Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*O)


> > *O
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Всего на O (О) – 83 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *ob
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `about'
Page in Trubačev: XXVI 71-74
Old Church Slavic: o(b/bi) `about, at, during' [prep]
Russian: o(b/bo) `about, with, against' [prep]
Czech: o `about' [prep]; #Cz. ob `every other' [prep]
Slovak: o `about' [prep]
Polish: o `about, with' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: o(b) `about' [prep]
Slovene: o°(b) `about' [prep]
Bulgarian: o `about, at' [prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebhi
Other cognates: Skt. abhiґ (RV+) `to, against' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *oba
GRAM: num.
PSLMEAN: `both'
Page in Trubačev: XXVI 85-88
Old Church Slavic: oba `both' [num], obĕ [Nomsf], obĕ [Nomsn]
Russian: oґba `both' [num], oґbe [Nomsf], oґba [Nomsn]
Czech: oba `both' [num], obĕ [Nomsf], oba [Nomsn]
Polish: oba `both' [num], obie [Nomsf], oba [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: o?ba `both' [num], o?bje [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. o?ba (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `both' [num], o?be [Nomsf], o?ba [Nomsn]
Slovene: oba? `both' [num], obe•? [Nomsfn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oboЂ
Lithuanian: abu° `both' [num], abi° [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hobh-oh1, Hobh-oih1 {1}
COMM: Actually, the anlaut of the root defies reconstruction.
Other cognates: Skt. ubhaґ- `both' [adj]; Gk. Ґmfw `both' [adj]; Go. bai `both' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *obĕtjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `promise, pledge'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 31-33
Old Church Slavic: obĕštati `promise, pledge' [verb], obĕštajǫ [1sg]
Russian: obeščaґt' `promise' [verb], obeščaґju [1sg] {1}; #Ru. obečaґt' (N. dial.) `promise' [verb]; #Ru. obvečaґt' (N. dial.) `promise, bequeath' [verb]; #Ru. obvičaґt' (Arx.) `promise' [verb]
Old Russian:: obĕščati `promise, pledge' [verb]; #ORu. obĕčati `promise, pledge' [verb]
Czech: obĕcat, obĕcet (dial.) `promise, appoint' [verb]
Old Czech:: obĕcĕti `promise, pledge' [verb]
Slovak: obecat' `establish' [verb]
Polish: obiecacґ `promise' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: obe°cґati `promise' [verb], obe°cґѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. obecґa?ti (Vrgada) `promise' [verb], obecґaІ?š [2sg]
Slovene: obe•ґčati `promise, pledge' [verb], obe•?čam [1sg]
Bulgarian: obeštaґja `promise' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёoitiaЂtei
Old Prussian: waitiѓt `say' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *uoit-
Notes: {1} A church slavicism.
Proto-Slavic form: *obolkъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `cloud'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 85-87
Old Church Slavic: oblakъ `cloud' [m o]
Russian: oґblako `cloud' [m o], oґblaka [Gens]; #Ru. oґboloko (dial.) `cloud' [m o], obolokaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: obolokъ `cloud' [m o]; #ORu. oboloko `cloud' [n o]
Czech: oblak `cloud' [m o]
Slovak: oblak `cloud' [m o]
Polish: obљok `cloud, swath' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o?blѓk `cloud' [m o], o?blѓka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. o?blѓІk (Vrgada) `cloud' [m o], o?blѓІka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. o?blak (Orbanicґi) `cloud' [m o], o?blaka [Gens]
Slovene: obla?k `cloud' [m o]
Bulgarian: oґblak `cloud' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-h2uolk-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *obora I
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `string, twine'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 92-93
Church Slavic: obora `string' [f ѓ]
Russian: oboґra (dial.) `string for tying up bast shoes' [f ѓ]; #Ru. oboґr, oґbor (dial.) `string, kind of fishing-net' [m o]
Old Russian:: obora `strap, string for tying up bast shoes' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: oboґra `string, twine' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: oboґra `string, twine' [f ѓ]
Polish: obora (dial.) `string for tying up bast shoes' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: apvara° `cord, string' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-uorH-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *obora II; oborъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `enclosure'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 93-96
Russian: oboґra `cattle yard, pasture, field, plot' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: obora `area for cattle, pasture for cattle' [f ѓ]
Czech: obora `game preserve' [f ѓ]; #Cz. obora (Kott, Jungmann) `game preserve, paradise, fence' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: obora `fence, enclosed strip of land, enclosed wooded area, preserve' [f ѓ]
Slovak: obora `preserve' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wobora `pasture for cattle' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: o°bor (Vuk) `enclosure for pigs, courtyard' [m o]
Slovene: obo•?ra `zoo, enclosed strip of land' [f ѓ]; #Sln. obo°r `fence, region' [m o], oboґra [Gens]
Bulgarian: oboґr `fence, building for horned cattle' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-uorH-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *obrĕsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `find'
Page in Trubačev: XXIX 74-76
Old Church Slavic: obrĕsti `find' [verb], obręštǫ [1sg]
Russian: obrestiґ (rhet.) `find' [verb], obretuґ [1sg], obreteЁt [3sg], obrjaґšču (arch.) [1sg], obrjaґščet [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: obresti (13th-16th c.) `find' [verb]; #SCr. obre°sti se (dial.) `meet' [verb]; #SCr. obre?s(t) (dial.) `be found, turn out to be' [verb] {1}
Slovene: obre•ґsti `find' [verb], obre•ґtem [1sg]
Lithuanian: {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-urЊt
Notes: {1} According to Skok (III: 319), obresti was borrowed from Russian: into the eastern variant of the literary language. The position of the dialect forms is unclear. {2} The Lithuanian verb sure†~sti `seize' (BB 26: 168), which Pokorny refers to, is obscure.
Proto-Slavic form: *obuti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `puton footwear'
Page in Trubačev: XXX 246-247
Old Church Slavic: obuti (Mar., Zogr., Supr.) `put on footwear' [verb]
Russian: obuґt' `put on someone's boots or shoes for him, provide with boots or shoes' [verb]
Czech: obouti `put on footwear' [verb]
Slovak: obut' `put on footwear' [verb]
Polish: obucґ `put on footwear' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: o°buti `put on footwear' [verb], o?bujЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. obu?ti (Vrgada) `put on footwear' [verb], o?buješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ubu?t (Orbanicґi) `put on (shoes)' [verb], ubu?jen [1sg]
Slovene: obuґti `put on footwear' [verb], obu?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: obuґja `put on footwear' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(-)outei
Lithuanian: au~ti `put on footwear' [verb]
Latvian: a°ut `put on footwear' [verb]
COMM: Prefixed verb composed of -> *jьz- and *uti- < *h3eu- (-> * jьzuti).
Other cognates: Hitt. unu- `adorn, decorate, lay (the table)' [verb]; Lat. induere `put on footwear' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *obьlъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `round'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 124-126
Church Slavic: obьlъ `round' [adj o]
Russian: oґblyj `rounded' [adj o]
Czech: oblyґ `round, rounded, oval' [adj o]
Slovak: oblyґ `oval, round(ish)' [adj o]
Polish: obљy `oval' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: o?bao `round, oval' [adj o], o?bla [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. o?bal (Vrgada) `round, oval' [adj o], obla? [Nomsf], o?blo [Nomsn]
Slovene: ǫґbЌљ `round, oval' [adj o]
Bulgarian: oґbaўl `round' [adj o]
Lithuanian: apvalu°s `round' [adj u]
Latvian: apal§š `round' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-ulH-o-
Other cognates: OIc. valr `round' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *obьtjь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `common'
Page in Trubačev: XXXI 166-167
Old Church Slavic: obьštь `common' [adj jo]
Old Russian:: obьčii `common' [adj jo]
Polish: obcy `foreign' [adj jo]
Serbo-Croatian: o?pcґ– `common' [adj jo]
Slovene: oґbči `common' [adj jo]
Bulgarian: obšt `common' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebhi-tio-
Proto-Slavic form: *odolĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `overcome, defeat'
Page in Trubačev: XXVI 161-162
Old Church Slavic: odolĕti `defeat' [verb], odolĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: odoleґt' `overcome, conquer' [verb]
Czech: odoleti (Kott) `resist, withstand' [verb]
Slovak: odoliet' (dial.) `resist, defend oneself' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: odo°ljeti `overcome, withstand' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. odoli?ti (Vrgada) `overcome, withstand' [verb]
Slovene: odole•ґti `overcome, defeat' [verb]
Lithuanian: dalyґti `share' [verb]
Latvian: dali^t `share' [verb]
Old Prussian: dellieis `share!'
Indo-European reconstruction: *dol(H)
Proto-Slavic form: *o°drъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bed'
Page in Trubačev: XXVII 165-169
Old Church Slavic: odrъ `bed' [m o]
Russian: odr (arch.) `bed, couch' [m o], odraґ [Gens]; #Ru. odeЁr (dial.) `bed' [m o]
Czech: odr `pillar, frame, summer-house' [m o]
Slovak: vo^dor `hay-loft' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°dar `bed, scaffolding' [m o], o°dra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. odaІ~r `dugački stol od trstika, na kojemu se suše smokve' [m o], odra? [Gens]
Slovene: oґdЌr `flooring, hay-loft' [m o]
Bulgarian: oґdaўr `couch, bed' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1odh-??
Other cognates: OE eodor `fence, house' [m]; OHG etar `fence, edge' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *o?ko
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `eye'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 13, 41-42
Old Church Slavic: oko `eye' [n s/o], očese [Gens], oka [Gens], oči [Nomd]
Russian: oґko (arch., poet.) `eye' [n o], oґči [Nomp]
Czech: oko `eye' [n o], oči [Nomp]
Slovak: oko `eye' [n o], oči [Nomp]
Polish: oko `eye' [n o], oczy [Nomp]
Serbo-Croatian: o?ko `eye' [n o], o?či [Nompf]; #SCr. C№ak. o?ko (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `eye' [n o], o?či [Nompf]
Slovene: oko•? `eye' [n o], očę?sa [Gens], očę?sa [Nomp], oči? [Nomp]
Bulgarian: okoґ `eye' [n o], očiґ [Nomp]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ok-
Lithuanian: aki°s `eye' [f i] 4
Latvian: acs `eye' [f i]
Old Prussian: ackis `eyes' [Nompf i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ekє-o-
Other cognates: aґks•i- (RV+) `eye' [n]; Gk. Фsse `eyes' [NomAccdn]; Lat. oculus `eye' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *o?lkъtь; o?lkъtъ
GRAM: m. jo; m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `elbow, ell'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 65-67
Old Church Slavic: lakъtь `elbow, ell' [m i], lakъte [Gens] {2}
Russian: loґkot' `elbow, ell' [m jo], loґktja [Gens]
Czech: loket `elbow, ell' [m (j)o]
Slovak: lakot' `elbow, ell' [m (j)o]
Polish: љokiecґ `elbow, ell' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: љochcґ `elbow' [m jo]; #USrb. љoґchcґ (dial.) `elbow' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: la?kat `elbow, ell' [m o], laЇkta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. la?kat (Vrgada) `elbow, ell' [m o], la?hta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. la?kat (Novi) `elbow, ell' [m o], la?hta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. la?kat (Orbanicґi) `elbow, armlength, yard (measure)' [m o], la?hta [Gens]
Slovene: laka?t `elbow, ell' [m o/u], lakta° [Gens], laktu? [Gens], lahta° [Gens], lahtu? [Gens]; #Sln. laka?t `elbow, ell' [f i], lakti? [Gens], lahti? [Gens]; #Sln. laha?t `elbow, ell' [m o/u], lahtu? [Gens]; #Sln. lakЌ°t `elbow, ell' [m o], lakta° [Gens]; #Sln. laґkЌt `elbow, ell' [m o]; #Sln. lЌka?t `elbow, ell' [f i], lЌhti? [Gens]; #Sln. lЌka?t `elbow, ell' [m o/u], lЌhtu? [Gens]; #Sln. le°hЌt `elbow' [m o], lЌ°hta [Gens]
Bulgarian: laґkaўt `elbow, ell' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *Hol-k-
Lithuanian: alkіґne† `elbow' [f Њ] 1; #Lith. elkіґne† (arch., dial.) `elbow' [f Њ] 1 {3}
Latvian: ę°lks `elbow, bend' [m o]; #Latv. ę°lkuons `elbow, bend' [m o] {4}
Old Prussian: alkunis (EV) `elbow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *HHolkuti- {1}
IE meaning: elbow
COMM: The e- of the East Baltic forms may be another instance of "Rozwadowski's change". The somewhat awkward reconstruction *HHol- (*HH3el-) is required by the acute intonation of Lith. uґolektis, Latv. uo^lekts `ell' < *HoHl- (*HeH3l-), cf. OPr. woaltis `forearm', woaltis `ell', зlљnh `elbow, forearm'. If one subscribes to the view that a lengthened grade vowel yields an acute in Balto-Slavic, *(H)Ўl- is the obvious reconstruction.
Other cognates: Gk. olљkra?noj `point of the elbow' [m]; Lat. ulna `elbow' [f]; OIr. uilen `elbow' [f]; OHG elina `ell' [f]; Arm. oљn `spine, shoulder'
Notes: {1} *HH3elkuti seems also possible. {2} In some case forms OCS lakъtь is inflected as a consonant stem. In the modern languages *o?lkъtь has adopted the pattern of the jo- or o-stems. {3} The LKZ№ has elkі~ne† instead of elkіґne† , even though one of the sources mentioned - F. Kurschat's dictionary - actually has an acute. {4} Also ę°lkuonis , ę°lkuone , ę°lkіne2.
Proto-Slavic form: *o?lovo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `lead'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 76-77
Old Church Slavic: oґlovo (Supr.) `lead' [n o]
Russian: oґlovo `tin' [n o]
Old Russian:: olovь `tin' [f i]
Czech: olovo `lead' [n o]
Slovak: olovo `lead' [n o]
Polish: oљoґw `lead' [m jo]; #Pl. oљoґw (obs.) `lead' [m o]; #Pl. oљowo (dial.) `lead' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: o?lovo lead' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. o?lovo (Vrgada) lead' [n o]
Slovene: olǫґv `lead' [m o]
Bulgarian: eґlavo (dial.) `lead' [n o] {1}
Lithuanian: aґlvas (DK, Bretk.) `tin' [m o] {2}
Latvian: al^va `tin' [f ѓ]; #Latv. al^vas `tin' [m o]
Old Prussian: alwis (EV) `lead'
IE meaning: tin, lead
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: -
COMM: Pokorny derives the Balto-Slavic word for `tin, lead' from *al(Ќ)- `white'. This more or less presupposes that the original meaning was `tin' (plumbum album) rather than `lead' (plumbum nigrum). In view of both the formal problems and the sphere to which this word belong it seems preferable to regard it as a borrowing from an unknown language.
Notes: {1} Forms with *(j)e- are limited to Bulgarian, e.g. MBulg. jelovo , Bulg. (dial.) eґlavo . In Russian: dialects, we find a form lov' (Voronež), which may reflect *olvь. The fact that we do not have *lavь < *olHvi-, as we might have expected on the basis of the Baltic forms, can be explained by assuming that the laryngeal was eliminated according to Meillet's law before the metathesis of liquids. {2} It's unclear to me on what grounds the LKZ№ assigns AP 1 to this word. To my knowledge, the only accented form is aґљwu Isg. (DK), which points to AP 1 or 3. The Modern Lithuanian form a~lavas is a borrowing from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *o°gn'ь
GRAM: m. i / m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `fire'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 30-33
Old Church Slavic: ognь `fire' [m i], ogni [Gens]; #OCS ogn'ь `fire' [m jo], ognja [Gens]
Russian: ogoґn' `fire' [m jo], ognjaґ [Gens]; #Ru. ogon' (N. dial.) `fire' [m? i], ogni [Gens]
Ukrainian: ohoґn' (dial.) `fire' [m jo], ohnjuґ [Gens]; #Ukr. oheґn' (dial.) `fire' [m i], ohnyґ [Gens]
Czech: ohen№ `fire' [m jo]
Slovak: ohen№ `fire' [m jo]
Polish: ogienґ `fire' [m jo]
Slovincian: vu°oёgo†uёn `fire' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: wohenґ `fire' [m jo]
Lower Sorbian: wogenґ `fire' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: o°ganj `fire' [m jo], o°gnja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. o?ganґ (Vrgada) `fire, hearth' [m jo], o?gnґa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ogaґnґ (Novi) `fire' [m jo], ognґa? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. uga~nj (Orbanicґi) `fire' [m jo], ugnja? [Gens]
Slovene: oґgЌnj `fire' [m jo], oґgnja [Gens]
Bulgarian: oґgaўn `fire' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ungnis
Lithuanian: ugni°s `fire' [f i] 4
Latvian: uguns `fire' [f i]; #Latv. uguns `fire' [m i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ngw-ni-
COMM: According to Kortlandt (1979: 60-61), *ogn'ь reflects a Balto-Slavic noun *ungnis, where *-ngn- blocked the operation of Winter's law. The sequence *un was lowered to *on before a tautosyllabic stop, with subsequent loss of the nasal as a result of dissimilation (cf. -> *voda°). Apparently, the latter development occurred in Baltic as well. The expected reflex of Winter's law is found in -> *vy°gъn§ь, vy°gъn§a.
Other cognates: Skt. agniґ- (RV+) `fire, Agni' [m]; Lat. ignis `fire' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *o?pakъ; o?pako; o?paky {1}
GRAM: adv.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `the other way round'
Old Church Slavic: opaky (Supr.) `the other way round, behind one's back' [adv]
Russian: oґpak(o) (dial.) `back, backwards, the other way round' [adv]
Czech: opak `contrary' [m o]
Old Czech:: opak `backwards, the other way round' [adv]
Slovak: opak `contrary' [m o]
Polish: opak `(na o.) the other way round, upside down, wrongly' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: o?pѓk `the other way round' [adj/adv]; #SCr. C№ak. o?paІЇk (Vrgada) `the other way round' [adj/adv]
Slovene: opa?k `backwards, the other way round' [adv], opaґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: oґpak `backwards, the other way round' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2epo-h3ekw-
COMM: The quantitative variation in the second syllable reflects accentual mobility, as pretonic long vowels were shortened but posttonic long vowels were not. The laryngeal of the second syllable had been lost with compensatory lengthening at an earlier stage.
Other cognates: Skt. aґpѓka- (RV+) `located behind, distant, aside' [adj]; Skt. aґpѓkѓґ (RV) `behind' [adv]; Skt. apѓkѓґt (RV) `behind' [adv]; OIc. ǫfugr `turned the wrong way, wrong' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *o?lsь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `elk'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 79-80
Russian: los' `elk, (Arx.) Great Bear' [m jo], loґsja [Gens]
Old Russian:: losь `elk' [m jo]
Ukrainian: los' `elk' [m jo]
Czech: los `elk' [m o]
Slovak: los `elk' [m o]
Polish: љosґ `elk' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ol-kґ-i-
Other cognates: OIc. elgr `elk' [m]; OE eolh `elk' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} Gk. Ґlkh (Paus.) `elk' and Lat. alcЊs (since Caesar) are assumed to be borrowings from Germanic (cf. Frisk I: 75).
Proto-Slavic form: *o?lъ
GRAM: m. o/u
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 80-81
Church Slavic: olъ (RuCS) `fermented liquor, strong drink' [m o]
Old Russian:: olъ `fermented liquor, strong drink' [m o]
Slovene: ǫ?љ `beer' [m o], ǫ?la [Gens], olu? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *alu
Lithuanian: alu°s `beer' [m u]
Old Prussian: alu (EV) `beer'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2l-u-
Other cognates: OIc. ǫl `beer, drinking-bout' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *o?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c (b?)
PSLMEAN: `sharp point, smth. with a sharp point'
Russian: ost' `awn' [f i]
Slovak: ost' `fishbone, awn, thorn' [f i]
Polish: osґcґ `fishbone, awn, thorn' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: o?sti `harpoon' [Nompf i]; #SCr. o?stve `harpoon' [Nompf і]; #SCr. C№ak. o?sti (Vrgada) `harpoon' [Nompm i]
Slovene: ǫ?st `sharp point, fishbone, (pl.) harpoon' [f i], osti? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *asґtis (akstis??)
Lithuanian: aksti°s `spit, thorn, prick' [f i] 4 {1}
Latvian: aksts `sharp point' [m o??]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-t-i-
Page in Pokorny: 18
COMM: On the basis of Sln. ǫ?st, Illič-Svityč posits an original AP (b) for this etymon. Furthermore, Skardžius (1941: 330) has aksti°s, -ies, which "mixed paradigm" Illič-Svityč (1963:
57) also regards as evidence for an original barytone accentuation.
Notes: {1} The form akšti°s is also attested.
Proto-Slavic form: *o?sь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `axle, axis'
Church Slavic: osь `axle' [f i]
Russian: os' `axle, axis' [f i]
Old Czech:: os `axle' [f i]
Slovak: os `axle' [f i]
Polish: osґ `axle' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: o?s `axle, axis' [f i]
Slovene: ǫ?s `axle, axis' [f i], osi? [Gens]
Bulgarian: os `axle' [f i]
Lithuanian: aši°s `axle, axis' [f i]
Latvian: ass `axle, axis' [f i]
Old Prussian: assis (EV) `axle'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґs-i-
Other cognates: Skt. aґks•a- `axle' [m]; Gk. Ґxwn [m] `axle' [m]; Lat. axis `axle' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *oje
GRAM: n. jo
PSLMEAN: `thill'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 35-37
Russian: voeЁ (dial.) `thill' [n jo]
Czech: oje (dial.) `thill' [n jo]
Old Czech:: ojĕ `thill' [f jѓ]; #OCz. oje `thill' [n jo]
Polish: oje (dial.) `thill' [n jo]
Old Polish: oje `thill' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: oґje `thill' [n jo]
Slovene: oję? `thill' [n s], oję?sa [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *H2/3oiH-os
Other cognates: Gk. o‡a?x `handle of rudder, tiller, helm, rings of the yoke'; Hitt. išša- `thill'; Fi. aisa `pole in a stack'
Proto-Slavic form: *ojьminъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 38-39
Old Church Slavic: oimi (Supr.) `soldiers' [Nompm o]
Lithuanian: judu°s (OLith.) `belligerent' [adj u]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-Hiudh-m-
Other cognates: Skt. yudhmaґ- `warrior' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *okъno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `window'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 45-47
Russian: oknoґ `window' [n o]
Old Russian:: okъno `window' [n o]
Czech: okno `window' [n o]
Slovak: okno `window' [n o]
Polish: okno `window' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°kno `shaft, window' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. іkno? (Orbanicґi) `window' [n o], u~kna [NomAccp]
Slovene: oґkno• `window' [n o]
Bulgarian: oknoґ (dial.) `opening, hole' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ekє-n-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *olboda°; elbeda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `goosefoot'
Page in Trubačev: VI 18; XXXII 50-51
Russian: lebedaґ `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #Ru. lobodaґ `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
Czech: lebeda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #Cz. loboda (dial.) `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
Slovak: loboda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #Slk. lebeda (dial.) `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
Polish: lebioda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: lobo°da `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. loboda? (Vrgada) `goosefoot (?)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. loboda? (Novi) `goosefoot (?)' [f ѓ], lo?bode [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. loboda? (Orbanicґi) `unidentified plant (wild basil?)' [f ѓ], lobodo? [Accs]
Slovene: loґboda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #Sln. loboґda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]; #Sln. lebęґda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: loґboda `goosefoot' [f ѓ]
IE meaning: goosefoot
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 30-31
COMM: The anlaut of dialect forms such as Pl. љaba§dzґ or SCr. laboda must be analogous after the words for `swan'. The reconstruction *olboda is not without problems in view of the consistent reflex *lo- in South Slavic (but cf. SCr. ro?b `slave'?), which also doesn't match the *la- of the `swan' word. We must seriously consider the possibility that the proto-form was *h2lob-oda (*h2leb-eda) (for further discussion see s.v. *olbǫdь).
Notes: The anlaut of dialect forms such as Pl. љaba§dzґ or SCr. laboda must be analogous after the words for `swan'. The reconstruction *olboda is not without problems in view of the consistent reflex *lo- in South Slavic (but cf. SCr. ro?b `slave'?), which also doesn't match the *la- of the `swan' word. We must seriously consider the possibility that the proto-form was *h2lob-oda (*h2leb-eda) (for further discussion see s.v. *olbǫdь).
Proto-Slavic form: *olbЎ§dь; olbЎ§tь; elbedь; elbЎ§tь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c (a)
PSLMEAN: `swan'
Page in Trubačev: VI 19; XXXII 50-51
Russian: leґbed' `swan' [m jo], leґbedja [Gens]
Ukrainian: leґbid' `swan' [m jo]
Czech: labut' `swan' [f i/jѓ]
Slovak: labut' `swan' [f]
Polish: љabędzґ `swan' [m jo]; #Pl. љabęcґ (dial.) `swan' [m jo]
Old Polish: љabęcґ `swan' [m jo]; #OPl. љabęcґ `swan' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: la?bіd `swan' [m o]; #SCr. le?bіt (arch.) `swan' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. la?bіd (Vrgada) `swan' [m o]
Slovene: labǫґd `swan' [m o]; #Sln. lebęґd `swan' [m o]; #Sln. lobǫґd `swan' [m o]
Bulgarian: leґbed `swan' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2elbh-ond-i
IE meaning: swan
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 30-31
COMM: If the PSl. reconstruction *olb- is correct, the fact that the root shape*lab- occurs outside South Slavic and Central Slovak suggests that we are dealing with an originally acute root (cf. Meillet 1934: 83), which would be in conflict with the traditional etymology that the etymon derives from a root*h2elbh- `white'. Unless one adheres to the view that a lengthened grade yields an acute in Balto-Slavic, a reconstruction *h2lЎbh- (with Schwebeablaut) does not solve the problem. Apart from the etymology, the distribution of the reflexes *la- and *lo- needs to be explained. It is possible to argue that the reflex *le- in Ru. leґbed' (perhaps from *lo- before a soft labial, cf. tebe < tobĕ) continues the short reflex of *ol- in the oxytone forms of a mobile paradigm, but there is no such explanation for the West Slavic forms. Kortlandt (2005: 128) makes an attempt to account for the facts while starting from the hypothesis that the etymon originally belonged to AP (a) and only became mobile after the rise of distinctive tone and the South Slavic lengthening of initial vowels before tautosyllabic resonants.
Other cognates: OHG albiz, elbiz `swan'; OE aelbitu, ielfetu `swan' [f]; OIc. elptr, ǫlpt `swan' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *o°lčьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hungry'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 52-53
Old Church Slavic: al'čenъ (Supr.) `hungry' [adj o]
Church Slavic: alčьnъ (Christ.) `hungry' [adj o]; #CS lačna (Freis.) `one who is hungry' [Accsm adj o]
Russian: aґlčnyj `greedy, grasping, (obs.) hungry' [adj o]; #Ru. aґlošnoj (dial.) `greedy' [adj o]; #Ru. aґlašnyj (dial.) `greedy' [adj o]
Old Russian:: al(ъ)čьnъ `hungry, greedy' [adj o]; #ORu. alčenъ `hungry, greedy' [adj o]; #ORu. lačьnъ `hungry, greedy' [adj o]
Czech: lačnyґ `hungry, greedy' [adj o]
Slovak: lačnyґ `hungry, greedy' [adj o]
Old Polish: љaczny `hungry, thirsty (for)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: la?čan `hungry' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. la?čan (Orbanicґi) `hungry' [adj o]
Slovene: laґčЌn `hungry' [adj o], laґčna [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: aґlčen `greedy' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *olЂkino-
Lithuanian: aґlkanas `sober' [adj o]
Latvian: al^kans `greedy, hungry' [adj o]
Old Prussian: alk–ns `sober' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *HolHk-tei
Page in Pokorny: 307
Proto-Slavic form: *oldi
GRAM: f. –
PSLMEAN: `boat'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 53-54
Old Church Slavic: al(ъ)dii (Zogr., Supr.) `ship, boat' [f iѓ]; #OCS ladii (Zogr., Mar.) `ship, boat' [f iѓ]
Russian: lad'jaґ `rook, (arch., dial.) boat' [f iѓ]; #Ru. loґd'ja (dial.) `boat, trough' [f iѓ]
Old Russian:: lodьja `boat' [f iѓ]
Ukrainian: loґdja `boat, (dial.) `trough' [f iѓ]
Czech: lod' `boat' [f i/jѓ]
Old Czech:: lodiґ `boat' [f iѓ]
Polish: љoґdzґ `boat' [f i]
Old Polish: љodziaґ `boat' [f iѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: la?‹a `boat' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. laІ~‹a (Vrgada) `boat' [f jѓ]
Slovene: laґdja `boat' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: laґdija `canoe, boat' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *old-iH-aH
Lithuanian: eldija° `hollowed out tree trunk, canoe' [f jѓ] 3b; #Lith. aldija° `hollowed out tree trunk, canoe' [f jѓ] 3b {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *Holdh-eh2; h2eldh-eh2
IE meaning: hollowed out object or spot
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 32
Other cognates: OE ealdoht `trough, vessel' [f?]; OE aldaht `trough, vessel' [f?]; Nw. olda (dial.) `large trough, often made from a hollowed out tree trunk' [f]; Sw. aІlla (dial.) `elongated deepened spot, container' [f]; MoHG alden (dial.) `furrow'
Notes: {1} According to Zinkevičius (1966: 124), the forms with a- occur exclusively in those dialects where *e- > a- .
Proto-Slavic form: *o°lkati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `be hungry'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 57-58
Old Church Slavic: alъkati `be hungry, fast' [verb], alъčǫ [1sg]; #OCS lakati `be hungry, fast' [verb], lačǫ [1sg] {1}
Russian: alkaґt' `hunger (for), crave (for), (obs.) be hungry' [verb], aґlču [1sg], aґlčet [3sg]
Old Russian:: al(ъ)kati `hunger (for), crave (for)' [verb], alъču [1sg]; #ORu. lakati `hunger (for), crave (for)' [verb], laču [1sg]
Old Czech:: laґkati `crave (for)' [verb], laґkaju [1sg], laґču [1sg]
Slovene: laґkati `be hungry, be greedy, starve' [verb], laґkam [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *olЂktei
Lithuanian: aґlkti `be hungry' [verb]
Latvian: al^kt `be hungry' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *HolHk-tei
Page in Pokorny: 307
COMM: The reconstruction *Ўlk- < *h1eh1olk- (Rasmussen Sel. Pap.: 116) cannot account for the acute tone of the root.
Other cognates: {1} According to the Staroslavjanskij slovar', the ratio between alъk- (including al'k- and alk-) and lak- is 19 : 9, respectively. Zogr. (1 : 4), Mar. (3 : 1) and Ass. (3 : 1) have both variants.
Proto-Slavic form: *o°lkomъ(jь)
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `greedy'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 60-61
Old Church Slavic: lakomyi (Supr.) `glutton' [adj o]
Russian: laґkomyj `tasty, fond of' [adj o]
Ukrainian: laґkomyj `greedy' [adj o]
Czech: lakomyґ `greedy' [adj o]
Slovak: lakomyґ `greedy' [adj o]
Polish: љakomy `greedy' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: љakomy `greedy, overly ambitious' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: la?kom `greedy' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. la?kom (Vrgada) `greedy' [adj o]
Slovene: laґkom `greedy' [adj o]
Bulgarian: laґkom `greedy' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *HolHk-o-mo-
Page in Pokorny: 307
Proto-Slavic form: *o°lni
GRAM: f. –
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `doe'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 70-71
Old Church Slavic: alъnii (Supr.) `does' [Genpf iѓ] {1}
Russian: lan' `fallow deer, doe' [f i]
Czech: lan№ `doe' [f i/jѓ]
Old Czech:: laniґ `doe' [f iѓ]
Slovak: lan№ `doe' [f i/jѓ]
Old Polish: љani `doe' [f iѓ]; #OPl. љania `doe' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: la°ne `doe' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: aґlne (dial.) `young chamois' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ol-Hn-
Lithuanian: eґlnis (arch.) `deer' [m io]; #Lith. aґlnis (dial.) `deer' [m io] 1; #Lith. eґlnias `deer' [m jo] 1/3; #Lith. eґlne† `doe' [f Њ] 1; #Lith. aґlne† (dial.) `doe' [f Њ] 1
Latvian: al^nis `elk' [m io]
Old Prussian: alne (EV) `?deer'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ol-Hn-iH-
IE meaning: deer
Page in Pokorny: 303-304
Other cognates: Gk. ™llТj (Hom.) `young of the deer, fawn' [m]; њlafoj `deer' [m] {2}; Arm. eљn `deer' [m]; MIr. ailit `doe, hind' [f], ailte [Gens]; MIr. elit `doe, hind' [f], eilte [Gens] {3}; MW elein `young deer, doe, hind-calf' [f/m], alanet [Nomp] `young deer, doe, hind-calf' {4}
Notes: {1} Provided that this is the correct reading of mьnii. {2} Probably < *h1el-n-bho-. Like the Armenian word mentioned below, this form does not contain the "Hoffmann-suffix". {3} According to Schrijver (1995: 79) < PIE *el-(H)n + t-iH or *el-en + t-iH. {4} MW elein, MoW elain may reflect PIE *(h1)el-Hn- or *(h1)el-n•-iё (Schrijver 1995: 79).
Proto-Slavic form: *olni
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `last year'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 69-70
Church Slavic: lani `last year' [adv]; #CS loni (Christ.) `last year' [adv]
Russian: loniґ (Arx., Olon.) `last year' [adv]
Old Russian:: loni `last year' [adv]
Ukrainian: loґny `last year' [adv]
Czech: loni `last year' [adv]
Slovak: lani `last year' [adv]
Polish: љoni (14th-17th c., dial.) `last year' [adv]
Upper Sorbian: љoni `last year' [adv]
Lower Sorbian: љoni `last year' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: la?ni `last year' [adv]; #SCr. laґni `last year' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. laІ~n– (Vrgada) `last year' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. laґni (Novi) `last year' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. la~ni (Orbanicґi) `last year' [adv]
Slovene: laґni `last year' [adv]
Bulgarian: laґni `last year' [adv]; #Bulg. laniґ `last year' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ol-n-ei
Proto-Slavic form: *olni°ta
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 72
Old Church Slavic: lanita `cheek' [f ѓ]
Russian: laniґta (arch.) `cheek' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: lanyґta `cheek' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: laniґtva `cheek' [f ѓ]
Slovene: laniґta `cheek' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hol-n-
Proto-Slavic form: *olьsa; olьsъ; olьse
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o; n. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `alder thicket'
Russian: Ol'sa (Upper Dniepr) top. [f ѓ]; #Ru. aleЁs (Smol., Dniepr basin) `alder thicket, swampy place' [m o]
BeloRussian: al'sa (Upper Dniepr) `alder thicket, swampy place' [f ѓ]; #Bel. aleЁs (dial.) `alder thicket, swampy place' [m o]
Ukrainian: ol'os (dial.), oles (dial.) `alder thicket, swampy place' [m o]
Polish: olesie `swampy place in forest' [n jo] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *a/elisaH;; a/el(i)snio-
Lithuanian: al~ksnis, el~ksnis `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. ali°ksnis (E. dial.) `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. aґlksna, eґlksna (dial.) `alder thicket, place where alders grow, marsh, dale' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: a°lksnis, e°lksnis (dial.) `alder' [m io]; #Latv. a°lksna, ęlksna (E. dial.) `alder thicket, swampy place' {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eliseh2
IE meaning: alder
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 302-303
Other cognates: Lat. alnus `alder' [m]; Span. aliso `alder' [m]; Mac. Ґliza `white poplar'; OHG elira, erila `alder' [f]; OE alor `alder' [m]; OIc. ǫlr `alder' [m], jǫlstr `alder' [f] {3}
Notes: {1} Cf. also olesisty `swampy' and olesґnik alongside jelesґnik `white hellebore'. {2} The form with e- is actually reflected as a°lksna (Bersohn, E. Latvia) (M-E: s.v.)
Proto-Slavic form: *olьša; jelьša
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `alder'
Page in Trubačev: VI 23-25; XXXII 82
Czech: olše `alder' [f jѓ]; #Cz. jelše (dial.) `alder' [f jѓ]
Polish: olsza `alder' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: woґlša `alder' [f jѓ]
Lower Sorbian: wolša `alder' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: je?lša `alder' [f jѓ]
Slovene: jęґљša `alder' [f jѓ]; #Sln. ǫґљša `alder' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *a/elisaH;; a/el(i)snio-
Lithuanian: al~ksnis, el~ksnis `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. ali°ksnis (E. dial.) `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. aґlksna, eґlksna (dial.) `alder thicket, place where alders grow, marsh, dale' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: a°lksnis, e°lksnis (dial.) `alder' [m io]; #Latv. a°lksna, ęlksna (E. dial.) `alder thicket, swampy place' {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eliseh2
IE meaning: alder
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 302-303
COMM: See *olь°xa.
Other cognates: Lat. alnus `alder' [m]; Span. aliso `alder' [m]; Mac. Ґliza `white poplar'; OHG elira, erila `alder' [f]; OE alor `alder' [m]; OIc. ǫlr `alder' [m], jǫlstr `alder' [f] {2}
Proto-Slavic form: *olьxa; elьxa
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `alder'
Page in Trubačev: VI 23-25; XXXII 81-82
Russian: ol'xaґ `alder' [f ѓ]; #Ru. eЁlxa (dial.), elxaґ (dial.) `alder, spruce' [f ѓ] {1}
Slovak: jelcha (dial.) `alder' [f ѓ]
Polish: olcha `alder' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: jelha (dial.) `alder' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: elxaґ `alder, spruce' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *a/elisaH;; a/el(i)snio-
Lithuanian: al~ksnis, el~ksnis `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. ali°ksnis (E. dial.) `alder' [m io] 2; #Lith. aґlksna, eґlksna (dial.) `alder thicket, place where alders grow, marsh, dale' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: a°lksnis, e°lksnis (dial.) `alder' [m io]; #Latv. a°lksna, ęlksna (E. dial.) `alder thicket, swampy place' {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eliseh2
IE meaning: alder
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 302-303
COMM: As Schrijver observes (1991: 40), this etymon presents two problems. The first problem is the anlaut. The Slavic forms with je- cannot be explained away by assuming analogy after the word for `spruce': je- also occurs in West Slavic, where `spruce' is jedl-, not jel- (pace Kortlandt apud Schrijver: o.c. 41). The a- : e- variation in Germanic suggests that the variation in Baltic and Slavic does not result from "Rozwadowski's change" alone (cf. Andersen 1996: 130). The second problem is the alternation between i and zero in the second syllable. It is true that the *i and *u (cf. the Latvian toponym Aluksne?) of the Germanic forms may continue the regular ablaut of an s-stem (Schrijver: l.c.), but the fact that we find *i of in Slavic and East Lithuanian as well indicates that it should be taken at face value. The above-mentioned peculiarities of the etymon strongly suggest that we are dealing with a word of non-Indo-European origin. The fact that there are North Slavic forms with s alongside the expected x must be connected with the Baltic presence in the area (cf. Anikin 2005: 85-86).
Other cognates: Lat. alnus `alder' [m]; Span. aliso `alder' [m]; Mac. Ґliza `white poplar'; OHG elira, erila `alder' [f]; OE alor `alder' [m]; OIc. ǫlr `alder' [m], jǫlstr `alder' [f] {3}
Notes: {1} In Russian: dialects there are apparently also forms with a vocalized medial jer, e.g. eloґxa (Kostr.), aleЁx (Voron.), oleЁx (Rjaz.) `alder' (cf. Popowska-Taborska 1984: 39). {2} The form with e- is actually reflected as a°lksna (Bersohn, E. Latvia) (M-E: s.v.). {3} From *aluz- and *elustrЎ (< *elastrЎ?), respectively.
Proto-Slavic form: *onutja
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `footwear'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 88-89
Old Church Slavic: onušta (Supr.) `footwear, sandal' [f jѓ]
Russian: onuґča `sock, cloth puttee' [f jѓ]
Czech: onuce `sock, cloth puttee' [f jѓ]
Slovak: onuca `sock, cloth puttee' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: onuca `sock, cloth puttee' [f jѓ]
Slovene: onuґča `puttee' [f jѓ]; #Sln. vnuča `puttee' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1on-Hou-t-i-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *onъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `he, she, it'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 89-90
Old Church Slavic: onъ `he' [prn], ona [Nomsf], ono [Nomsn]
Russian: on `he' [prn], onaґ [Nomsf], onoґ [Nomsn]
Czech: on `he' [prn], ona [Nomsf], ono [Nomsn]
Slovak: on `he' [prn], ona [Nomsf], ono [Nomsn]
Polish: on `he' [prn], ona [Nomsf], ono [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: o?n `he' [prn], o°na [Nomsf], o°no [Nomsn]; #SCr. o?n `he' [prn], o°na [Nomsf], o°no [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. o~n (Vrgada) `he' [prn], ona? [Nomsf], ono? [Nomsn]
Slovene: o°n `he' [prn], oґna [Nomsf], ono•? [Nomsn], oґno• [Nomsn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *anos
Lithuanian: ana°s `that' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2en-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *ora°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `plough'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 106-109
Old Church Slavic: orati (Zogr., Mar., Ass., Sav.) `plough' [verb] {1}
Russian: oraґt' (dial.) `plough' [verb], orjuґ [1sg], oreЁt [3sg]
Czech: orati `plough' [verb]
Slovak: orat' `plough' [verb]
Polish: orati `plough' [verb], orzę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: o°rati `plough' [verb], o?rЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ora?ti (Vrgada) `plough' [verb], o?reš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ora?t (Orbanicґi) `plough' [verb], ore?š [2sg]
Slovene: oraґti `plough' [verb], ora?m [1sg], oґrjem [1sg]; #Sln. oґrati `plough' [verb]
Bulgarian: oraґ `plough' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *arЂ(aЂ)tei
Lithuanian: aґrti `plough' [verb], ariu° [1sg]
Latvian: ar^t `plough' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2erh3-
IE meaning: plough
Page in Pokorny: 62
Other cognates: Gk. ўrТw `plough' [verb]; Lat. arѓre `plough' [verb]
Notes: {1} Only in John 17:7.
Proto-Slavic form: *orbiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `do, work'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 116-118
Russian: roґbiti (dial.) `do, work' [verb], roґblju [1sg]
Czech: robiti `make, do' [verb]
Slovak: robit' `make, do' [verb]
Polish: robicґ `make, do' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: robisґ `work, earn' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: raґbiti `use' [verb]
Slovene: raґbiti `use, do' [verb], raґbim [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *orbo°ta
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `work'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 119-122
Old Church Slavic: rabota `slavery' [f ѓ]; #OCS robota (Supr.) `slavery' [f ѓ]
Russian: roboґta (dial.) `work' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: robota `work, slavery, captivity' [f ѓ]
Czech: robota `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Slovak: robota `work, corveґe' [f ѓ]
Polish: robota `work, labour' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ra°bota `corveґe' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?bota (Vrgada) `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Slovene: rabo•?ta `corveґe' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: raґbota `work, thing' [f ѓ]
Other cognates: Go. arbai±s `labour' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *orbъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `servant, slave'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 131-133
Old Church Slavic: rabъ `servant, slave' [m o]; #OCS robъ (Zogr., Supr.) `servant, slave' [m o] {1}
Russian: rab `slave' [m o], rabaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: robъ `servant, slave' [m o]
Czech: rob `slave' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ro?b `slave' [m o], ro°ba [Gens]
Slovene: ro°b `slave, detainee' [m o], roґba [Gens], rǫґba [Gens]
Bulgarian: rab `slave' [m o]; #Bulg. rob `slave, servant, prisoner' [m o]
Notes: {1} In Supr., the variant rob- occurs 28 times, but rab- is even more frequent.
Proto-Slavic form: *o°rdlo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `plough'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 141-145
Old Church Slavic: ralo (Zogr., Mar., Sav., Euch., Supr.) `plough' [n o] {1}
Russian: raґlo `plough' [n o]
Czech: raґdlo `plough' [n o]
Slovak: radlo `plough' [n o]
Polish: radљo `plough' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: radљo `plough' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: radљo `plough' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ra?lo `plough' [n o]
Slovene: raґlo• `small plough' [n o]
Bulgarian: raґlo `plough' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aґrЂdlo; aґrЂtlo
Lithuanian: aґrklas `plough' [m o] 3
Latvian: ar^kls `plough' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2rh3-dhlom
IE meaning: plough
Page in Pokorny: 62
COMM: In Balto-Slavic (or in Baltic and Slavic independently), zero grade of the root (cf. Lith. i°rklas `oar') was apparently replaced by full grade after the verb `to plough'. The fixed stress on the root must result from Hirt's law.
Other cognates: Gk. Ґrotron `plough' [n]; Arm. arawr `plough' [noun]
Notes: {1} The form oralo (Ass.) is clearly analogical after orati.
Proto-Slavic form: *orĕ°xъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `nut'
Church Slavic: orĕxъ `nut' [m o]
Russian: oreґx `nut' [m o]
Czech: or№ech `nut' [m o]
Slovak: orech `nut' [m o]
Polish: orzech `nut' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°rah `nut' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ori?h (Vrgada) `nut' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ori?h (Novi) `nut' [m o]
Slovene: oґre•h `nut' [m o], ore•ґha [Gens]
Bulgarian: oґrex `walnut, nut' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(o)roiЂs•-
Lithuanian: riґešutas `nut' [m o] 3a; #Lith. riešuty~s `nut' [m io] 3a
Latvian: rie~ksts `nut' [m o]
Old Prussian: buccareisis (EV) `beech-nut'
Proto-Slavic form: *oriti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 162-165
Old Church Slavic: oriši (Supr.) `tempts' [2sg]
Czech: obor№iti `collapse' [verb]
Bulgarian: oґrja (dial.) `bring down' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oriЂtei
Lithuanian: ardyґti `pull down, destroy' [verb]
Latvian: ѓ°rdi^t `destroy, scatter' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hor-eie-
COMM: The literal meaning of OCS oriti, which in Supr. 510,8 translates Gk. kaqљlkein, is apparently `drag down'. The ESSJa (s.v. *oriti II) connects oriti in this particular meaning with SCr. o°riti se, Sln. oriti se `resound' as well as with Lat. orѓre `speak'. I am inclined to consider the reconstruction of a second etymon *oriti unnecessary.
Proto-Slavic form: *orky°ta
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `brittle willow'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 173-175
Russian: rakiґta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]; #Ru. rokiґta (dial.) `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: rokiґta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Czech: rokyta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: rakyta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]; #Slk. rokyta (pop.) `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Polish: rokita `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ra°kita `brittle willow' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. Raki?ta (Vrgada) an island [f ѓ]
Slovene: raki?ta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: rakiґta `brittle willow' [f ѓ]
Latvian: e~rcis `juniper' [m io]
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. Ґrkeuqoj `juniper' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *o°rkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `crayfish'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 169-172
Russian: rak `crayfish' [m o]
Czech: rak `crayfish' [m o]
Slovak: rak `crayfish' [m o]
Polish: rak `crayfish' [m o]
Slovincian: ra†~k `crayfish' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ra?k `crayfish' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?k (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `crayfish' [m o]
Slovene: ra°k `crayfish' [m o], raґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: rak `crayfish' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oґrЂk-; eґrЂk-
Lithuanian: eґrke† `tick' [f Њ]
Latvian: e~rce `tick' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: {1}
Notes: {1} OPr. rokis (EV) `crayfish' and Lith. dial. ro~kis (roґkis) must be borrowings from Slavic (pace Mažiulis PKEZ№ IV: 31).
Proto-Slavic form: *orlьja
GRAM: f. iѓ
PSLMEAN: `field, arable land'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 177-179
Old Russian:: rolija `(corn-)field, ploughed field' [f jѓ]; #ORu. rolja `(corn-)field, ploughed field' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: rilljaґ `ploughed field' [f jѓ]
Czech: role `field, arable land' [f jѓ]; #Cz. roliґ (S. dial.) `field, arable land' [n io]
Old Czech:: roliґ `field, arable land' [f iѓ]
Slovak: rol'a `field, arable land' [f jѓ]
Polish: rola `field, arable land' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: rola `field, arable land' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2e/orh3-iH-
Page in Pokorny: 62
COMM: I assume that the root-final laryngeal had been lost in pretonic position before the word-initial metathesis of liquids. The fact that we find no lengthening is also connected with non-initial stress. Note that in forms such as *ra°dlo AP (a) originates from Hirt's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *o°rmo; o°rmę
GRAM: n. o; n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `shoulder'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 185-187
Old Church Slavic: ramo `shoulder' [n o]
Russian: ramenaґ (arch., poet.) `shoulders' [Nompn n]
Czech: raґmĕ (lit, arch.) `shoulder' [n n]; #Cz. rameno `shoulder' [n o]
Slovak: ram„ `shoulder' [n n]
Polish: ramię `shoulder' [n n]
Upper Sorbian: ramjo `shoulder' [n n]
Lower Sorbian: ramje `shoulder' [n n]
Serbo-Croatian: ra?me `shoulder' [n n], ra?mena [Gens], rame°na [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?me (Vrgada) `shoulder' [n n], ra?mena [Gens], ramenaІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?me (Novi) `shoulder' [n n], ramenaґ [Nomp], ra?mena [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?men (Orbanicґi) `shoulder' [n n], ra?mena [Gens], ra?mena [Nomp], ramie~na [Nomp]
Slovene: raґme `shoulder, arm' [n n], raґmena [Gens]; #Sln. raґma `shoulder' [f ѓ]; #Sln. raґmo `shoulder' [n o]
Bulgarian: raґmo `shoulder' [n n], ramenaґ [Nomp], rameneґ [Nomp]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *iґrЂmo; iґrЂmen-; oґrЂmen-
Lithuanian: i°rme†de† `gout' [f Њ]1
Old Prussian: irmo `arm'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2orH-mo-; h2orH-men-
Other cognates: Skt. –rmaґ- `arm' [m]; Lat. armus `arm, shoulder' [m]; Go. arms `arm' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *orǫdьje
GRAM: n. io
Old Church Slavic: orǫdije (Supr.) `business, affair' [n io]
Russian: oruґdie `instrument, tool, gun' [n io]
Czech: orudiґ `instrument' [n io]
Polish: orędzie `proclamation, message' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: o°rіž‹e `instrument, organ' [n jo]; #SCr. o°rіžje `weapons' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. oružje? (Vrgada) `weapons' [n jo]; #SCr. C№ak. oru~žje (Orbanicґi) `weapons' [n jo]
Slovene: orǫ?dje `instrument, organ' [n jo]
Bulgarian: oraўґdie `instrument, artillery' [n io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebhi-rondh-??
Proto-Slavic form: *orsti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `grow'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 197-199
Old Church Slavic: rasti `grow' [verb], rastǫ [1sg]
Russian: rastiґ `grow' [verb], rastuґ [1sg], rasteЁt [3sg] {1}
Ukrainian: rostyґ `grow' [verb], rostuґ [1sg]
Czech: ruІsti `grow' [verb], rostu [1sg]
Slovak: raґst' `grow' [verb]
Polish: roґsґcґ `grow' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: rosґc `grow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: raґsti `grow' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ra~s (Orbanicґi) `grow, increase' [verb], rѓste? [3sg]
Slovene: raґsti `grow' [verb], raґstem [1sg]
Bulgarian: rastaґ `grow' [verb]
Notes: {1} The spelling with -a- originates from Church Slavic:.
Proto-Slavic form: *o°rtajь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `ploughman'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 209-211
Russian: raґtaj (folk poet.) `ploughman' [m jo]
Czech: rataj `farmer' [m jo]
Slovak: rataj `farmer' [m jo]
Polish: rataj `farmer' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ra°taj (Montenegro) `farmer' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ra?taj (Orbanicґi) measure of land (+- 2000 square metres, = a day's ploughing' [m jo]
Slovene: raґtaj `ploughman, farmer' [m jo]; #Sln. rata?j `ploughman, farmer' [m jo]
Bulgarian: raґtaj `servant' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *arЂtaЂjos
Lithuanian: artoґjas `ploughman, farmer' [m jo] 1
Latvian: ara~js `ploughman, farmer' [m jo]; #Latv. are~js `ploughman, farmer' [m jo]
Old Prussian: artoys (EV) `farmer'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2erh3-
Proto-Slavic form: *ortь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `war, battle'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 214-215
Old Church Slavic: ratь (Supr.) `war, battle, (pl.) enemy forces' [f i]
Russian: rat' (poet., arch.) `host, army, war battle' [f i]
Old Russian:: ratь `war, battle, troops' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ra?t `war' [f i]; #SCr. ra?t `war' [m o]
Bulgarian: rat `battle, war, soldiers' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1or-ti-
Other cognates: ernь; ertь
Proto-Slavic form: *orz
GRAM: pref.
PSLMEAN: `dis-, un-'
Old Church Slavic: raz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Russian: roz- `dis-, un-' [pref] {1}
Czech: roz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Slovak: roz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Polish: roz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Serbo-Croatian: raz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Slovene: ra°z `away from' [prep]; #Sln. raz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Bulgarian: raz- `dis-, un-' [pref]
Notes: {1} In unstressed position and in Slavonicisms we find raz-.
Proto-Slavic form: *orь°lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `eagle'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 232-234
Old Church Slavic: orьlъ `eagle' [m o]
Russian: oreЁl `eagle' [m o], orlaґ [Gens]
Czech: orel `eagle' [m o]
Slovak: orol, orel `eagle' [m o]
Polish: orzeљ `eagle' [m o], orљa [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: worjoљ `eagle' [m o], woґrљa [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: jerjoљ `eagle' [m o]; #LSrb. jerjeљ `eagle' [m o]; #LSrb. herjoљ (dial.) `eagle' [m o]; #LSrb. herjeљ (dial.) `eagle' [m o]; #LSrb. horal (arch.) `eagle' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°rao `eagle' [m o]
Slovene: oґrЌљ `eagle' [m o], oґrla [Gens]
Bulgarian: oreґl `eagle' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *or-il-o-;; er-el-io-
Lithuanian: ere~lis `eagle' [m jo] 2 {1}
Latvian: Њ°rglis `eagle' [m jo]
Old Prussian: arelie `eagle'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3er-il-o {2}
Certainty: +
COMM: The e- of the East Baltic forms is a good example of "Rozwadowski's change". It doesn't seem very plausible that within Slavic only the Low Sorbian forms would show the effect of this phenomenon.
Other cognates: Gk. Фrnij `bird' [m]; Go. ara `eagle' [m]; OIc. ǫrn `eagle' [m]; OIr. irar `eagle' [m]; Hitt. hara(n)- `eagle' [c]
Notes: {1} The variant are~lis is limited to the area where e- becomes a- (Bіga RR II: 508).
Proto-Slavic form: *orьmo°
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `part of a (wooden) plough supporting the ploughshare'
Page in Trubačev: XXXII 234
Russian: or'moґ (Dal': Nižegor.-Mak.) `mount of the ploughshare of a (NE Russian: type of) wooden plough' [n o]; #Ru. ormoґ (Jarosl.) `wooden part of a plough on which the ploughshare is fixed' [n o]
Other cognates: arь°mъ; arьmo°; kojariti
Proto-Slavic form: *osa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wasp'
Russian: osaґ `wasp' [f ѓ], osuґ [Accs]; #Ru. osvaґ (dial.) `wasp' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: osvaґ `wasp' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: osaґ `wasp' [f ѓ], osuґ [Accs]; #Ukr. osaґ (dial.) `wasp' [f ѓ], oґsu [Accs]
Czech: vosa `wasp' [f ѓ]
Slovak: osa `wasp' [f ѓ]
Polish: osa `wasp' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: o°sa `wasp' [f ѓ], o°su [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. osa? (Vrgada) `prickle of an ear of grain' [f ѓ], o?su [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. (Orbanicґi) o?sa `wasp' [f ѓ], o?so [Accs]
Slovene: oґsa `wasp' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: osaґ `wasp' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *uёos(uё)aЂ
Lithuanian: vapsva° `wasp' [f ѓ] 2/4; #Lith. vapsa° (dial.) `wasp' [f ѓ] 2/4
Latvian: vapsene `wasp' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: wobse `wasp'
Indo-European reconstruction: *uobh-s-eh2
Other cognates: Lat. vespa `wasp' [f ѓ]; W gw(y)chi `wasps' [Nompf ѓ]; OBret. guohi `wasps' [Nompf ѓ]; OHG wafsa wasp' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *osa; osi°na; jesi°ka
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `aspen'
Page in Trubačev: I 80-81; XXXII 93
Russian: osiґna `aspen' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: osyґna `aspen' [f ѓ]
Czech: osa (dial.) `aspen' [f ѓ]
Polish: osa (obs.) `aspen' [f ѓ]; #Pl. osina `aspen' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: wosa `aspen' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: woґsa `aspen' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: je°sika `aspen' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ja°sika `aspen' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jesiґka `aspen' [f ѓ]; #Sln. jasiґka `aspen' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: je°sika `aspen' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. ja°sika `aspen' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: e~puše† `aspen' [f Њ]; #Lith. a~puše† (dial.) `aspen' [f Њ] 1 {1}; #Lith. A~pše† top. [f Њ] 2
Latvian: apse `aspen' [f Њ]; #Latv. epse `aspen' [f Њ]; #Latv. epss `aspen' [f i]
Old Prussian: abse `aspen' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *aps-eh2
IE meaning: aspen
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 55
COMM: The forms with *e- may be attributed to "Rozwadowski's change", though their distribution over the Balto-Slavic territory (South Slavic + Lithuanian) is remarkable.
Other cognates: OHG aspa `aspen' [f]; OIc. ǫsp `aspen' [f]
Notes: {1} Alongside epuše†~, apuše†.
Proto-Slavic form: *oskъrdъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `pointed hammer, pickaxe'
Page in Trubačev: XXIX 197-198
Old Church Slavic: oskrъdъ (Ps. Sin, Euch.) `stone cutter's tool, pickaxe' [m o]
Russian: oskoґrd `axe' [m o]
Czech: oškrt `iron tool for whetting or roughening mill-stones' [m o]; #Cz. oškrd (dial.) `iron tool for whetting or roughening mill-stones' [m o]
Old Czech:: oškrd `iron tool for whetting or roughening a mill-stones' [m o]
Polish: oskard `pickaxe' [m o]
Slovene: oskr?d `pointed hammer for whetting mill-stones' [f i]
Old Prussian: scurdis `dibstone, mattock'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3bh-skrdh-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *osmъ
GRAM: num. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `eighth'
Old Church Slavic: osmъ `eighth' [num]
Russian: vos'moґj `eighth' [num]
Czech: osmyґ `eighth' [num]; #Cz. uІsmyґ (dial.) `eighth' [num]
Slovak: o^smy `eighth' [num]
Polish: oґsmy `eighth' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: o?sm– `eighth' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. o~sm– (Vrgada) `eighth' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. oґsm–ў (Novi) `eighth' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. uёo~smi (Orbanicґi) `eighth' [num]
Slovene: ǫґsmi `eighth' [num]
Bulgarian: oґsmi `eighth' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *osґmas
Lithuanian: a~šmas `eighth' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ekґth3-mo-
Other cognates: Skt. as•t•amaґ- `eight' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *o°smь
GRAM: num.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `eight'
Old Church Slavic: osmь `eight' [num]
Russian: voґsem' `eight' [num]; #Ru. vo^sem' (dial.) `eight' [num]
Czech: osm `eight' [num]
Slovak: osem `eight' [num]
Polish: osiem `eight' [num]
Old Polish: osґm `eight' [num]
Slovincian: vu°oёseўm `eight' [num]
Upper Sorbian: woґsom `eight' [num]
Lower Sorbian: wosym `eight' [num]; #LSrb. wosom (dial.) `eight' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: o?sam `eight' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. o?san (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `eight' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. o?sam (Novi) `eight' [num]
Slovene: ǫґsЌm `eight' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *osґt-
Lithuanian: aštuoni° `eight' [num]
COMM: The cardinal number may have been created on the basis of the ordinal *osmъ on the analogy of other numerals.
Other cognates: Skt. as•t•aґu `eight' [num]; Lat. octЎ [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *osno°vѓ
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `base, foundation'
Page in Trubačev: XXIX 233-237
Russian: osnoґva `base, foundation, warp' [f ѓ]
Czech: osnova `system, plan, device, warp' [f ѓ]
Slovak: osnova `plan, device, basis' [f ѓ]
Polish: osnowa `warp, theme' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: o°snova `base, foundation' [f ѓ]
Slovene: osnǫ?va `base, foundation' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: osnoґva `base, foundation' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-snou-eh2
Proto-Slavic form: *ostrovъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `island'
Page in Trubačev: XXX 79-82
Old Church Slavic: ostrovъ (Zogr., Supr.) `island' [m o]
Russian: oґstrov `island' [m o], oґstrova [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: o?strov `island' [m o]
Slovene: ostro°v `island' [m o], ostrǫґva [Gens]
Bulgarian: oґstrov `island' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ebh-srou-o-
Other cognates: Gk. •Тoj `stream' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ostrъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `sharp'
Old Church Slavic: ostrъ `sharp, rough' [adj o]
Russian: oґstryj `sharp' [adj o]; #Ru. osteЁr `sharp' [adj o], ostraґ [Nomsf], ostroґ [Nomsn]
Czech: ostryґ `sharp' [adj o]
Slovak: ostryґ `sharp' [adj o]
Polish: ostry `sharp' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: woґtry `sharp' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: o?štar `sharp' [adj o], o?štra [Nomsf]; #SCr. o°štar `sharp' [adj o], o°štra [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. o?štѓr (Vrgada) `sharp' [adj o], oštra? [Nomsf], o?štro [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. o?štar (Orbanicґi) `sharp' [adj o], o?štra [Nomsf], o?štro [Nomsn]
Slovene: ǫґstЌr `sharp' [adj o], oґstra [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: oґstaўr `sharp' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *asґros
Lithuanian: aštru°s `sharp' [adj o] 4; #Lith. ašru°s (dial.) `sharp' [adj o] 4
Latvian: ass `sharp' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-ro-
IE meaning: sharp
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 18
Other cognates: Gk. Ґkroj `pointed' [adj]; Lat. ѓcer `sharp' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *ostь°nъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sharp point, smth. with a sharp point'
Old Church Slavic: ostьnъ (Supr.) `sharp point' [m o]
Russian: osteґn (dial.) `thorn, spike' [m o]
Czech: osten `spike, quill' [m o]
Polish: osґcienґ `harpoon, (arch.) fishbone' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: o°stan `pointed stick for driving cattle' [m o]
Slovene: ǫґstЌn `spike, thorn' [m o]
Bulgarian: osteґn `pointed stick for driving cattle' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *asґtinos (akstinos??)
Lithuanian: a~kstinas `thorn, awn, pointed stick for driving cattle' [m o] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-t-i-no-
Page in Pokorny: 18
Proto-Slavic form: *osъ°tъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `thistle'
Old Church Slavic: osъtъ (PsDim.) `thistle, sow thistle' [m o]
Russian: osoґt `thistle' [m o]
Czech: oset `thistle' [m o]
Polish: oset `thistle' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: woґst `thistle' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: woset `thistle' [m o]
Slovene: osa?t `thistle' [m o]; #Sln. oґsЌt `thistle' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *asґutos
Lithuanian: a~šutas `hair of a horse's tail or manes' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-uto-
Page in Pokorny: 18
Proto-Slavic form: *osьla
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `whetstone'
Old Church Slavic: osla (Supr.) `whetstone' [f ѓ]
Russian: oseЁlok `whetstone' [f ѓ]
Polish: oseљka `whetstone' [f ѓ]
Slovene: oґsla `whetstone' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-i-l-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 18
Proto-Slavic form: *osь°lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `donkey'
Old Church Slavic: osьlъ `donkey' [m o]
Russian: oseЁl `donkey' [m o], oslaґ [Gens]
Czech: osel `donkey' [m o]
Slovak: osol `donkey' [m o]
Polish: osioљ `donkey' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°sao `donkey' [m o], o°sla [Gens]
Slovene: oґsЌљ `donkey' [m o], oґsla [Gens]
Lithuanian: a~silas `donkey' [m o] 3b
Old Prussian: asilis `donkey'
COMM: A borrowing fro Germanic, cf. Go. asilus.
Proto-Slavic form: *otjutiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `feel, perceive'
Old Church Slavic: oštutiti `feel, perceive, understand' [verb], oštuštǫ [1sg]
Russian: očutiґt'sja `find oneself, come to be' [verb]
Old Russian:: očutiti `notice' [verb]
Czech: ciґtiti `feel' [verb] {1}
Slovak: ciґtit' `perceive, (refl.) feel' [verb] {1}
Polish: cucicґ `bring back to consciousness, (refl.) awake' [verb] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: cґuґtjeti `feel' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. cґіti?ti (Vrgada) `feel' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. cґіti?t (Orbanicґi) `feel' [verb] {1}
Slovene: čuґtiti `feel, sense, notice' [verb], čuґtim [1sg]; #Sln. čutiґti `feel, sense, notice' [verb], čuґtim [1sg] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *iёout-
Lithuanian: jau~sti `feel, sense' [verb], jau~ča [3ps], jau~te† [3pt]
Latvian: ja°ust `feel, notice, heed, understand' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ot-iout-??
Notes: {1} With initial *tj- resulting from reanalysis of *ot-jutiti as *o-tjutiti.
Proto-Slavic form: *otjьtnǫti
GRAM: v.
Russian: očnuґt'sja `wake, regain consciousness' [verb], očnuґsь [1sg], očneЁtsja [3sg]
Czech: octnouti se `find oneself, come to be' [verb]
Slovak: ocitnout' sa `find oneself' [verb]
Polish: ockna§cґ się `awake' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *iёut-
Lithuanian: ju°sti `feel' [verb], jun~ta [3ps], ju°to [3pt]
Latvian: just `feel, notice' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ot-iut-??
Proto-Slavic form: *otrokъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `child, servant'
Old Church Slavic: otrokъ `child, son, boy, servant' [m o]
Russian: oґtrok `boy, lad, adolescent' [m o], oґtroka [Gens]
Czech: otrok `serf' [m o]
Slovak: otrok `serf' [m o]
Old Polish: otrok `hired labourer, adolescent, lad' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. otro?k (Orbanicґi) `child, boy' [m o], otroka? [Gens]
Slovene: otro°k `child, boy' [m o], otroґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: otroґk `serf, (obs.) child' [m o]
COMM: A compound of the prefix *ot- and a noun *rokъ from *rekti `speak' (as in OCS prorokъ `prophet'), cf. Lat. –nfѓns.
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `from'
Old Church Slavic: otъ `from' [prep]
Russian: ot(o) `from' [prep]
Czech: od(e) `from' [prep]
Slovak: od(o) `from' [prep]
Polish: od(e) `from' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: od(a) `from' [prep]
Slovene: o°d `from' [prep]
Bulgarian: ot `from' [prep]
Lithuanian: at- `back' [pref]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1oti
Other cognates: Skt. aґti `beyond, over' [prep]; Gk. њti `yet, still, besides' [adv]; Lat. et `and' [conj]; Go. i± `but, if' [conj]
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)lĕkъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `remainder'
Old Church Slavic: otъlĕkъ (Ps. Sin.) `remainder, rest' [Accsm o]; #OCS odъlĕkъ (Ps. Sin.) `remainder, rest' [Accsm o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *otloiko(s)
Lithuanian: a~tlaikas `remainder, remnant' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ot-loikє-o-
Page in Pokorny: 669
Other cognates: Skt. aґti `beyond, over' [prep]; Gk. њti `yet, still, besides' [adv]; Skt. rin•aґkti `leave' [verb]; Gk. le…pw `to let, to leave' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)verti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `open'
Czech: otevr№iґti `open' [verb], otevr№u [1sg], otevru [1sg]
Slovene: odvre•ґti `remove an obstruction, open' [verb], odvre°m [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *atuёertei
Lithuanian: atveґrti `open' [verb]
Latvian: atve~rt `open' [verb]
Old Prussian: etwerreis `open' [imper]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ot-uerH-
Other cognates: Skt. apavrёn•oti `open' [verb]; Lat. aper–re `open' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)verzti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `open'
Old Church Slavic: otvrĕsti `open, reveal' [verb], otvrъzǫ [1sg] {1}
Russian: otveґrzt' (poet.) `open' [verb], otveґrzu [1sg], otveґrzet [3sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *verzґtei
Lithuanian: ver~žti `string, tighten, squeeze' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1oti-uergґh
Other cognates: OHG wurgen `strangle' [verb]
Notes: {1} The prefix less frequently has the shape otъ-.
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)vĕtjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `answer'
Old Church Slavic: otъvĕštati `answer, reply' [verb], otъvĕštajǫ [1sg]
Russian: otvečaґt' `answer, reply' [verb], otvečaґju [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *ot(ъ)vori°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `open'
Old Church Slavic: otvoriti `open' [verb]
Russian: otvoriґt' `open' [verb], otvorjuґ [1sg], otvoґrit [2sg]
Czech: otevr№iґti `open' [verb]
Slovak: otvorit' `open' [verb]
Polish: otvoriti `open' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: otvo°riti `open' [verb], o°tvor–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. otvori?ti (Vrgada) `open' [verb], otvo?r–š [2sg]
Slovene: otvoriґti `open' [verb], otvoriґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: otvoґrja `open' [verb]
Lithuanian: atveґrti `open' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ot-uorH-
Other cognates: Skt. apavrёn•oti `open' [verb]; Lat. aper–re `open' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *otьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `father'
Old Church Slavic: otьcь `father' [m jo]
Russian: oteґc `father' [m jo], otcaґ [Gens]
Czech: otec `father' [m jo]
Slovak: otec `father' [m jo]
Polish: ojciec `father' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: o°tac `father' [m jo], o°ca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ota?c (Vrgada) `father' [m jo], o?ca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ota?c (Novi, Orbanicґi) `father' [m jo], oca? [Gens], oci? [Nomp]
Slovene: oґče `father' [m nt], očęґta [Gens]
Proto-Slavic form: *ovъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `this, that'
Old Church Slavic: ovъ `someone, someone else, other' [prn] {1}
Old Czech:: ov `that' [prn], ova [Nomsf], ovo [Nomsn]
Polish: oґw `that' [prn], owa [Nomsf], owo [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: o°vѓj `that' [prn], o°vѓ [Nomsf], o°vЎ [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ovi? (Vrgada) `that' [prn], ovaІЇ [Nomsf], ovo? [Nomsn]
Slovene: ǫґv `this, that' [prn]
Bulgarian: oґvi `that' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-o-
Other cognates: Av. ava- `that' [prn]
Notes: {1} ovъ...ovъ `the one...the other'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ovьca°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `sheep'
Old Church Slavic: ovьca `sheep' [f jѓ]
Russian: ovcaґ `sheep' [f jѓ], ovcuґ [Accs] {1}
Czech: ovce `sheep' [f jѓ]
Slovak: ovca `sheep' [f jѓ]
Polish: owca `sheep' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: oґvca `sheep' [f jѓ], oґvcu [Accs], o?vce [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. o?vca (Vrgada) `sheep' [f jѓ], o?vcu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. ofca? (Novi) `sheep' [f jѓ], o?fcu [Accs]
Slovene: oґvca `sheep' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: ovcaґ `sheep' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: avi°s `sheep' [f i] 4
Latvian: avs `sheep' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3eu-i-keh2
Page in Pokorny: 784
COMM: Derivative in *-keh2 of PIE *h3eu-i-.
Other cognates: Skt. aґvi- `sheep, ram' [m/f]; Gk. ФiЁj `sheep' [m/f] [1; Lat. ovis `sheep' [f]; Toch. B. awi [Nompf] `female sheep'
Notes: {1} In Old Russian:: we find indications for AP's (b) en (c) (Zaliznjak 1985: 135). According to Illič-Svityč (1963:
85), ovcaґ has mobile accentuation in 18th and 19th poetry as well as in dialects.
Proto-Slavic form: *ovьnъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `ram'
Old Church Slavic: ovьnъ (Ps. Sin., Euch.) `ram' [m o]
Russian: oveґn `Aries, (obs.) ram' [m o], ovnaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: ovьnъ `ram' [m o]
Old Czech:: oven `ram' [m o]
Old Polish: owien (Ps. Flor.) `ram' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°van `ram' [m o], oґvna [Gens]; #SCr. oґvan `ram' [m o], oґvna [Gens]
Slovene: oґvЌn `ram' [m o], oґvna [Gens]
Bulgarian: oveґn `wether' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ouёinos
Lithuanian: a~vinas `ram' [m o]
Latvian: a°uns `ram' [m o]
Old Prussian: awins (EV) `ram'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3eu-i-no-
Page in Pokorny: 784
COMM: The word for `ram' is another derivative of *h3eui- (-> *ovьсa).
Proto-Slavic form: *ovь°sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `oats'
Russian: oveЁs `oats' [m o], ovsaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: ovьsъ `oats' [m o]
Czech: oves `oats' [m o]
Slovak: ovos `oats' [m o]
Polish: owies `oats' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: o°vas `oats' [m o], oґvsa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ova?s (Orbanicґi) `oats' [m o], ofsa? [Gens]
Slovene: oґvЌs `oats' [m o], oґvsa [Gens]; #Sln. oґvЌs `oats' [m o], ovsa° [Gens]
Bulgarian: oveґs `oats' [m o]
Lithuanian: aviža° `oats' [f ѓ] 3b
Latvian: a°uzas `oats' [Nompf ѓ]
Old Prussian: wyse `oats'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eu-igґh(s)-eh2
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 88
Other cognates: Lat. avЊna [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *ozo°rdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `device for drying hay or grain'
Russian: ozoroґd `device for drying hay or grain, hay-stack' [m o]
BeloRussian: azjaroґd `device for drying sheafs' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *zґorЂdos
Lithuanian: žaґrdas `rack for drying flax' [m o] 1
Latvian: za~rds `rack for drying flax' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґ(h)ord-o-?? (gґ(h)orHd(h)-o-??)

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