: spiґšiti (obs.) `hurry' [verb]; #Cz. spĕšiti (obs.) `hurry' [verb]
Old Czech:: spĕšiti `hurry' [verb]
Polish: sґpieszycґ `hurry' [verb]
Slovene: spe•ґšiti `hurry, rush' [verb], spe•?šim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *speh1-
Page in Pokorny: 983
Other cognates: OE spЎwan `prosper, succeed' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *spĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `advance, ripen, hurry'
Old Church Slavic: spĕti `advance' [verb], spĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: spet' `ripen' [verb], speґju [1sg]
Czech: spĕti `hurry' [verb]
Slovak: spiet' `approach' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: do°spjeti `ripen, manage, succeed' [verb]
Slovene: spe•ґti `hurry, increase, ripen' [verb], spe•?jem [1sg], spe•?m [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *speґЂtei
Lithuanian: spe†ґti `be in time, guess' [verb]
Latvian: spe~t `be able' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *speh1-
Page in Pokorny: 983
Other cognates: Skt. sphiraґ- (RV) `fat' [adj]; OE spЎwan `prosper, succeed' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sta°do
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `herd, flock'
Old Church Slavic: stado `herd, flock' [n o]
Russian: staґdo `herd, flock' [n o]
Czech: staґdo `herd, flock' [n o]
Slovak: staґdo `herd, flock' [n o]
Polish: stado `herd, flock' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: sta?do `herd, flock' [n o]; #SCr. sta?do `herd, flock' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. sta?do (Vrgada) `herd, flock' [n o]
Bulgarian: staґdo `herd, flock' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steh2-dhom
Other cognates: OIc. stoґ‹ `stud-farm, herd' [n]; OE stoґd `stud-farm, herd' [f]; OHG stuot `stud-farm, herd' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *sta?nъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Old Church Slavic: stanъ (Ps. Sin., En.) `camp' [m o]
Russian: stan `figure, torso, camp' [m o]
Czech: stan `tent' [m o]
Slovak: stan `tent' [m o]
Polish: stan `state, condition' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sta?n `habitation, loom, (mil.) headquarters' [m o]
Slovene: sta?n `building, habitation, enclosure' [m o], sta?na [Gens], stanu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: stan `loom, camp' [m o]
Lithuanian: stoґnas `state, condition' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steh2-no-
Other cognates: Skt. sthѓґna- `abode, place' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *sta°rъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `old'
Old Church Slavic: starъ `old' [adj o]
Russian: staґryj `old' [adj o]; #Ru. star `old' [adj o], staraґ [Nomsf], staroґ [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: staryґ `old' [adj o]
Slovak: staryґ `old' [adj o]
Polish: stary `old' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: sta?r– `old' [adj o]; #SCr. sta?r `old' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. staІ~r– (Vrgada) `old' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. staІ~r (Vrgada) `old' [adj o], stara? [Nomsf], sta?ro [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. sto?r (Hvar) `old' [adj o], stѓra? [Nomsf], sta?ra [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. sta~r (Orbanicґi) `old' [adj o], sta?ra [Nomsf], sta?ro [Nomsn]
Slovene: sta°r `old' [adj o], staґra [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: star `old' [adj o]
Lithuanian: stoґras `thick, fat' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steh2-ro-
Other cognates: OIc. stoґrr `big' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Zaliznjak (1985: 133).
Proto-Slavic form: *sta°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `stand, become'
Old Church Slavic: stati `stand, become' [verb], stanǫ [1sg]
Russian: stat' `stand, begin, become' [verb], staґnu [1sg], staґnet [3sg]
Czech: staґti se `happen, become' [verb]
Slovak: stat' sa `happen, become' [verb]
Polish: stacґ się `happen, become' [verb], stanę się [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sta?ti `stand' [verb], sta?nem [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sta?t (Orbanicґi) `stand, stay, halt, stop (intr.)' [verb], sta?neš [2sg]
Slovene: staґti `stand, step, cost' [verb], sta?nem [1sg]
Bulgarian: staґna `stand up, become, happen' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *staЂtei
Lithuanian: stoґti `stand' [verb]
Latvian: sta^t `stand, stop, begin' [verb]
Old Prussian: postѓt `become' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steh2-
Other cognates: Skt. tiґs•t•athi `stand' [verb]; Gk. †sthmi `place' [verb]; Lat. stѓre `stand' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sta°viti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `place, put'
Old Church Slavic: staviti `place, put' [verb], stavljǫ [1sg]
Russian: staґvit' `place, put' [verb], staґvlju [1sg], staґvit [3sg]
Czech: staviti `stop, halt, (obs.) prevent' [verb]
Slovak: stavit' sa `bet' [verb]
Polish: stawicґ `place, put' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sta?viti `place, put' [verb], sta?v–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sta?vit (Orbanicґi) `put, put on (clothes), place' [verb], sta?viš [2sg]
Slovene: staґviti `place, put' [verb], sta?vim [1sg]
Lithuanian: stove†ґti `stand' [verb]
Latvian: stѓve~t `stand' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sth2-Њu-
COMM: The acute must originate from forms with *ste/oh2- (Kortlandt 1989: 111).
Other cognates: OE stoґwian `keep from' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *stena°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `groan, moan'
Old Church Slavic: stenati (Supr.) `groan, moan' [verb], stenjǫ [1sg]
Russian: stenaґt' (obs.) `groan, moan' [verb], stenaґju [1sg]
Czech: steґnati `groan, moan' [verb]
Slovak: stenat' `groan, moan' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ste°njati `groan, moan' [verb], ste?njЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. stenja?ti (Vrgada) `groan, moan' [verb], ste?nješ [2sg]
Slovene: stenjaґti `groan, moan' [verb], stenja?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: steґna `groan, moan' [verb]
Lithuanian: stene†ґti `groan, moan' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sten-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1021
Other cognates: Skt. staґnati `thunder, roar' [verb]; Gk. stљnw `sigh, moan, bewail' [verb]; OE stenan `groan' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *stergti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `guard'
Old Church Slavic: strĕšti `guard' [verb], strĕgǫ [1sg]
Russian: stereґč' `guard' [verb], stereguґ [1sg], sterežeЁt [3sg]
Czech: str№iґci `guard' [verb], str№ehu [1sg]
Old Czech:: str№ieci `guard' [verb], str№ĕhu [1sg]
Polish: strzec `guard' [verb], strzegę [1sg]
Slovene: stre•ґči `watch, guard' [verb], stre•ґžem [1sg]
Lithuanian: seґrge†ti `watch over, guard' [verb], seґrgi [3ps], seґrge†jo [3pt]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sterg-
Page in Pokorny: 1032
Other cognates: Gk. stљrgw `love, be content' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *stĕ°nь
GRAM: m. i / f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `shadow'
Old Church Slavic: stĕnь (Cloz., Supr.) `shadow' [m i]
Russian: sten' (dial.) `shadow' [f i]; #Ru. stin' (dial.) `shadow' [f i]
Old Russian:: stĕnь `shadow, vision' [f i]
Czech: stiґn `shadow' [m o]
Slovene: ste•ґn `wick' [m o]; #Sln. ste•ґnj `wick' [m jo]
Latvian: seja `face' [f ѓ]; #Latv. sei~ja (dial.) `face' [f ѓ]; #Latv. paseijѓ `behind one's back' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *skґoHi-n(-i)-
Other cognates: Skt. chѓyѓґ- (RV+) `shadow, reflection' [f ѓ]; Gk. skiŽ? `shadow' [f];; Alb. hie 'shadow'
Proto-Slavic form: *sti°gnǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `attain, reach, catch up with'
Old Church Slavic: postignǫti `attain, catch up with, grasp' [verb]
Russian: postiґgnut' `grasp, overtake' [verb]
Czech: stihnouti `catch up with, overtake' [verb]
Slovak: stihnuґt' `catch up with, overtake' [verb]
Polish: sґcigna§cґ `chase' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sti?gnuti `catch up with, reach, arrive' [verb], sti?gnЊm [1sg]
Slovene: stiґgniti `reach for, reach, arrive' [verb], sti?gnem [1sg]
Bulgarian: stiґgna `catch up with, reach, extend' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steigh-
Other cognates: Gk. ste…^Гq† `walk, march' [verb]; Go. steigan `climb' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *stigti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `attain, reach, catch up with'
Russian: postiґč' `grasp, overtake' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sti?cґi `catch up with, reach, arrive' [verb], sti?gnЊm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *steigtei
Lithuanian: stei~gti `organize, (Z№em.) want, hurry' [verb]
Latvian: ste°igt(ie^s) `hurry' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *steigh-
Other cognates: Gk. ste…^Гq† `walk, march' [verb]; Go. steigan `climb' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sto?ržь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `guard'
Old Church Slavic: stražь `guard' [m jo]
Russian: stoґrož `guard' [m jo]
Polish: stroґz† `guard' [m jo], stroґz†a [Gens]
Bulgarian: straž `watchman, guard' [m jo]
Lithuanian: saґrgas `watchman, guard' [m o]
Latvian: sar^gs `watchman, guard' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *storg-io-
Page in Pokorny: 1032
Proto-Slavic form: *stogъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `stack, rick'
Old Church Slavic: stogъ (SPbOkt.) `haystack, rick' [m o]
Russian: stog `haystack, rick' [m o], stoґga [Gens]; #Ru. stog (dial.) `haystack, rick' [m o], stogaґ [Gens]
BeloRussian: stoh `haystack, rick' [m o], stoґha [Gens]
Ukrainian: stih `haystack, rick' [m o], stoґhu [Gens]; #Ukr. stih (dial.) `haystack, rick' [m o], stohaґ [Gens]
Czech: stoh `stack, rick' [m o]
Slovak: stoh `stack, rick' [m o]
Polish: stoґg `stack, rick' [m o], stoga [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: sto?g (Vuk) `haystack, pile' [m o], sto°ga [Gens]; #SCr. sto?g (Piva, Pocerje) `haystack, pile' [m o], sto°ga [Gens]
Slovene: sto°g `stack, rick, barn' [m o], stoґga [Gens]
Lithuanian: sta~garas `(dry) stalk, switch' [m o] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *stogh-o-
Other cognates: Gk. stТ^ГћГ› `brick pillar' [m]; OE staca `stake' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *stojati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stand'
Old Church Slavic: stojati `stand' [verb], stojǫ [1sg]
Russian: stojaґt' `stand, begin, become' [verb], stojuґ [1sg], stoiґt [3sg]
Czech: staґti `stand' [verb], stojiґm [1sg]
Slovak: staґt' `stand' [verb], stojiґm [1sg]
Polish: stacґ `stand' [verb], stoję [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sta°jati `stand' [verb], sto°j–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. staІ~ti (Vrgada) `stand' [verb], stoji~š [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sta~t (Orbanicґi) `stand' [verb], stoji~n [1sg]
Slovene: staґti `stand' [verb], stojiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: stojaґ `stand' [verb]
Other cognates: Skt. tiґs•t•athi `stand' [verb]; Gk. †sthmi `place' [verb]; Lat. stѓre `stand' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sto°lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `table'
Old Church Slavic: stol `throne' [m o]
Russian: stol `table' [m o], stolaґ [Gens]
BeloRussian: stol `table' [m o], stalaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: stil `table' [m o], stoґlu [Gens]
Czech: stu•l `table' [m o]
Slovak: sto^l `table' [m o]
Polish: stoґљ `table' [m o], stoљu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: sto? `table' [m o], sto°la [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sto~ (Vrgada) `table' [m o], stola? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. stuo~l (Orbanicґi) `table' [m o], stola? [Gens]
Slovene: sto°љ `chair, table' [m o], stoґla [Gens]
Bulgarian: stol `chair' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *stolos
Lithuanian: sta~las `table' [m o]
Old Prussian: stalis (EV) `table'; #OPr. stallan `table' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sth2-lo-
Other cognates: Go. stЎls `throne' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *stonъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `moan, groan'
Russian: ston `moan, groan' [m o]
Czech: ston `moan, groan' [m o]
Slovak: ston `moan, groan' [m o]
Bulgarian: ston `moan, groan' [m o]
Lithuanian: stene†ґti `groan, moan' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sten-
Page in Pokorny: 1021
Other cognates: Gk. stТnoj `sighing, moaning' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *storna°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `side, land'
Old Church Slavic: strana `side, land, people' [f ѓ]
Russian: storonaґ `side, land' [f ѓ], stoґronu [Accs]
Czech: strana `side, page' [f ѓ]
Slovak: strana `side, page' [f ѓ]
Polish: strona `side, page, region' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: strona `side' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: straґna `side' [f ѓ], stra?nu [Accs]
Slovene: stra?n `side, area, land' [f i], strani? [Gens]; #Sln. straґna `side, area, land' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: stranaґ `side, land' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *storh3-n-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. strёn•ѓґti `strew, spread' [verb]; Gk. stТrnu?mi `strew, spread' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *strigti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cut'
Old Church Slavic: strišti (Euch., Supr.) `cut' [verb], strigǫ [1sg]
Russian: strič' `cut' [verb], striguґ [1sg], strižeЁt [3sg]
Old Czech:: str№iґci `cut' [verb], str№ihu [1sg]
Polish: strzyc `cut' [verb], strzygę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: stri?cґi `cut' [verb], stri?žЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. stri?cґi (Vrgada) `cut' [verb], str–že?š [2sg]
Slovene: striґči `cut, clip' [verb], striґžem [1sg]
Bulgarian: striґža `cut, clip' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *str(e)ig-
Other cognates: Lat. stringere `skim, scratch' [verb]; OE str–can `brush (past), rub, wander' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *strǫkъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `pod'
Russian: struk `pod' [m o], strukaґ [Gens]
BeloRussian: struk `pod' [m o], strukaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: struk `pod' [m o], strukaґ [Gens]
Czech: struk `pod' [m o]
Slovak: struk `pod' [m o]
Polish: stra§k `pod' [m o], stra§ka [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: stru?k `stem, stalk' [m o], stru?ka [Gens]
Slovene: stro°k `pod, shoot, corn cob, clove of garlic' [m o], stroґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: straўk `stem, stalk, twig' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stronk-o-
Other cognates: Lat. truncus `tree-trunk' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *stru?pъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `scab'
Old Church Slavic: strupъ `wound' [m o]
Russian: strup `scab' [m o], struґpa [Gens]
BeloRussian: strup `scab' [m o], struґpa [Gens]
Ukrainian: strup `scab' [m o], struґpa [Gens]
Czech: strup `scab' [m o]
Polish: strup `scab, crust' [m o]
Slovincian: stra†~p `scab' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: stru?p `scab' [m o], stru?pa [Gens]
Slovene: stru?p `poison [m o]
Lithuanian: raupai~ `smallpox' [Nompm o] 4
Latvian: raupa `goose bumps' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *srou(H)p-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *struja°
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `stream'
Old Church Slavic: struja (Supr.) `stream' [f jѓ]
Russian: strujaґ `stream, jet' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: struґja `stream, current' [f jѓ]
Slovene: struґja `arm of a river, canal, stream, current' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: struґja `stream, jet' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sroujaЂ
Lithuanian: srauja° `stream' [f jѓ]
Latvian: strauja `stream' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *srou-ieh2
Page in Pokorny: 1003
Other cognates: Gk. •Тoj `stream' [m]; OIc. straumr `stream' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *strъjь; stryjь; strycь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `uncle'
Church Slavic: strъi (SerbCS) `uncle' [m jo]
Russian: stroj `(arch.?) father's brother, (dial.) cripple, beggar' [m jo]
Old Russian:: strъi `uncle' [m jo]; #ORu. stryi `uncle' [m jo]
BeloRussian: stryj `uncle' [m jo], stryґja [Gens]
Ukrainian: stryj `uncle' [m jo], stryґja [Gens]
Czech: stryґc `uncle, cousin' [m jo]
Slovak: stryґc `uncle' [m jo]
Polish: stryj `uncle' [m jo], stryja [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: stri?c `uncle (father's brother)' [m jo], striґca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. stri~c (Vrgada) `uncle (father's brother)' [m jo], str–ca? [Gens]
Slovene: striґc `uncle (father's brother)' [m jo]
Lithuanian: stru°jus `uncle, old man' [m ju] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *stru-io-
Other cognates: OIr. sruith `old, venerable' [adj]; OW strutiu `old man' [m]
Notes: {1} The existence of a variant strіjus is uncertain.
Proto-Slavic form: *strьžьnь; strьženь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `core'
Church Slavic: strъžьnь `core' [m jo]; #CS strьžьnь (RuCS) `core' [m jo]
Russian: streґžen' `channel, main stream (of a river)' [m jo]; #Ru. steґržen' `pivot, core' [m jo]
BeloRussian: stryґžen' `core of an abscess' [m jo]
Ukrainian: stryґžen' `core of a tree' [m jo]
Czech: stržen№ `core of an abscess' [m jo]
Slovak: stržen№ `core of a tree, honeycomb' [m jo]
Slovene: stržę?n `core of a tree or an abcess, current, path through a valley [m o]
Old Prussian: strigeno `brain'
Indo-European reconstruction: *strig(h)-
Other cognates: Sw. streke `main stream (of a river)'
Proto-Slavic form: *strьžь; strьža
GRAM: m. jo; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `core, deepest spot of a river'
Russian: strež (dial.) `centre and deepest spot of a river, strong current' [m jo]; #Ru. strežaґ (dial.) `centre and deepest spot of a river, strong current' [m jo]
Old Czech:: strziess `charybdis' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: str?ž `core' [m jo]
Slovene: str?ž `core' [m jo]
Old Prussian: strigeno `brain'
Indo-European reconstruction: *strig(h)-
Other cognates: Sw. streke `main stream (of a river)'
Proto-Slavic form: *stude°nъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `cold'
Old Church Slavic: studenъ `cold' [adj o]
Russian: studeЁnyj `very cold, freezing' [adj o]
Czech: studenyґ `cold' [adj o]
Slovak: studenyґ `cold' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: stu°den (Vuk) `cold' [adj o], stude°na [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. stude~n (Vrgada) `cold' [adj o], studena? [Nomsf], studeno? [Nomsn]
Slovene: stude°n `cold' [adj o], studeґna [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: studeґn `cold' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stou-d-o-??
Other cognates: Gk. stЪx `Styx, well of fatal coldness, hatred, abhorrence, (pl.) piercing chill' [f], stugТj
Proto-Slavic form: *studi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cool'
Russian: studiґt' `cool' [verb], stužuґ [1sg], stuґdit [3sg] {1}
Czech: studiti `cool' [verb]
Slovak: studit' `cool' [verb]
Polish: studzicґ `cool' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: stuґditi (Vuk: W) `be cold' [verb], stuґd– [3sg]
Slovene: stuґditi `treat with aversion' [verb], stuґdim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stou-d-??
Other cognates: Gk. stugљw `hate, abhor, fear' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 140).
Proto-Slavic form: *studъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `cold, shame'
Old Church Slavic: studъ `shame' [m o]
Russian: stud' (NO dial.) `cold' [f i]; #Ru. stuґda (Arx.) `cold' [f ѓ]
Czech: stud `shame' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: stu?d `cold' [m o]
Slovene: stu?d `aversion' [m o]
Bulgarian: stud `cold' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stou-d-o-??
Other cognates: Gk. stЪx `Styx, well of fatal coldness, hatred, abhorrence, (pl.) piercing chill' [f], stugТj
Proto-Slavic form: *sty°dnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cool'
Russian: styґnut' `cool, get cool' [verb]; #Ru. styґgnut' (dial.) `cool, get cool' [verb]
BeloRussian: styґgnuc' `cool, get cool' [verb]
Czech: stydnouti `cool down' [verb]
Slovak: stydnuґt' `cool down' [verb]
Polish: stygna§cґ `cool down' [verb]
Old Polish: stydna§cґ `cool down' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stu-d-??
Other cognates: Gk. stugљw `hate, abhor, fear' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *stydъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `shame'
Russian: styd `shame' [m o], stydaґ [Gens]
Polish: wstyd `shame' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sti?d `shame' [m o], sti?da [Gens], stiґdu [Locs]; #SCr. C№ak. sti?d (Vrgada) `shame' [m o], sti?da [Gens]
Slovene: sti?d `shame' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stu-d-o-??
Other cognates: Gk. stЪx `Styx, well of fatal coldness, hatred, abhorrence, (pl.) piercing chill' [f], stugТj
Proto-Slavic form: *stьblo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `stem, stalk, trunk'
Church Slavic: stьblo (SerbCS) `stem, stalk' [n o]
Russian: stebloґ (dial.) `stem, stalk' [n o]
Old Russian:: stьblo `stem, stalk' [n o]
Czech: steґblo `stalk, straw' [n o]; #Cz. zblo (dial.) `stalk, straw' [n o]
Old Czech:: stblo `stalk, straw' [n o]
Slovak: steblo `stalk, straw' [n o]
Polish: zґdzґbљo `stalk, straw' [n o]
Old Polish: sґcґbљo `stalk, straw' [n o]; #OPl. sґciebљo (Ps. Flor.) `stalk, straw' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: staґblo `tree, tree trunk' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. stablo? (Vrgada) `tree, tree trunk' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. stablo? (Orbanicґi) `tree , tree trunk' [n o]
Slovene: steґblo• `stem, stalk, trunk' [n o]; #Sln. stЌblo•° `stem, stalk, trunk' [n o]
Bulgarian: staўbloґ `stem, stalk' [n o]
Lithuanian: stibyґna `shin, calf' [f ѓ] 3; #Lith. stiґebas `stem, stalk, mast' [m o] 3
Latvian: stiba `staff, rod' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stibh-l-om
Proto-Slavic form: *stьblь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `stem, stalk, trunk'
Church Slavic: stьblь (Serb-CS) `stem, stalk' [m jo] {1}
Russian: steґbel' `stem, stalk' [m jo], steґblja [Gens]
Old Russian:: stьblь `stem, stalk' [m jo]
Slovene: stЌbЌ°љ `stem, stalk, trunk' [m o]
Lithuanian: stibyґna `shin, calf' [f ѓ] 3; #Lith. stiґebas `stem, stalk, mast' [m o] 3
Latvian: stiba `staff, rod' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stibh-l-io-
Notes: {1} OCS stьblije n. (Ps. Sin.) `straw'.
Proto-Slavic form: *stьdza°
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `path'
Old Church Slavic: stьdza `path, street' [f ѓ]; #OCS stьza `path, street' [f ѓ]
Russian: stezjaґ (rhet.) `path, way' [f jѓ]; #Ru. stegaґ (dial.) `path' [f ѓ]
Czech: stezka `path' [f ѓ]; #Cz. stežka `path' [f jѓ]; #Cz. stez (poet.) `path' [f i]
Old Czech:: stzĕ `path' [f jѓ]
Polish: sґciez†ka `path' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: sґcґdza (Ps. Flor.) `path' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sta°za `path, trail' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sta?za (Vrgada) `path, trail' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. staza? (Novi) `path, trail' [f ѓ], staza? [Accs], sta?zu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. sta?za {1} (Orbanicґi) `path, trail, wooden board, used as a ruler when making barrels etc.' [f ѓ]
Slovene: stЌza° `foot-path' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *stiga
Latvian: stiga `path' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stigh-eh2
Other cognates: OHG steЁg `path, small bridge' [m]
Notes: {1} Rarely staza?.
Proto-Slavic form: *stьgna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `path'
Old Church Slavic: stьgna `street, (pl.) square' [f ѓ]
Russian: stoґgna (arch.) `street, square' [f ѓ]
Polish: sґciegna `pasture' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: sґciegna `crossroads' [f ѓ]
Slovene: stЌgne° `path along which cattle is driven' [Nompf ѓ], stЌgЌ°n [Genp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *stigh-n-eh2
Other cognates: OHG steЁg `path, small bridge' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *stьlati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `spread'
Old Church Slavic: stьlati (Supr.) `spread' [verb], steljǫ [1sg]
Russian: stlat' `spread' [verb], steljuґ [1sg], steґlet [3sg]
Czech: stlaґti `make one's bed' [verb]
Old Czech:: stlaґti `make one's bed' [verb], stelu [1sg]
Slovene: stlaґti `strew' [verb], stęґljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: steґlja `cover, spread' [verb]
Old Prussian: stall–t `stand' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *st(H)l-
Other cognates: Gk. stљllw `prepare, equip, array, send' [verb]; OHG stellen `array, establish, arrange' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *su?xъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dry'
Old Church Slavic: suxъ `dry' [adj o]
Russian: suxoґj `dry' [adj o]
Czech: suchyґ `dry' [adj o]
Slovak: suchyґ `dry' [adj o]
Polish: suchy `dry' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: su?h `dry' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. su?h (Vrgada, Hvar) `dry' [adj o], sіha? [Nomsf], su?ho [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. su?h (Orbanicґi) `dry' [adj o], sіha? [Nomsf], su~ha [Nomsf], su?ho [Nomsn]
Slovene: su?h `dry' [adj o], suґha [Gens]
Bulgarian: sux `dry' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sous•os
Lithuanian: sau~sas `dry' [adj o]
Latvian: sa°uss `dry' [adj o]
Old Prussian: sausѓ [sausan] `dry' [Accsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2sous-o-
COMM: Probably based on the perfect participle of the root *h2s (Lubotsky 1985).
Other cognates: Skt. sґuґs•ka- (RV+) `dry, barren' [adj]; Gk. (Hom.) aвoj `dry' [adj]; Lat. sіdus `dry, merry' [adj]; OE sЊar `dry' [adj]
Notes: Probably the perfect participle of the root *h2s (Schrijver 1991: 54).
Proto-Slavic form: *sujь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `vain'
Old Church Slavic: suĕa (Ps. Sin.) `vanities' [Accpn adj jo]
Russian: suґe `in vain, idly' [adv]
Old Russian:: sui `empty, vain' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґouH-io-
Other cognates: Skt. sґіyaґ- `empty' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *sunǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `shove, thrust'
Church Slavic: sunǫti `pour out' [verb]
Russian: suґnut' `shove, thrust' [verb], suґnu [1sg]
Old Russian:: sunuti `throw' [verb]
Czech: sunouti `shove' [verb]
Polish: suna§cґ `shove, slide' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: suґnuti `pour, strew' [verb], su?nЊm [1sg]
Slovene: suґniti `thrust, knock' [verb], su?nem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґouH-
Proto-Slavic form: *surovъ; syrovъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `raw, severe, cruel'
Old Church Slavic: surovъ (Supr.) `severe' [adj o]
Russian: suroґvyj `severe, stern, unbleached' [adj o] {1}; #Ru. suvoґryj (dial.) `severe, stern, peevish, angry' [adj o]
Old Russian:: surovъ `raw, uncooked, cruel' [adj o]
Czech: surovyґ `severe, cruel' [adj o]
Slovak: surovyґ `severe, cruel' [adj o]
Polish: surowy `severe' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?rov `raw, fresh' [adj o], si?rova [Nomsf], si?rovo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. si?rov (Vrgada) `raw, fresh' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. si?rof (Orbanicґi) `raw, fresh' [adj o], si?rova [Nomsf], si?rovo [Nomsn]
Slovene: surǫ?v `raw, fresh' [adj o]; #Sln. sirǫ?v `raw, fresh' [adj o], sirǫ?va [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: suroґv `raw, rough' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *souH-ro-
Other cognates: OIc. saurr `damp earth, filth' [m]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *suši°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `dry'
Old Church Slavic: sušiti (Euch., KF, Supr.) `dry, exhaust' [verb]
Russian: sušiґt' `dry' [verb], sušuґ [1sg], suґšit [3sg]
Czech: sušiti `dry' [verb]
Slovak: sušit' `dry' [verb]
Polish: suszycґ `dry' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: suґšiti `dry' [verb], su?š–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sіši?t (Orbanicґi) `dry' [verb], su~ši [3sg]
Slovene: sušiґti `dry' [verb], sušiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: sušaґ `dry' [verb]
Lithuanian: sau~sinti `dry' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2sous-eie-
Other cognates: Skt. sґus•yaґti `dry, wither' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *suti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pour, strew'
Czech: souti (obs.) `pour, strew' [verb]
Polish: sucґ (obs.) `pour, strew' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sa°sіti `pour, strew' [verb], sa°spЊm [1sg]
Slovene: suґti `pour, strew' [verb], spe°m [1sg], su?jem [1sg]
Lithuanian: su°pti `rock, cradle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *soup-
Other cognates: Lat. supѓre `throw' [verb]; Lat. dissipѓre `scatter' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *svekry
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `mother-in-law (husband's mother)'
Old Church Slavic: svekry (Mar., Zogr.) `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f і], svekrъve [Gens]
Russian: svekroґv' `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f i]; #Ru. svekryґ (dial.) `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f і]
Old Russian:: svekry `mother-in-law (husband's mother) [f і]
Old Czech:: svekrev `mother-in-law (husband's mother) [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: sve?krva `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. se?krva (Vrgada) `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. svekrva? (Novi) `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f ѓ], svekrvu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. sve?krva (Orbanicґi) `(a wife's) mother-in-law' [f ѓ], sve?krvo [Accs]
Slovene: svę?krva `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f ѓ]; #Sln. svę?krv `mother-in-law (husband's mother)' [f i]
Bulgarian: svekaўґrva `mother-in-law [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suekґr-uH
Other cognates: Skt. sґvasґrіґ- (RV+) `mother-in-law' [f]; Lat. socrus `mother-in-law' [f]; OHG swigar `mother-in-law' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *svekrъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `father-in-law (husband's father)'
Church Slavic: svekrъ `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Russian: sveЁkor `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Old Russian:: svekrъ `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Czech: svekr `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Slovak: svokor `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Polish: sґwiekr `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: sve?kar (Vuk) `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o], sve°kra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. s(v)e?kar (Vrgada) `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o], s(v)e?kra; #SCr. C№ak. sve?krf `(a wife's) father-in-law' [m o], svekra? [Gens]
Slovene: svęґkЌr `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o], svęґkra [Gens]
Bulgarian: sveґkaўr `father-in-law' [m o]
Lithuanian: še~šuras `father-in-law (husband's father)' [m o] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *suekґr-o-
Other cognates: Skt. sґvaґsґura- (RV+) `father-in-law' [m]; Gk. ˜kurТj `father-in-law' [m]; Lat. socer `father-in-law' [m]; OHG swehur `father-in-law' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *svepiti
GRAM: v.
Church Slavic: svepiti sę `move, stir' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suep-
Other cognates: OIc. soґfl `broom [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *svędnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wither'
Old Church Slavic: prisvęnǫti (Zogr., Mar.) `wither' [verb]
Old Czech:: svadnuґti `wither' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *su(e)ndh-
Page in Pokorny: 1047
Other cognates: OHG swintan `fade, pine away, wither' [verb]; OE swindan `subside, fade' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *svętъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `holy, sacred'
Old Church Slavic: svętъ `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Russian: svjatoґj `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Czech: svatyґ `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Slovak: svaЁtyґ `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Polish: sґwięty `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: sve?t `holy, sacred' [adj o], sveґta [Nomsf], sve?to [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. sve?t (Vrgada) `holy, sacred' [adj o], svЊta? [Nomsf], sve?to [Nomsn]
Slovene: svę?t `holy, sacred' [adj o], svęґta [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: svet `holy, sacred' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґuёentos
Lithuanian: šven~tas `holy, sacred' [adj o] 4
Latvian: svę°ts `holy, sacred' [adj o] {1}
Old Prussian: swints `holy, sacred' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґuen-to-
Other cognates: Av. spЌnta- `holy' [adj]
Notes: {1} A borrowing from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *svĕ?tъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `light, world'
Old Church Slavic: svĕtъ `light, world' [m o]
Russian: svĕtъ `light, world' [m o]
Czech: svĕt `world' [m o]
Slovak: svet `world' [m o]
Polish: sґwiat `world' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: svĕt `world' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: svi?jet `world, people' [m o], svi?jeta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. svi?t (Vrgada) `world, people' [m o], svi?ta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. svie?t (Orbanicґi) `world, people' [m o]
Slovene: svę?t `world' [m o], sve•ta? [Gens]
Bulgarian: svjat `world' [m o]
Lithuanian: švie~sti `shine' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґuoit-o-
Page in Pokorny: 628
Other cognates: Skt. sґvetaґ- `white, bright' (RV+) [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *svĕЇtja°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `candle'
Old Church Slavic: svĕšta `light, candle' [f jѓ]
Russian: svečaґ `candle' [f jѓ]
Czech: sviґce `candle' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: sviecĕ `candle' [f jѓ]
Polish: sґwieca `candle' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: svije°cґa `candle' [f jѓ], svije°cґu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. sv–cґa? (Vrgada) `candle, light (on a boat)' [f jѓ], sv–cґu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. sviecґa? (Orbanicґi) `candle, light (also electric)' [f jѓ], sviecґo? [Accs]
Slovene: sve•ґča `candle' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: svešt `candle, light' [f i]
Lithuanian: švie~sti `shine' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґuoit-ieh2-
Page in Pokorny: 628
Other cognates: Skt. sґvetaґ- `white, bright' (RV+) [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *svinъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `pig-'
Old Church Slavic: svinъ `pig-' [adj o]
Russian: svinoґj `pig-' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *suёiЂnos
Latvian: sv–ns `dirty' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suH-iHn-o-
Other cognates: Lat. su–nus `swine-' [adj]; Go. swein `pig, swine' [m]; OHG sw–n `pig, swine' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *svinьja°
GRAM: f. iѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pig, swine'
Old Church Slavic: svinija `pig, swine' [f iѓ]
Russian: svin'jaґ `pig, swine' [f iѓ]
Czech: svinĕ `pig, swine' [f jѓ]
Slovak: svin№a `pig, swine' [f jѓ]
Polish: sґwinia `pig, swine' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: sviґnja `pig, swine' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sv–nґa? (Vrgada) `pig, swine' [f jѓ], svi?nґu [Accs]
Slovene: sviґnja `pig, swine' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: svinjaґ `pig, swine, sow' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: swintian `pig, swine'
Indo-European reconstruction: *suH-iHn-iH(-eh2)
Other cognates: Lat. su–nus `swine-' [adj]; Go. swein `pig, swine' [m]; OHG sw–n `pig, swine' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *svo?rbъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `itch'
Russian: svoґrob `itch, (dial.) rash' [m o]
Czech: svrab `itch' [m o]
Slovak: svrab `itch' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: svra?b `itch' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. sraІ?b `itch' [m o], sraІ?ba [Gens]
Slovene: sra?b `scabies' [m o]; #Sln. svra?b `scabies' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suorbh
Proto-Slavic form: *svo°rka; so°rka
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `magpie'
Church Slavic: svraka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Russian: soroґka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Czech: straka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: straґka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Slovak: straka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Polish: sroka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: sa†~rka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: sroka `magpie' [f ѓ]; #USrb. sroґka (dial.) `magpie' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: svra?ka `magpie' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sra?ka (Orbanicґi) `magpie' [f ѓ]
Slovene: sraґka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: svraґka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґoґrЂkaЂ
Lithuanian: šaґrka `magpie' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: sarke `magpie'
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґorH-k-eh2??
Other cognates: Skt. sґѓґri- (YV+) `a kind of bird' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *svьrbĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `itch'
Russian: sverbeґt' (coll.) `itch, irritate' [verb], sverbljuґ [1sg], sverbiґt [3sg]
Ukrainian: sverbiґty `itch' [verb]
Czech: svrbĕti `itch' [verb]
Slovak: svrbiet' `itch' [verb]
Polish: sґwierzbiecґ `itch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: svrґbeti `itch' [verb], srґb–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. srbi?ti (Vrgada) `itch' [verb], srbi~ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. srЇbe?t (Orbanicґi) `itch' [verb], srЇbi~ [3sg]
Slovene: srbe•ґti `itch' [verb], srbiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: saўrbiґ `itch' [verb]
Lithuanian: skver~bti `pierce' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *surbh-
Proto-Slavic form: *svьtĕti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `shine'
Old Church Slavic: svьtĕti sę `shine' [verb], svьštǫ sę [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґuёiteЂtei
Lithuanian: švite†ґti `shine, shimmer' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґuit-o-
Page in Pokorny: 628
Other cognates: Skt. sґvetaґ- (RV+) `white, bright' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *sy?nъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `son'
Old Church Slavic: synъ `son' [m u/o]
Russian: synъ `son' [m o], synov'jaґ [Nomp]
Czech: syn `son' [m o]
Slovak: syn `son' [m o]
Polish: syn `son' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?n `son' [m o], si?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. si?n (Vrgada, Hvar, Orbanicґi) `son' [m o], si?na [Gens]
Slovene: si?n `son' [m o/u], si?na [Gens], sinu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: sin `son' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *suЂnuґs
Lithuanian: sіnu°s `son' [m u] 3 {1}
Old Prussian: sunun `son' [Accs m]; #OPr. souns `son' [m]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suH-n-uґ-
Other cognates: Skt. sіnuґ- [m]; Go. sunus [m]
Notes: {1} AP 1 is attested in Daukša's Postilla and the Catechism of1605.
Proto-Slavic form: *sy°pati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: `pour, strew'
Russian: syґpat' `pour, strew' [verb]
Czech: sypati `pour, strew' [verb]
Slovak: sypat' `pour, strew' [verb]
Polish: sypacґ `pour, strew' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: si?pati `pour' [verb], si?pѓm [1sg], si?pljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. si?pati (Vrgada) `pour' [verb], si?pl§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. si?pat (Orbanicґi) `pour, scatter' [verb], si?pan [1sg]
Slovene: siґpati `pour, strew' [verb], si?pam [1sg], si?pljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: siґpja `pour, strew' [verb]
Lithuanian: sіpuґoti `rock, cradle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *soup-
Proto-Slavic form: *sy°rъ I
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `cheese'
Old Church Slavic: syrъ (Supr.) `cheese' [m o]
Russian: syr `cheese' [m o]
Czech: syґr `cheese' [m o]
Slovak: syr `cheese' [m o]
Polish: ser `cheese' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?r `cheese' [m o], si?ra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. si~r (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `cheese' [m o], si?ra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. siґr (Novi) `cheese' [m o], si?ra [Gens]
Slovene: si°r `cheese' [m o], siґra [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *suґЂr(i)os
Lithuanian: sіґris `cheese' [m io] 1
Old Prussian: suris `cheese'
Indo-European reconstruction: *suH-ro-
Other cognates: OIc. suґrr `leaven' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *syrъ II
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `damp, raw'
Old Church Slavic: syrъ (Zogr., Mar.) `damp, fresh' [adj o]
Russian: syroґj `damp, raw' [adj o] {1}
Czech: syryґ `damp, raw' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?rov `raw, crude, damp' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. si?rov (Vrgada) `raw, crude, damp' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. si?rof (Orbanicґi) `raw, uncooked' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *suґЂros
Lithuanian: sіґras `salt, salty' [adj o] 3
Latvian: su~rs `salt, salty, bitter' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *suH-ro-
Other cognates: OIc. suґrr `sour' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 133).
Proto-Slavic form: *sy°tъ(jь)
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `satiated, full'
Old Church Slavic: syta (Supr.) `satiated' [Nomdm adj o]
Russian: syґtyj `satiated, full' [adj o]
Czech: sytyґ `satiated, full' [adj o]
Slovak: syґty `satiated, full' [adj o]
Polish: syty `satiated, full' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: si?t `satiated, full' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. si?t (Vrgada) `satiated, full' [adj o], sita? [Nomsf], si?to [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. si?t (Hvar, Orbanicґi) `satiated, full' [adj o], si?ta [Nomsf], si?to [Nomsn]
Slovene: si°t `satiated, full' [adj o], siґta [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: sit `satiated, full, filling' [adj o]
Lithuanian: soґtus `satiated, full' [adj u] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *seh2??-to- {1}
COMM: The origin of the *y is obscure.
Other cognates: Lat. satis `enough' [adv]; Go. sa±s `satisfied, full' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъdo°rvъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `healthy'
Old Church Slavic: sъdravъ `healthy' [adj o]
Russian: zdoroґvyj `healthy' [adj o]; #Ru. zdoroґv `healthy' [adj o], zdorovaґ [Nomsf], zdorovoґ [Nomsn] {1}
Old Russian:: zdorovъ `healthy' [adj o]; #ORu. storovъ (Novg.) `healthy' [adj o]
Czech: zdravyґ `healthy' [adj o]
Slovak: zdravyґ `healthy' [adj o]
Polish: zdrowy `healthy' [adj o]
Old Polish: strowy (Gn.) `healthy' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: strowy `healthy' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: strowy `healthy' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: zdra?v `healthy' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. zdraІ~v `healthy' [adj o], zdra?va [Nomsf], zdrava? [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. zdra~f `healthy' [adj o], zdra?va [Nomsf], zdra?vo [Nomsn]
Slovene: zdra°v `healthy' [adj o], zdraґva [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: zdrav `healthy' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1su-dhor-uo-
COMM: A reconstruction *h1su-dor(H)uo- - with the root of *dervo - would leave us with the problem why Winter's law did not affect the first member of the compound, cf. Lith. sіґdrus `thick, dense'. It seems to me that Meillet's etymology (1902-1905: 364), according to which *sъdravъ is cognate with Skt. dhruvaґ- `firm, solid' and Av. druua- `in good health' is preferable. To explain the prosodic characteristics of the noun one could posit a set• variant *dhorH- (cf. Le Feuvre 2006: 240-241), but this is not necessary, as *sъdo°rvъ may originate from *sъ°dorvъ as a result of Dybo's law, cf. Ru. ogoroґd `kitchen-garden'.
Other cognates: Skt. dhruvaґ- `fixed, firm' [adj]; Av. druua- `healthy' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 133).
Proto-Slavic form: *sъ?lnьce
GRAM: n. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `sun'
Old Church Slavic: slъnьce `sun' [n jo]
Russian: soґlnce `sun' [n jo]
Czech: slunce `sun' [n jo]
Slovak: slnce `sun' [n jo]
Polish: sљonґce `sun' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: su?nce `sun' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. su?nce `sun' [n jo], su?nca [Gens], suncaІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. su?nce, suґnce (Novi) `sun' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. su~nce (Orbanicґi) `sun' [n jo], su~nca [Gens] {1}
Slovene: so?љnce `sun' [n jo]
Bulgarian: slaўґnce `sun' [n jo]
Lithuanian: saґule† `sun' [f Њ] 1
Latvian: sau~le `sun' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: saule `sun'
Indo-European reconstruction: *sh2-ul-n-iko-m
Other cognates: Skt. sva°r- (suґvar-) (RV+) `sun, sunlight' [n]; Skt. sіґrya- (RV+) `sun, deity of the sun' [m]; Gk. (Hom.) єљlioj `sun' [m]; Lat. sЎl `sun' [m]; Go. sauil `sun' [n]
Notes: {1} The long root vowel in most of these forms results from the widespread lengthening of short vowels before resonants.
Proto-Slavic form: *sъla°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `send'
Old Church Slavic: sъlati `send' [verb], sъljǫ [1sg]
Russian: slat' `send' [verb], šlju [1sg], šleЁt [3sg] {1}
Czech: slaґti (obs., lit.) `send' [verb], šlu [1sg]; #Cz. poslaґti `send' [verb], pošlu [1sg]
Slovak: poslat' `send' [verb], pošlu [1sg]
Polish: sљacґ (lit.) `send' [verb], sґlę [1sg]; #Pl. posљacґ `send' [verb], posґlę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sla?ti `send' [verb], šljЊm [1sg], ša?ljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?ti (Vrgada) `send' [verb], ša?l§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sla?t (Orbanicґi) `send' [verb], ša?l§en [1sg]
Slovene: poslaґti `send' [verb], pǫґšljem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *slё-eh2-
Other cognates: Go. saljan `deliver, sacrifice' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *sъlojь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `layer'
Russian: sloj `layer, coating' [m jo], sloґja [Gens]
Ukrainian: slij `vein' [m jo], slojaґ [Gens]
Czech: sloj `layer' [f i]
Slovak: sloj `layer' [m jo]
Polish: sљoґj `wooden bench, vein, stratum' [m jo], sљoja [Gens], sљoju [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: slo?j `layer' [m jo], slo?ja [Gens]
Slovene: slo°j `layer, flotsam, dirty pool' [m jo], sloґja [Gens]
Bulgarian: sloj `layer' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *smё-loh1i-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *sъlъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `messenger'
Old Church Slavic: sъlъ `messenger, apostle' [m o]
Old Russian:: sъlъ `ambassador' [m o]
Slovene: sЌ°љ `messenger' [m o], sla° [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *slё-o-
Other cognates: Go. saljan `deliver, sacrifice' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъme°№ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `dare'
Old Church Slavic: sъmĕti `dare' [verb], sъmĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: smet' `dare' [verb], smeґju [1sg]
Czech: smĕti `be allowed' [verb]; #Cz. smiґti (obs.) `be allowed' [verb]
Old Czech:: smĕti `dare' [verb]
Slovak: smiet' `be allowed' [verb]
Polish: sґmiecґ `dare' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: smje?ti `dare, be allowed, be permitted' [verb], smi?jem [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. smi?ti (Vrgada) `dare, be allowed, be permitted' [verb], smi?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. sme?t (Orbanicґi) `dare' [verb], smie?n [1sg]
Slovene: sme•ґti `dare' [verb], sme•?jem [1sg], sme•?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: smeґja `dare' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sёm-meh1-
Other cognates: Go. mЎ±s `courage, wrath' [m]; OHG muot `mind, courage, wrath' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъmьrtь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `death'
Old Church Slavic: sъmrьtь `death' [f i]
Russian: smert' `death' [f i], smeґrti [Gens]
Czech: smrt `death' [f i]
Slovak: smrt' `death' [f i]
Polish: sґmiercґ `death' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: smr?t `death' [f i], smr?ti [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. smr?t (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `death' [f i], smr?ti [Gens]
Slovene: smr°t `death' [f i], smr?ti [Gens]
Bulgarian: smaўrt `death' [f i]
Lithuanian: mirti°s `death' [f i] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *mr-
Page in Pokorny: 735
Other cognates: Lat. mors `death' [f]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *sъ(n)
GRAM: prep./pref.
PSLMEAN: `from, with'
Old Church Slavic: sъ `with' [prep]; #OCS sъ `together' [pref]
Russian: s(o) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Czech: s(e) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Slovak: s(e) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Polish: z(e) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Serbo-Croatian: s(a) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Slovene: s(Ќ°) `from, with' [prep/pref]
Bulgarian: s(aўs) `with, from' [prep/pref]
Indo-European reconstruction: *smё
Other cognates: Skt. saґm (RV+) `together, at the same time' [prev/prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъ°nъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sleep, dream'
Old Church Slavic: sъnъ `sleep, dream' [m o]
Russian: son `sleep, dream' [m o], sna [Gens]
Czech: sen `sleep, dream' [m o]
Slovak: sen `sleep, dream' [m o]
Polish: sen `sleep, dream' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: soґn `sleep, dream' [m o], sona [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: sa?n `sleep, dream' [m o], sna? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. saІ~nґ (Vrgada) `sleep, dream' [m o], sna? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. saґn (Novi) `sleep, dream' [m o], sna? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sa~nj (Orbanicґi) `sleep' [m o], sna? [Gens]
Slovene: sЌ°n `sleep, dream' [m o], sna° [Gens]
Bulgarian: saўn `sleep, dream' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *su(o)pno-
Lithuanian: sa~pnas `dream' [m o] 2/4
Latvian: sapnis `dream' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sup-n-o-
IE meaning: sleep
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1048
Other cognates: Skt. svaґpna- `sleep, dream' [m o]; Gk. Ыpnoj `sleep' [m]; Lat. somnus `sleep, dream' [m]; OIc. svefn `sleep, dream' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъpati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sleep'
Old Church Slavic: sъpati `sleep' [verb], sъpljǫ [1sg]
Russian: spat' `sleep' [verb], spljuґ [1sg], spit [3sg]
Czech: spaґti `sleep' [verb], spiґm [1sg]
Slovak: spat' `sleep' [verb], spiґm [1sg]
Polish: spacґ `sleep' [verb], sґpię [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: spa?ti `sleep' [verb], spi?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. spa?ti (Vrgada) `sleep' [verb], spi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. spa?t (Orbanicґi) `sleep' [verb], spi~n [1sg]
Slovene: spaґti `sleep' [verb], spiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: spja `sleep' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sup-
IE meaning: sleep
Page in Pokorny: 1048
Other cognates: Skt. svaґpati- `sleep' [verb]; Skt. svaґpiti- `sleep' [verb]; Lat. sЎp–re `fall asleep' [verb]; OE swefan `sleep' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъporъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `conflict, dispute'
Church Slavic: sъporъ (RuCS) `conflict, dispute' [m o]
Russian: spor `dispute, argument' [m o]
Ukrainian: spir `dispute' [m o]
Czech: spor `dispute' [m o]
Slovak: spor `dispute' [m o]
Polish: spoґr `dispute' [m o]
Slovene: spo°r `dispute, conflict' [m o], spoґra [Gens]
Bulgarian: spor `dispute, discussion' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *smё-por-o-
Other cognates: Skt. prёґt- (RV) `battle, strife, fight' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъporъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `abundant'
Church Slavic: sporъ `abundant' [adj o]
Russian: spoґryj (coll.) `successful, profitable' [adj o]
Czech: sporyґ `substantial (food), stocky, (lit.) weak, sparse' [adj o]
Polish: spory `considerable' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: spo?r `sluggish, slow' [adj o]
Slovene: spo°r `abundant, nutritious' [adj o], spǫґra [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sm-porh3-o-
Page in Pokorny: 983
Proto-Slavic form: *sъpъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `embankment'
Russian: sop (dial.) `embankment' [m o]
Old Russian:: sъpъ `embankment, hill, mountain' [m o]
Slovene: se°p `elevated border of a vineyard' [m o/u], seґpa [Gens], sepu? [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sup-o-
Other cognates: Lat. supѓre `throw' [verb]; Lat. dissipѓre `scatter' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъrĕsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `encounter'
Old Church Slavic: sъrĕsti `encounter' [verb], sъręštǫ [1sg]
Russian: obrestiґ (rhet.) `find' [verb], obretuґ [1sg], obreteЁt [3sg], obrjaґšču (arch.) [1sg], obrjaґščet [3sg]
Old Polish: posґrzesґcґ `encounter' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sre?sti `encounter' [verb], sre?t(n)Њm [1sg]
Slovene: sre•ґsti `encounter' [verb], sretem [1sg]
Lithuanian: {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *smё-urЊt
Notes: {1} I have not been able to trace the source of Lith. sure†~sti `seize' [verb] mentioned by Pokorny.
Proto-Slavic form: *sъsa°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suck'
Old Church Slavic: sъsati `suck' [verb], sъsǫ [1sg]
Russian: sosaґt' `suck' [verb], sosuґ [1sg], soseЁt [3sg]; #Ru. ssat' `suck' (dial.) [verb]
Czech: saґti `suck' [verb], saji [1sg]
Old Czech:: ssaґti `suck' [verb], ssu [1sg]
Slovak: sat' `suck' [verb]
Polish: ssacґ `suck' [verb], ssę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: sa?ti `suck' [verb], se?m [1sg]
Slovene: sЌsaґti `suck' [verb], sЌsa?m [1sg]
Latvian: su°kt `suck' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sm-sukґ-
Other cognates: OIc. suґga `suck' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъto?
GRAM: num.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hundred'
Old Church Slavic: sъto `hundred' [num o]
Russian: sto `hundred' [num o]
Czech: sto `hundred' [num o]
Slovak: sto `hundred' [num o]
Polish: sto `hundred' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: sto? `hundred' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. sto? (Vrgada, Hvar) `hundred' [num o]
Slovene: sto•? `hundred' [num o]
Bulgarian: sto `hundred' [num o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґiґmto
Lithuanian: šim~tas `hundred' [num o] 2/4
Latvian: si°mts `hundred' [num o]; #Latv. si°mt `hundred' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dkґmtoґm
IE meaning: hundred
COMM: The vocalism of the Slavic proto-form must be secondary (cf. Trautmann 1923b for a discussion of the apophonic patterns *eN : *iN and *oN : *uN ).
Other cognates: Skt. sґataґ- (RV+) `hundred' [num]; Gk. ˜katТn `hundred' [num]; Lat. centum `hundred' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *sъxnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `dry, wither'
Old Church Slavic: sьxnĕaše (Supr.) `dried' [3sg impf]
Russian: soґxnut' `dry, wither' [verb]
Czech: schnouti `dry, become dry, pine away' [verb]
Slovak: schnuґti `dry, become dry' [verb]
Polish: schna§cґ `dry, become dry, wither, pine away' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: sa°hnuti `dry' [verb]
Slovene: sЌhniґti `wither' [verb], saґhnem [1sg]
Bulgarian: saўґxna `dry, wither' [verb]
Lithuanian: sau~sinti `dry' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2sus-
Other cognates: Skt. sґus•yaґti `dry, wither' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sь
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `this'
Old Church Slavic: sь `this' [prn], si [Nomsf], se [Nomsn]
Russian: sej `this' [prn], sijaґ [Nomsf], sijeґ [Nomsn]
Old Russian:: sь `this' [prn], si [Nomsf], se [Nomsn]
Slovene: sej `this' [prn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґis
Lithuanian: ši°s `this' [prn], ši° [Nomsf]
Latvian: šis `this' [prn], ši~ [Nomsf]
Old Prussian: schis `this' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґi-
Other cognates: Hitt. kѓs `this' [prn]; Go. hina `this' [Accsm], hina [Accsn]
Proto-Slavic form: *sьcati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `piss'
Church Slavic: sьcati (SerbCS) `piss' [verb], sьčǫ [1sg], sьčiši [2sg]
Russian: scat' (dial.) `piss' [verb], scu [1sg], scit [3sg]
Ukrainian: scjaґty `piss' [verb], scju [1sg]
Czech: scaґti `piss' [verb], štiґm [1sg]; #Cz. chcaґti (dial.) `piss' [verb]
Polish: szczacґ `piss' [verb], szczę [1sg]
Slovene: scaґti `piss' [verb], sčiґm [1sg], sčiґjem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *sikє-
Other cognates: Skt. sin~caґti `pour out' [verb]; OHG s–han `strain, drip' [verb]; OHG seichen `piss' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *sь?rdьce
GRAM: n. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `heart'
Old Church Slavic: srьdьce `heart' [n jo]
Russian: seґrdce `heart' [n jo]
Czech: srdce `heart' [n jo]
Slovak: srdce `heart' [n jo]
Polish: serce `heart' [n jo]
Old Polish: sierce `heart' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: sr?ce `heart' [n jo], sr?ca [Gens]; #SCr. C/ak. sr?ce (Vrgada) `heart' [n jo], sr?ca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. sr?ce `heart, heartwood, inner (middle) part (of a branch)' [n jo], sr?ca [Gens]
Slovene: srcę? `heart' [n jo]
Bulgarian: saўrceґ `heart' [n jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґird-
Lithuanian: širdi°s `heart' [f i] 3
Latvian: sir^ds `heart' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґrd-
IE meaning: heart
Page in Pokorny: 579
Other cognates: Skt. hrёґd- (RV+) `heart' [n]; Gk. kh~r `heart' [m]; Gk. kard…a `heart' [f]; Arm. sirt `heart'
Proto-Slavic form: *sьrna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `roe'
Church Slavic: srъna (RuCS) `roe' [f ѓ]
Russian: seґrna `chamois' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: sьrna `roe' [f ѓ]
Czech: srna `roe' [f ѓ]
Slovak: srna `roe' [f ѓ]
Polish: sarna `roe' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: srґna `roe' [f ѓ]
Slovene: srґna `roe' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: saўrnaґ `roe' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: sti°rna `roe' [f ѓ] {1}
Latvian: stir~na `roe' [f ѓ] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґrH2-neh2 {1}
COMM: Other possibile reconstructions are *kґrH-neh2, with the root of Lith. šeґrnas `wild boar', ši°rvas `dapple-grey', and *srH-neh2, cf. Lith. sar~tas `fox-red', Latv. sa~rts `reddish'.
Notes: {1} The anlaut of the Baltic forms is problematic. The existence of a Latvian variant sirna is uncertain.
Proto-Slavic form: *sьršenь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `hornet'
Church Slavic: s(t)rьšenь `hornet' [m jo]
Russian: šeґršen' `hornet' [m jo]
Old Russian:: sьršenь `hornet' [m jo]; #ORu. šьršenь `hornet' [m jo]
Czech: sršen№ `hornet' [m jo]
Slovak: sršen№ `hornet' [m jo]
Polish: szerszenґ `hornet' [m jo]
Old Polish: sierszenґ `hornet' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: sr?šljЊnj `hornet' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. sr?šen (Orbanicґi) `big wasp, hornet' [m o]
Slovene: srґšen `hornet' [m o], sršęґna [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *sґirЂs•en-
Lithuanian: širšuo (OLith.) `hornet' [m n]; #Lith. ši°rše† `hornet' [f Њ]
Latvian: sir^suonis `hornet' [m io]; #Latv. sir^snis `hornet' [m io]
Old Prussian: sirsilis `hornet' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґrHs-en-
Other cognates: Lat. crѓbrЎ `hornet' [m]; OHG hornuz `hornet' [m]

Главная
О праславянах и их языке: Хронология | Балто-славика | Прародина | Мифы | Особые черты | Фонетика | Морфонология | Лексика | Фразеология | Грамматика | Библиография | Ссылки
Родственное по славянским языкам: Славяноведение | Книги по славистике | Церковнославянский язык и азбука | Русские префиксы, суффиксы, корни и словари | Панславистика
Вспомогательное: Индоевропейский праязык | Y-ДНК популяция R1a | Железный век Евразии | Древняя Русь | Славянские топонимы Германии
Славянские страны: Россия | Белоруссия | Болгария | Босния | Македония | Польша | Сербия | Словакия | Словения | Украина | Хорватия | Черногория | Чехия

© «Proto-Slavic.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 25.01.2016