Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*K)


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Всего на K (К) – 193 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *kadi°dlo
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `incense'
Page in Trubačev: IX 109
Old Church Slavic: kadilo (Ps. Sin., Euch.) `incense' [n o]
Russian: kadiґlo `thurible, censer' [n o]
Czech: kadidlo `incense' [n o]
Slovak: kadidlo `incense' [n o]
Polish: kadzidљo `fragrance' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ka°dilo `smoke, incense' [n o]
Slovene: kadiґlo• `smoking, incense' [n o]
COMM: Derivative of -> *kѓdi°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *ka?lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dirt'
Page in Trubačev: IX 127-129
Old Church Slavic: kalъ (Supr.) `dirt, mud' [m o]
Russian: kal `faeces, excrement' [m o]
Czech: kal `dirt, muddy water, puddle, sediment' [m o]
Polish: kaљ `dirt, puddle, excrement' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?l `dirt, mud, puddle' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?l (Orbanicґi) `small pond (rainwater cistern) near a village' [m o]
Slovene: ka?љ `mud in a puddle, dregs, puddle' [m o]
Bulgarian: kal `mud, dirt, dregs' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєeh2l-o-??
Other cognates: Gk. phlТj `clay, earth, mud, mire' [f]; Dor. pa?lТj `clay, earth, mud, mire' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *ka°jati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `regret, repent'
Page in Trubačev: IX 115-116
Old Church Slavic: kajati sę `repent' [verb], kajǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: kaґjat'sja `repent' [verb]
Czech: kaґti se `regret, redeem' [verb]
Slovak: kajat' sa `regret, redeem' [verb]
Polish: kajacґ się `repent, regret' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?jati `repent, be sorry, avenge' [verb], ka?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?jati se (Vrgada) `be repentent' [verb], ka?ješ se [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. se ka?jat (Orbanicґi) `repent, regret' [verb], se ka?je [3sg]
Slovene: kaґjati `blame, retort, (k. se) repent' [verb], kaґjam [1sg], kaґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaґja se `regret, repent' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwЎi-
Certainty: +
COMM: The fact that the accentological evidence points to AP (a) is problematic.
Other cognates: Av. kѓy- `repent' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kakъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `what (kind of)'
Page in Trubačev: IX 118-119
Old Church Slavic: kakъ `what (kind of)' [prn]
Russian: kakoґj `what (kind of)' [prn]
Old Czech:: kakyґ `what (kind of)' [prn]
Polish: kaki (arch.) `what (kind of)' [prn]
Serbo-Croatian: ka°k– `what (kind of)' [prn]
Slovene: kaґk `what (kind of)' [prn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kЎkos
Lithuanian: ko~ks `what (kind of)' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєЎ-ko-
Page in Pokorny: 644
Proto-Slavic form: *kaliti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `temper, case-harden'
Page in Trubačev: IX 123-124
Russian: kaliґt' `heat, roast' [verb], kaljuґ [1sg], kaliґt [3sg]
Czech: kaliti `temper, case-harden' [verb]
Slovak: kalit' `temper, case-harden' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kaґliti `temper, case-harden' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. kѓli?t `temper, harden (iron)' [verb], ka~li [3sg]
Slovene: kaliґti `temper, case-harden' [verb], kaliґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaljaґ `temper, case-harden' [verb]
Other cognates: Lat. callum `callous' [n]; OIr. calath `hard' [adj]; W caled `hard' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kaliti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `soil'
Page in Trubačev: IX 123-124
Ukrainian: kalyty (dial.) `smear a wall with clay' [verb]
Czech: kaliti `trouble, spoil' [verb]
Slovak: kalit' `trouble, spoil' [verb]
Polish: kalicґ `soil, trouble' [verb]
Slovincian: ka†~laўc `soil' [verb]
Slovene: kaliґti `trouble' [verb], kaliґm [1sg]
COMM: Clearly a derivative of -> *kalъ. According to the ESSJa, kaliti `temper', is etymologically identical.
Proto-Slavic form: *kamy
GRAM: m. n
PSLMEAN: `stone, rock'
Page in Trubačev: IX 137-140
Old Church Slavic: kamy `stone, rock' [m n], kamene [Gens]
Russian: kaґmen' `stone' [m jo], kaґmnja [Gens]
Czech: kaґmen `stone' [m o]
Slovak: kamen№ `stone' [m jo]
Polish: kamienґ `stone' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?mЊn `stone, millstone' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?men (Vrgada) `stone, millstone' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?mЊn (Novi) `stone, millstone' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?men (Orbanicґi) `rock' [m o]
Slovene: kaґmen `stone' [m o]
Lithuanian: akmuo~ `stone' [m n], akmen~s [Gens] 3b; #Lith. a~šmenys `cutting-edge, blade' [Nompm n] 3b
Latvian: akmens `stone' [m n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-men-
Other cognates: Skt. aґsґman- `stone, rock' [m]; Gk. Ґkmwn `anvil, meteor, heaven' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kara
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `punishment'
Page in Trubačev: IX 151
Church Slavic: kara `quarrel' [f ѓ]
Russian: kaґra (rhet.) `punishment, retribution' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: kaґra `punishment, retribution, anger' [f ѓ]
Czech: kaґra (arch.) `punishment, retribution' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kaґra (arch.) `punishment, retribution' [f ѓ]
Polish: kara `punishment, retribution' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kaґra `punishment, quarrel' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: ka~ras `war' [m o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *kor-
Other cognates: Gk. kŽrnh (Hesych.) `penalty' [f]; OIr. caire `blame, disapproval' [f]; W caire `blame, disapproval' [f]
Notes: {1} The etymological connection with PSl. *korъ, *kara is uncertain.
Proto-Slavic form: *karati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scold, punish'
Page in Trubačev: IX 152-153
Russian: karaґt' `punish' [verb]
Czech: kaґrati `reproach, scold, (arch.) punish' [verb]
Polish: karacґ `punish, (arch.) reproach' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kaґrati `scold, punish' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. se kѓra?t (Orbanicґi) `quarrel' [verb]
Slovene: kaґrati `nick, scold' [verb], kaґram [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaґram `scold, quarrel' [verb]
Macedonian: kara `scold' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kЎr-
Other cognates: Lat. carinѓre `use abusive language' [verb]; OHG harawЊn `mock' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kasati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: IX 155-156
Old Church Slavic: kasati sę `touch' [verb], kasajǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: kasaґt'sja `touch' [verb]
Czech: kasati `roll, roll up' [verb]
Polish: kasacґ (obs., dial.) `grab, aspire, climb, prepare' [verb]
Old Polish: kasacґ `fold back, tuck up' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?sati `trot, walk hastily' [verb]
Slovene: kasati `go while shaking one's head (horses)' [verb], kasam [1sg]
Bulgarian: kasaґe se `concerns' [verb]
Lithuanian: kasyґti `scratch constantly' [verb]
Latvian: kasi^t `plane, rake, scratch' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 585
Proto-Slavic form: *kaš(ь)lь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `cough'
Page in Trubačev: IX 160-161
Russian: kaґšelj `cough' [m jo]
Old Russian:: kašьlь `cough' [m jo]
Czech: kašel `cough' [m jo]
Slovak: kašel' `cough' [m jo]
Polish: kaszel `cough' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?šalj `cough' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?šal§ (Vrgada) `cough' [m jo]
Slovene: kaґšЌlj `cough' [m jo], kaґšlja [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kaЂs(u)lio-
Lithuanian: kosuly~s `cough' [m io] 3a
Latvian: ka~sulis `cough' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєeh2s-
Other cognates: Skt. kѓґsikѓ- (AV) `cough' [f]; OHG huosto `cough' [m]; OE hwЎsta `cough' [m]; MIr. cosachtach `cough(ing)' [f]; W pas `whooping cough'
Proto-Slavic form: *kaš(ь)l§ati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cough'
Page in Trubačev: IX 160
Church Slavic: kašьljati `cough' [verb]
Russian: kaґšljat' `cough, have a cough' [verb]
Czech: kašlati `cough' [verb]
Slovak: kašlat' `cough' [verb]
Polish: kaszlacґ `cough' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ka°šljati `cough' [verb]\, ka?šljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kašl§a?ti (Vrgada) `cough' [verb], ka?šl§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kašlja?t (Orbanicґi) `cough' [verb], ka?šljen [1sg], kašlja?n [1sg]
Slovene: ka?šljati `cough' [verb], ka?šljam [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaґšlja `cough' [verb]; #Bulg. kaґšljam `cough' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kaЂs-
Lithuanian: koґse†ti `cough' [verb]
Latvian: ka~se^t `cough' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєeh2s-
Other cognates: Skt. kѓґs- `cough' [verb]; OHG huosto `cough' [m]; OE hwЎsta `cough' [m]; MIr. cosachtach `cough(ing)' [f]; W pas `whooping cough'
Proto-Slavic form: *kazati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `show'
Page in Trubačev: IX 168-171
Old Church Slavic: kazati `show' [verb], kažǫ [1sg]
Russian: kazaґt' `show' [verb], kažuґ [1sg], kaґžet [3sg]
Czech: kaґzati `teach, judge' [verb]
Slovak: kaґzat' `rule, order, teach' [verb]
Polish: kazacґ `bid, order, let' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kaґzati `say, tell, show' [verb], ka?žЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kaІ?za?ti (Vrgada) `say, tell, show' [verb], kaІ~žeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kѓza?t (Orbanicґi) `show, point' [verb], ka~žen [1sg]
Slovene: kaґzati `show' [verb], kaґžem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaґža `say, show' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєogґ-??
Proto-Slavic form: *kaziti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `ruin'
Page in Trubačev: IX 171
Old Church Slavic: kaziti `ruin, castrate' [verb], kažǫ [1sg]
Russian: kaziґt' `spoil, ruin' [verb]
Ukrainian: kazyґty `distort' [verb]
Czech: kaziti `spoil, ruin' [verb]
Slovak: kazit' `spoil, ruin' [verb]
Polish: kazicґ `harm, ruin, destroy' [verb]
Slovincian: ka~zeёc `destroy, ruin' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: kazycґ `destroy, ruin' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: kazysґ `ruin, harm' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kaziґti (dial.) `ruin one's own appearance' [verb]
Slovene: kaziґti `spoil, ruin' [verb], kaziґm [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *kaznь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `punishment'
Page in Trubačev: IX 172-173
Old Church Slavic: kaznь (Supr., Euch.) `punishment, command' [f i]
Russian: kazn' `execution, capital punishment' [f i]
Czech: kaґzen№ `discipline' [f i]
Slovak: kaґzen№ `sermon, reprimand' [f i]
Polish: kazґnґ `torture, execution' [f i]
Old Polish: kazґnґ `punishment' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?zn (arch.) `punishment' [f i]; #SCr. ka?zanj (arch.) `punishment' [f i]
Slovene: ka?zЌn `punishment, tax' [f i], ka?zni [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєogґ-??
Proto-Slavic form: *kѓdi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `burn incense'
Page in Trubačev: IX 109-110
Old Church Slavic: kaditi (Euch.) `burn incense' [verb]
Russian: kadiґt' `burn incense' [verb], kažuґ [1sg], kadiґt [3sg]
Czech: kaditi `fumigate, burn incense' [verb]
Slovak: kadit' `smoke' [verb]
Polish: kadzicґ `burn incense' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kaґditi `smoke, burn incense' [verb], ka?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kaІЇdi?ti (Vrgada) `smoke, burn incense' [verb], kaІ~d–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kЎdi?t (Hvar) `smoke, burn incense' [verb], koґdin [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kѓdi?t (Orbanicґi) `incense' [verb]
Slovene: kadiґti `smoke, cover with dust' [verb], kadiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: kadjaґ `burn incense, smoke' [verb]
COMM: The accentuation of the Serbo-Croatian: forms points to AP (b), but the evidence of the other languages rather points to (c). Due to the absence of reliable cognates, the reconstruction of the root presents difficulties (-> *čadъ). In the case of *kѓdi°ti, we may be dealing with a lengthened grade *Ў.
Proto-Slavic form: *klasti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `put'
Page in Trubačev: IX 187-189
Old Church Slavic: klasti `put' [verb], kladǫ [1sg]
Russian: klast' `put' [verb], kladuґ [1sg], kladeЁt [3sg]
Czech: klaґsti `put' [verb], kladu [1sg]
Slovak: klaґst' `put' [verb]
Polish: kљasґcґ `put' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kla?sti (arch.) `put' [verb], klaґdЊm [1sg]/kla?dЊm [1sg]
Slovene: klaґsti `put, lay' [verb], klaґdem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kladaґ `pile' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *klaЂ(s)tei
Lithuanian: kloґti `cover' [verb]
Latvian: kla^t `cover' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kleh2
Page in Pokorny: 599
Other cognates: Go. afhla±an `overburden' [verb]; OHG hladan `load' [verb];
Proto-Slavic form: *klegotъ; klegota
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `shouting, shout'
Page in Trubačev: IX 189-190
Church Slavic: klegota (RuCS) `shouting' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: klegota `shouting' [f ѓ]
Czech: klehot (dial.) `shout' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klegh
Proto-Slavic form: *klegъtati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scream'
Page in Trubačev: IX 193
Church Slavic: klegъtati `scream' [verb]; #CS klegъtati (RuCS) `scream like an eagle' [verb]
Old Russian:: klegъtati `scream like an eagle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klegh
Proto-Slavic form: *klekotati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: IX 191
Russian: klekotaґt' `scream (like birds)' [verb]
Czech: klekotati `scream (like birds)' [verb]
Polish: klekotacґ `clatter, knock, buzz' [verb]
Slovene: klekotaґti `clack, croak' [verb], klekota?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: , klekǫґčem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klek-
Proto-Slavic form: *klekotъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: IX 191-192
Russian: kleЁkot `scream (of birds)' [m o]
Czech: klekot `scream (of birds)' [m o]
Polish: klekot `rattle' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klek-
Proto-Slavic form: *klekъtati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: IX 193
Church Slavic: klekъtati `scream' [verb]
Russian: klektaґt' `scream like birds of prey' [verb]
Czech: klektati `knock, shake' [verb]
Polish: klektacґ `knock, pound, shake' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klek-
Proto-Slavic form: *klęča°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `kneel'
Page in Trubačev: X 28-29
Old Church Slavic: klęčęšta `kneeling' [Nomdm pprsa]
Russian: kljačet' (dial.) `grow numb' [verb]
Czech: klečeti `kneel' [verb]
Polish: klęczecґ `kneel' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kleґčati `kneel, squat' [verb], kleґč–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kl§eča?ti (Vrgada) `kneel, be on your knees' [verb], kl§eči~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. klieče?t (Orbanicґi) `kneel, be on your knees' [verb], klieči~n [1sg]
Slovene: klęґčati `kneel' [verb], klečiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: klečaґ `squat' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *klenk-
Lithuanian: kleґnkti `walk with difficulty' [verb]
Latvian: klence^t `hobble' [verb]
COMM: If Lith. #kleґnkti `walk with difficulty' and #Latv. klence^t `hobble' are cognate, we must reconstruct *k(w)lenHk(w)-.
Proto-Slavic form: *klĕjь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: X 19-20
Russian: klej `glue' [m jo]
Czech: klej (dial.) `glue, resin' [m jo]
Old Czech:: kliґ `resin, clay' [m jo]
Polish: klej `glue' [m jo]; #Pl. klij `glue' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: kli?ja `glue' [m jo]
Slovene: kle•?j `bitumen, glue' [m jo], kle•?ja [Gens], kle•ja? [Gens]
Bulgarian: klej `resin, glue' [m jo]
Other cognates: Gk. kТlla `glue' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *klĕšča
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `claw, pincer'
Page in Trubačev: X 20-22
Russian: kleґšči `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]; #Ru. kleščiґ `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Old Russian:: klešča `claw' [f jѓ]
Czech: kleštĕ `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Slovak: kliešte `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Polish: kleszcze `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: klije°šta `pincers' [Nompn jo]; #SCr. klije°šte `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kli~šcґaІ (Vrgada) `pincers' [Nompn jo]; #SCr. C№ak. kl§iґšcґa (Novi) `pincers' [Nompn jo]; #SCr. C№ak. klie~šcґa (Orbanicґi) `pair of tongs' [Nompn jo]
Slovene: kle•ґšče `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Bulgarian: kleґšti `pincers' [Nompf jѓ]
Lithuanian: kli°še† `(crab's) pincer' [f Њ]
COMM: If we start from a root *k(w)lkґ-, the etymon *klĕšča may be reconstructed as k(w)loikґ-t-ieh2. A possible cognate is #Skt. klesґ- (SґB+) `trouble, torment'.
Proto-Slavic form: *klĕščiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: X 22-23
Czech: kleštiti `castrate' [verb]; #Cz. klestiti `prune, clear, castrate' [verb]
Old Czech:: klestiti `castrate' [verb], klešču [1sg]
Slovak: klieštit' `castrate' [verb]
Polish: klesґcicґ (dial.) `castrate' [verb], kleszczę [1sg], klesґcisz [2sg]; #Pl. kleszczyc (1902) `castrate' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: klije°štiti `squeeze' [verb]
COMM: Apparently a derivative of -> *klĕšča. The ESSJa suggests that forms reflecting *klestiti are analogical after *pustiti, 1sg. *puščǫ. This may very well be correct, but it should be noted that the West Slavic forms with *-šč-, which could be analogical after the present stem or the noun *klĕšča, are comparatively recent.
Proto-Slavic form: *klĕtь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: X 25-27
Old Church Slavic: klĕtь `closet, abode' [f i]
Russian: klet' `cage (in mines), (dial.) store-room, shed' [f i]
Polish: klecґ `hut, cabin, (arch.) store-room' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: kli?jet `closet, cabin, granary' [f i]
Slovene: kle•?t `cellar, store-room' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kleґЂtis
Lithuanian: kle†ґtis `barn, granary' [f i]
Latvian: kle~ts `granary' [f i]
COMM: Unlike the ESSJa, I consider it unlikely that the Baltic forms are borrowings from Slavic (see also Fraenkel s.v. kle†ґtis, Anikin 2005: 169-171). I agree that long vowels in borrowings are not necessarily circumflex in Lithuanian, but the vocalism e† instead of ie is not what we would expect in a loanword from Slavic. The ESSJa assumes that the vocalism is due to remodelling, but I find that unconvincing. It seems preferable to reconstruct *kleh1-ti- with secondary mobility in the Slavic i-stem. The reason why the Baltic words gave been regarded as borrowings is that it makes it possible to derive the *ĕ of the Slavic etymon from *oi, cf. #Go. hlei±ra `hut, tent', #OIr. cliґath `hurdle, woven wall', late #Lat. clЊta `enclosure' < *kґlei-, whereas a root kґleh1- cannot easily be connected forms from other branches of Indo-European.
Proto-Slavic form: *kli?kъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `cry'
Page in Trubačev: X 43
Russian: klik `cry' [m o]
Old Russian:: klik `cry, shouting' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kli?k `cry, call, scream (of birds)' [m o]
Slovene: kli?k `cry' [m o]
COMM: Deverbative o-stem. See -> *kli°kati.
Proto-Slavic form: *kli°kati; kli°cati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `cry out, call'
Page in Trubačev: X 41
Old Church Slavic: klicati `cry out, wail' [verb], kličǫ [1sg]
Russian: kliґkat' `call' [verb]
Old Czech:: kliґčeti `call' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kli?cati `cheer, shout, cry out, call' [verb]; #SCr. kli?kati (dial.) `cry out, make a merry noise' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. kl§i?cati (Vrgada) `cheer, shout, cry out, call' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. kli?cat (Orbanicґi) `announce (news, publicly)' [verb]; #SCr.
Slovene: kliґcati `shout, call' [verb], kli?čem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kliЂkaЂ-
Lithuanian: kly~kti `scream, yell' [verb]; klyґkoti `scream, yell' [verb]
Latvian: kli~ka^t `scream loudly (in a forest)' [verb]
COMM: The acute of the Baltic forms in *-ѓti may be metatonical, but on the basis of the Slavic evidence I am inclined to reconstruct a root containing a laryngeal.
Proto-Slavic form: *kli°knǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `cry out'
Page in Trubačev: X 42
Church Slavic: kliknuti (RuCS) `cry out' [verb]
Russian: kliґknut' (dial.) `cry out' [verb]
Old Russian:: kliknuti `cry out' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kli?knuti `cry out, call' [verb]; #SCr. kliґknuti `cry out, call' [verb]
Slovene: kliґkniti `cry out' [verb], kli?knem [1sg]
COMM: Perfective in *-nǫti. See -> *kli°kati.
Proto-Slavic form: *klokotati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `bubble, gurgle'
Page in Trubačev: X 64-65
Old Church Slavic: klokotati (Supr.) `bubble, boil' [verb], klokoštǫ [1sg]
Russian: klokotaґt' `bubble, gurgle' [verb]
Czech: klokotati `bubble, gurgle, boil, sing (of a nightingale)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kloko°tati `bubble, gurgle' [verb]
Bulgarian: kloko°tati `bubble, gurgle' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *klъkati; klъcati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pound'
Page in Trubačev: X 79-80
Old Church Slavic: klъcaše (Ps. Sin.) `made diligent search' [3sg impf] {1}
Church Slavic: klьcati (RuCS) 'pound' [verb]; klъčati (RuCS) `pound' [verb] {2}
Slovak: klkat' (dial.) `batter, pound' [verb]
Slovene: koґљcati `knock' [verb], koґљcam [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaўґlcam `chop up, mince, pick' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: The reflex *-c- of the second palatalization can only be regular if the root vowel is *ь. The ESSJa reconstructs ъ, presumably in view of forms such as #Ru. klok `rag, tuft', #Ru. klyґkat' (dial.) `beat, hew'. On the other hand, there are Russian Church Slavic forms belonging to a verb klьcati or klecati.
Notes: {1} In klъcaše d[u]xъ moi (Psalm 76:7). {2} E.g. klъcaaše duxъ moi (Psalm 76:7) and a srdce klьčaše v nĕmь (from klьčati or klьkati?).
Proto-Slavic form: *kl§učiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `lock'
Page in Trubačev: X 50
Old Church Slavic: ključiti sę `happen' [verb], ključǫ sę [1sg]
Church Slavic: ključiti (RuCS) `lock' [verb] {1}
Czech: kliґčiti (Jungmann, Kott) `lock' [verb]
Slovak: kl'učati `squat' [verb]
Slovincian: kleЁčeЁc `lock' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: klju°čiti `lock, peck' [verb]; #SCr. klju?čiti `lock, peck' [verb]
Slovene: kljuґčiti `bend' [verb], klju?čim [1sg] {2}
COMM: According to the ESSJa, this is a derivative of -> *kl§uґčь, but the accentological evidence suggests that in some cases we might be dealing with a derivative of -> *kl§u?ka.
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 140). {2} The form kljuґčim (Pleteršnik I: 409) is incorrect (see o.c. II: V).
Proto-Slavic form: *kl§uґčь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `key'
Page in Trubačev: X 50-52
Old Church Slavic: ključь `key' [m jo]
Russian: ključ' `key' [m jo]
Czech: kliґč `hook, key' [m jo]
Slovak: kl'uґč `key' [m jo]
Polish: klucz `key' [m jo]
Slovincian: klu†ґč `key' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: klju?č `hook, seedling, key' [m jo], kljuґča [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kl§u~č (Vrgada) `hook, seedling, key' [m jo], kl§іča? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. klju~č (Orbanicґi) `key' [m jo], kljіča? [Gens]
Slovene: kljuґč `hook, key' [m jo]
Bulgarian: ključ `key' [m jo]
Proto-Slavic form: *kl§u°ka
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hook'
Page in Trubačev: X 55-56
Russian: kljukaґ `walking-stick, (dial.) poker' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kljuka `deceit, walking-stick, poker' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: kljuґka `pole with a hook, hook' [f ѓ]
Czech: klika `door-handle' [f ѓ]; #Cz. kliґka (Jungmann) `bend, hook' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kl'uka `joint, knob' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: kluka `hook' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: kla†~ka `yoke' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: klju?ka `hook, door-knob' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kljuґka `hook, knee-pad, handle' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: kliіґti `brush against, be caught in, obstruct' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kleh2u-
COMM: The reconstruction of the root as *kleh2u- implies that the *e of *kleЂu is secondary (Schrijver 1991: 175).
Other cognates: Gk. klhЏj (Ion.), klaЇЏj (Dor.) `bolt, catch, hook, key, rowing pen' [f]; Lat. clѓvis `key' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kobь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: X 101
Old Church Slavic: kobь (Supr.) `fate' [f i]
Russian: kob' (dial.) `evil, obstinacy, scoundrel' [f i]
Old Czech:: koba `wish, success' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?b `encounter, omen, augury' [f i]
COMM: Origin unclear. We may be dealing with a substratum word. #OIr. cob n.(?) `victory' may or may not belong here.
Other cognates: OIc. happ `success' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *kobьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: X 101
Russian: koґbec (Dal') `honey buzzard' [m jo]
Old Russian:: kobecъ `merlin' [m jo]
Ukrainian: kiґbec' `merlin' [m jo]
Slovak: kobec `merlin' [m jo]
Polish: kobiec `falcon' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°bac `merlin' [m jo]
Slovene: koґbЌc `sparrow hawk' [m jo]; #Sln. skoґbЌc `sparrow hawk' [m jo]
COMM: Origin unclear. The suggestion that this etymon is cognate with -> *kobь is based on augural rites.
Other cognates: OIc. haukr `hawk' [m]; OHG habuh `hawk' [m]; OHG habuh `hawk' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ko?košь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hen'
Page in Trubačev: X 115-116
Old Church Slavic: kokošь (Mar.) `hen' [f i]
Czech: kokoš (dial.) `cock' [f i]
Slovak: kokoš (dial.) `cock' [f i]
Polish: kokosz `hen' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?kЎš `hen' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?kЎš (Vrgada) `hen' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?koš (Orbanicґi) `chicken, hen' [f i], kokoši? [Gens]
Slovene: koko•?š `hen' [f i]
COMM: Probably onomatopoetic in origin.
Proto-Slavic form: *ko?lsъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ear, spike'
Page in Trubačev: X 152-153
Old Church Slavic: klasъ `ear, spike' [m o]
Russian: koґlos `ear, spike' [m o]
Ukrainian: koґlos `ear, spike' [m o]
Czech: klas `ear, spike' [m o]
Slovak: klas `ear, spike' [m o]
Polish: kљos `ear, spike' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: kљoґs `ear, spike' [m o], kљosa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: kla?s `ear, spike, corn-cob' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. klaІ?s (Vrgada) `ear, spike, corn-cob' [m o], klaІ?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kla?s (Orbanicґi) `ear, corn-cob' [m o], kla?sa [Gens]
Slovene: kla?s `ear, corn-cob' [m o/u], kla?sa [Gens], klasu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: klas `ear' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kolH-so-
Proto-Slavic form: *ko?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bone'
Page in Trubačev: XI 167-173
Old Church Slavic: kostь `bone' [f i]
Russian: kost' `bone' [f i]
Czech: kost `bone' [f i]
Slovak: kost' `bone' [f i]
Polish: kosґcґ `bone' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?st `bone' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?st (Vrgada) `bone' [f i], ko?sti [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?st (Novi) `bone' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. kuo?s (Novi) `bone' [f i], kosti? [Gens]
Slovene: ko•?st `bone, pit' [f i]
Bulgarian: kost `bone' [f i]
COMM: The relationship with the otherwise isolated Lat. costa `rib' seems possible. An interesting alternative hypothesis is to regard the *k of *ko?stь as the reflex of the initial laryngeal of PIE h2ost- `bone' in an Indo-European substratum language (cf. Kortlandt 1997b: 47, where the option is dismissed, however).
Other cognates: Lat. costa `rib' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *ko?sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `blackbird'
Page in Trubačev: XI 175-177
Church Slavic: kosъ (RuCS) `blackbird' [m o]
Russian: kos (arch., dial.) `starling' [m o]
Ukrainian: kis (dial.) `blackbird' [m o], kosaґ [Gens]
Czech: kos `blackbird' [m o]; #Cz. ku•s (dial.) `blackbird' [m o]
Slovak: kos (dial.) `blackbird' [m o]
Polish: kos `blackbird' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?s `blackbird' [m o]
Slovene: ko•?s `blackbird' [m o]
Bulgarian: kos `blackbird' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kopso-
Other cognates: Gk. kТyicoj `blackbird' [m]; Gk. kТssufoj `blackbird' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kogъda; kogъdy
GRAM: adv./conj.
PSLMEAN: `when'
Page in Trubačev: X 108-109
Old Church Slavic: kogda `when, sometimes, one time' [adv/conj]
Russian: kogdaґ `when' [adv/conj]
Old Czech:: kehdy `when' [adv/conj]
Polish: kiedy `when' [adv/conj]
Old Polish: kiedy `when' [adv/conj]; #OPl. kiegdy `when' [adv/conj]
Serbo-Croatian: ka°da `when' [adv/conj]
Slovene: kЌdaґ `when, sometime' [adv]; #Sln. kЌdaґj `when, sometime' [adv]; #Sln. kdaґ `when, sometime' [adv]; #Sln. kdaґj `when, sometime' [adv]; #Sln. kadaґ `when, sometime' [adv]; #Sln. kadaj `when, sometime' [adv]
Bulgarian: kogaґ `when' [adv/conj]
COMM: The element *ko- must reflect *kєo-. The element *gъda is sometimes interpreted as *goda, Gsg. of -> go?dъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *kojariti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: X 111-112
Polish: kojarzycґ `connect, match, unite' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kojaґriti `increase, develop' [verb]
COMM: The connection with *jarьmo is uncertain.
Proto-Slavic form: *kokotъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `cock'
Page in Trubačev: X 117-118
Old Church Slavic: kokotъ `cock' [m o]
Old Czech:: kokot `cock, penis' [m o]
Slovak: kokot `penis' [m o]
Polish: kokot (arch., dial.) `cock' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?kЎt `cock' [m o]
Slovene: koko•?t `cock' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°lda
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `block, log'
Page in Trubačev: X 122-123
Old Church Slavic: gladǫ (sic: Supr.) `block' [Accsf ѓ]
Russian: koloґda `block, log, (water-)trough' [f ѓ]
Czech: klaґda `block, log, beam' [f ѓ]
Slovak: klada `block, log, beam' [f ѓ]
Polish: kљoda `block, log' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: kљoґda `stocks, fetter' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kla?da `block, log, beam' [f ѓ]
Slovene: klaґda `block, log, layer' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: klaґda `pile, pyre' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kold-eh2
Other cognates: Gk. klŽdoj `branch, shoot' [m]; OIc. holt `wood' [m]; OHG holz `wood' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kolĕ°no
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `knee'
Page in Trubačev: X 132-134
Old Church Slavic: kolĕno `knee' [n o]
Russian: koleґno `knee' [n o]
Czech: koleno `knee, generation' [n o]
Slovak: koleno `knee, (arch.) generation' [n o]
Polish: kolano `knee' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°ljeno `knee, joint' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. koli?no (Vrgada) `knee, joint' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. kole?no (Novi, Orbanicґi) `knee' [n o]
Slovene: kole•ґno• `knee, generation, origin' [n o]
Bulgarian: koljaґno `knee, generation, origin' [n o]
Lithuanian: ke~lis `knee' [m io]
Latvian: celis `knee' [m io]
COMM: As to the etymology of the root, there are two candidates, viz. *kelH- `rise, raise, lift' and *kєel(H)- `turn, rotate'. I prefer the former option for semantic reasons. The connection with Gk. kw~lon `limb', which cannot reflect an initial labiovelar, is hardly secure enough to serve as a formal argument.
Proto-Slavic form: *koli
GRAM: adv./conj.
PSLMEAN: `how much'
Page in Trubačev: X 135-136
Old Church Slavic: koli `when, ever' [adv/conj]
Russian: koґli (obs., dial.) `if' [adv/conj]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?li (RJA, RSA: obs., dial.) `how much' [adv/conj]
Slovene: ko•°li `however much' [adv/conj]
COMM: Adverb (also conjunction) consisting of the neuter pronoun *ko and the particle li, cf. #Ru. li, which functions as an interrogative particle and as a conjunction `whether, if'.
Proto-Slavic form: *koliko
GRAM: adv./prn.
PSLMEAN: `how much'
Page in Trubačev: X 135-136
Old Church Slavic: koliko `how much' [adv/prn]
Czech: koliko (arch.) `how much' [adv/prn]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?liko (Vuk) `how much' [adv/prn]; #SCr. ko°liko `how much' [adv/prn]; #SCr. koli°ko `how much' [adv/prn]; #SCr. C№ak. koli?ko (Orbanicґi) `how much' [adv/prn]
Slovene: ko•ґliko `how much' [adv/prn]
COMM: Derivative in * -ko- of -> *koli.
Proto-Slavic form: *kolkolъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bell'
Page in Trubačev: X 137-138
Church Slavic: klakolъ `bell' [m o]
Russian: koґlokol `bell' [m o]
Old Russian:: kolokolъ `bell' [m o]
Polabian: kla•t'Žl `bell' [m o]
Latvian: kal§uo^t `talk idly' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kolHkolH-o-
Other cognates: Gk. kŽlew `call' [verb]; Lat. calѓre `call' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kolo
GRAM: n. s
PSLMEAN: `wheel'
Page in Trubačev: X 141-145
Old Church Slavic: kolo `wheel' [n s/o], kolese [Gens], kola [Gens]
Russian: kolesoґ `wheel' [n o]
Ukrainian: koґlo `wheel, circle' [n o]
Czech: kolo `wheel' [n o]
Slovak: kolo `wheel, circle' [n o]
Polish: koљo `wheel' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?lo `wheel, circle' [n s], kole°sa [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?lo (Vrgada) `wheel, circle' [n o], ko?laІЇ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?lo (Novi) `wheel, circle' [n o], ko?la [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. kuo?lo (Orbanicґi) `wheel, circle' [n o], kuo?la [Nomp]
Slovene: kolo•? `wheel, circle' [n s], kolęґsa [Gens], kolę?sa [Gens]
Lithuanian: ka~klas `neck' [m o] 4
Latvian: kakls `neck, throat' [m o]
Old Prussian: kelan `wheel' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєol(H)-es-
Page in Pokorny: 639
COMM: Meillet (Eґt.: 357) suggests that the root vocalism *o (unexpected in an s-stem) is due to contamination with the masculine o-stem that is reflected in #Gk. pТloj `(axis or pole of the) celestial sphere'.
Other cognates: Skt. cakraґ- `wheel (of a chariot, of the sun, of the year)' [n]; Gk. kЪkloj `circle, ring, wheel' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kolti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `stab, sting'
Page in Trubačev: X 154-156
Old Church Slavic: klati `kill' [verb], koljǫ [1sg]
Russian: koloґt' `prick, stab, chop' [verb], koljuґ [1sg], koґljet [3sg]
Czech: klaґti `stab, beat, kill' [verb]
Slovak: klat' `stab, butt, kill' [verb]
Polish: kљucґ `sting, prick' [verb]
Slovincian: klu°oёc `sting, prick' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kla?ti `chop, cut' [verb], ko?ljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kla?ti `chop, cut' [verb], ko?l§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kla?t (Orbanicґi) `slaughter' [verb], ko?lje [3sg]
Slovene: klaґti `sting, bite, slaughter, split, beat' [verb], kǫґljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: koґlja `slaughter, kill' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kolЂ-
Lithuanian: kaґlti `beat, forge' [verb]
Latvian: kal~t `beat, forge' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kolH-
Other cognates: Lat. calamitas `damage' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kolti°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `shake, strike'
Page in Trubačev: X 156-158
Old Church Slavic: klatiti (Supr.) `shake' [verb], klaštǫ [1sg]
Russian: kolotiґt' `strike, smash, shake' [verb], koločuґ [1sg], koloґtit [3sg]
Czech: klaґtiti `shake' [verb]
Slovak: klaґtit' `shake, swing' [verb]
Polish: kљoґcicґ `stir up, cause to quarrel' [verb]
Slovincian: klu°oёceўc `kill' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: klaґtiti `shake, swing' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. klѓti?t (Orbanicґi) `beat, shake (e.g. nuts from a tree), knock about' [verb], kla~tin [1sg]
Slovene: klaґtiti `knock down, shake off' [verb], klaґtim [1sg]
Bulgarian: klaґtja `shake, swing' [verb]
COMM: Denominative verb. See -> koltъ
Other cognates: Lat. calamitas `damage' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *koґltъ; kolta; kolto°
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ; n. o
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: X 158-159
Russian: koґlot (dial.) `wooden sledge-hammer, heavy club' [m o]; #Ru. koloґta (dial.) `flail, threshing floor' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kolotъ `instrument for ramming' [m o]
BeloRussian: koґlat `pole for rousing fish' [m o]
Ukrainian: koґlot `quarrel' [m o]
Czech: klaґt `bee-hive, piece of wood around the neck of a mean dog, (dial.) log' [m o]
Slovak: klaґt `log, block, primitive bee-hive' [m o]
Polish: kљota (dial.) `boot-tree, last' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: klaґto `log around the neck or feet of livestock' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. klѓto? (Orbanicґi) `clapper, tongue (of a bell)' [n o], kla~ta [Nomp]
Slovene: klaґta `log around the neck of a pig' [f ѓ]
COMM: I assume that the mobile o-stems found in East Slavic are secondary and that the root-final laryngeal was lost in pretonic position in an end-stressed noun kolЂto° or kolЂtъ°. Note that due to the transfer of the original barytone neuter o-stems (in *-om > *-um > *-ъ) to the class of the masculine o-stems, there was widespread vacillation between the Nsg. endings *-ъ and *-o (cf. Illič-Svityč 1963: 49, Derksen forthc. d: passim). The relationship between *koґltъ and -> *kolti°ti may be compared with the one between -> *moltъ and -> *molti°ti but is not completely parallel (see -> *moltъ). I wonder if the East Slavic variant koґlot may be analgical after moґlot.
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°lъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `stake'
Page in Trubačev: X 160-161
Old Church Slavic: kolъ (Supr.) `stake' [m o]
Russian: kol `stake' [m o]
Czech: ku•l `stake' [m o]
Slovak: ko^l `stake' [m o]
Polish: koґљ `stake' [m o], koљu [Gens], koљa [Gens]
Slovene: ko°љ `pole, stake' [m o], koґla [Gens]
Bulgarian: kol `pole, stake' [m o]
Lithuanian: kuo~las `stake' [m o]
COMM: Originally neuter o-stem derivative of -> *kolti.
Proto-Slavic form: *konъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: X 195-196
Russian: kon `row, turn, kitty (in games)' [m o]; #Ru. kon (dial.) `beginning, end, turn' [m o]
Old Russian:: kon `end, limit' [m o]
Old Czech:: kon `end' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: koґn `period, moment' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?n `beginning, end' [m o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *kon-o-
Other cognates: Gk. kainТj `new' [adj; Lat. recens `fresh, young, new' [adj]; OIr. ceґt- `first'
Notes: {1} In the expression od kona do kona `from beginning to end'.
Proto-Slavic form: *konь°cь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `end'
Page in Trubačev: XI 5-6
Old Church Slavic: konьcь `end, boundary' [m jo]
Russian: koneґc `end, boundary' [m o]
Czech: konec `end, limit' [m jo]
Old Czech:: konec `death, death penalty' [m jo]
Slovak: koniec `end' [m jo]
Polish: koniec `end' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: koґnc `end' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°nac `thread, end' [m o], koґnca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kona?c (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `thread, end' [m o], konca? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kona?c (Novi) `thread, end' [m o], kЎnca? [Gens]
Slovene: koґnЌc `end, tip, beginning, purpose' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kon-
COMM: Derivative in *-ьсь. See -> *konъ.
Other cognates: Gk. kainТj `new' [adj; Lat. recens `fresh, young, new' [adj]; OIr. ceґt- `first'
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°n§ь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `horse'
Page in Trubačev: X 197-198
Old Church Slavic: kon§ь `horse' [m jo]
Russian: kon' `horse' [m jo]
Czech: kuІn№ `horse' [m jo], konĕ [Gens]
Slovak: ko^n№ `horse' [m jo], kon№a [Gens]
Polish: konґ `horse' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: koґnґ `horse' [m jo], konja [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?nj `horse' [m jo], ko°nja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ko~n§ (Vrgada) `horse' [m jo], konja? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kuo~nj (Orbanicґi) `horse' [m jo], konja? [Gens]
Slovene: ko°nj `horse' [m jo], koґnja [Gens]
Bulgarian: kon `horse' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kab-n-io-?? {1} (kom-n-io-??) {2}
COMM: Etymology disputed. An attempt can be made to connect ko°nь with #Ru. kobyґla `mare', etc., which may be cognate with Lat. caballus `working-horse'. In that case we might posit a (non-IE) root *kab- and derive *ko°nь from *kab-n-io-. Another possibility is to start from *kom-nь and seek a connection with #ORu. komonь, #Cz. komon№ `horse' and maybe also #Lith. kume~le† `mare'.
Notes: {1} Cf. Ru. kobyґla `mare' etc,, which may be cognate with Lat. caballus `working-horse'. {2} Cf. Cz. komon№ `horse', etc.
Proto-Slavic form: *kopa
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `heap, shock'
Page in Trubačev: XI 10-12
Russian: kopaґ `heap of hay or rye' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kopa `monetary unit, shock (group of sixty units, group of sheaves)' [f ѓ]
Czech: kopa `shock (group of sixty units), heap, pile, (dial.) hay-stack' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kopa `shock (group of sixty units), heap, pile, hay-stack' [f ѓ]
Polish: kopa `shock (group of sixty units, group of sheaves), hay-stack' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?pa (Vuk) `hay-stack' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ko°pa `hay-stack' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?pa (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `hay-stack' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?pa (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `hay-stack' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?pa (Orbanicґi) `hole (to plant a tree in)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: koґpa `hay-stack' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kopaґ `heap' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kop-
Lithuanian: ka~pas `grave' [m o] 4
Latvian: kaps `grave' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Deverbative ѓ-stem. See -> *kopa°ti.
Page in Pokorny: 930
Proto-Slavic form: *kopa°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `dig'
Page in Trubačev: XI 18-20
Old Church Slavic: kopati `dig' [verb], kopajǫ [1sg]
Russian: kopaґt `dig' [verb], kopaґju [1sg]
Czech: kopati `dig' [verb]
Slovak: kopat' `dig' [verb]
Polish: kopacґ `dig' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°pati `dig' [verb], ko?pѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kopa?ti (Vrgada) `dig' [verb], ko?paІ?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kopa?t (Orbanicґi) `dig, cultivate (land)' [verb], kopa?n [1sg]
Slovene: koґpati `dig' [verb], kǫґpljem [1sg]; #Sln. kopaґti `dig' [verb], kopa?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: kopaґja `dig' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kop-
Lithuanian: kapoґti `chop, hew' [verb]
Latvian: kapa^t `chop, hew' [verb]
Old Prussian: enkopts `buried' [ppp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kop-
Page in Pokorny: 930
Other cognates: Gk. kТptw `beat, hit' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *koprъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `dill'
Page in Trubačev: XI 26-27
Old Church Slavic: koprъ (Mar.) `dill' [Accsm o]
Russian: kopeЁr `dill' [m o]
Czech: kopr `dill' [m o]
Slovak: ko^por `dill' [m o]
Polish: koper `dill' [m o]
Old Polish: kopr `dill' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?par `dill' [m o]
Slovene: koґpЌr `dill, camomile' [m o]
Bulgarian: koґpaўr `dill' [m o]
COMM: The ESSJa holds that the root is *kuep- `smell', but I consider it more likely that we are dealing with a borrowing.
Other cognates: Gk. kЪpeirov (Hom.) `galingale' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *kopъtъ; kopъtь
GRAM: m. o; f. i
PSLMEAN: `soot'
Page in Trubačev: XI 29-30
Russian: koґpot `soot, (dial.) smoke, dust, hoarfrost' [f i]
Old Russian:: kopotь `soot, dust' [f i]
Ukrainian: koґpit `dust (in the air)' [m o]
Czech: kopt `soot' [m o]
Old Czech:: kopet `soot' [m o]
Slovak: kopt (arch.) `soot' [m o]
Polish: kopiecґ `soot, fumes' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuёop-
Lithuanian: kva~pas `smoke' [m o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(w)h2uop-o-
COMM: The reconstruction k(w)h2uop-o-\x was first proposed by Schrijver (1991: 161), who tried to account for the accentual difference between Latv. ku^pt, ku^pe^t `smoke, steam' and Lith. kve†~pti `cough, breathe' by placing the laryngeal before the *u. The broken tone of Latv. kve^pt is assumed to be analogical after the zero grade. I would like to add that the broken tone may also orginate from the sta-present, cf. #Latv. pi^kt `be angry' vs. #Latv. pikts `angry'. Schrijver does not discuss -> *kypĕ°ti, whicj he correctly groups together with Latvian forms containing a root kup- (see -> kypĕ°ti).
Other cognates: Gk. kapnТj `smoke' [m] {1}; Lat. vapor `steam' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} Both probably < * k(w)uh2ep.
Proto-Slavic form: *kopьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `spear, lance'
Page in Trubačev: XI 40-41
Old Church Slavic: kopije `spear, lance' [n io]
Russian: kop'eЁ `spear, lance' [n io], koґp'ja [Nomp]
Czech: kopiґ `spear, lance' [n io]
Old Polish: kopije `spear, lance' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°plje `spear, lance, point, shaft' [n jo]; #SCr. ko?plje `spear, lance, point, shaft' [n jo]
Slovene: kopję? `spear, lance, wedding banner' [n jo]
Bulgarian: koґpie `spear, lance' [n io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kop-
Page in Pokorny: 930
COMM: Deverbative of -> *kopa°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *kora°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bark'
Page in Trubačev: XI 44-45
Church Slavic: kora `bark' [f ѓ]
Russian: koraґ `bark' [f ѓ]
Czech: kuІra `bark, crust' [f ѓ]; #Cz. kora (obs.) `bark, crust' [f ѓ]
Slovak: ko^ra `bark, crust' [f ѓ]
Polish: kora `bark' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?ra `bark, crust' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?ra (Vrgada) `bark, crust' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?ra (Orbanicґi) `bark (of a tree), crust, peel (of fruit)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: koґra `bark, crust' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: koraґ `bark, crust' [f ѓ]
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 938
COMM: Prosodically, some forms behave as if *kora belongs to the *vo°l§a type (cf. Zaliznjak 1985: 135-136, Verweij 1994: 507, 510). The root is (s)ker-, cf. #Gk. ke…rw `shear', #OIc. skera `cut'.
Proto-Slavic form: *korb–
GRAM: f. –
PSLMEAN: `basket'
Page in Trubačev: XI 55-56
Old Church Slavic: krabii (Supr., Ass.) `casket, basket' [f –]
Russian: koґrob'ja (dial.) `box or case for storing clothes' [f iѓ]; #Ru. koґrob'ja (dial.) `box or case for storing clothes' [f iѓ]
Old Russian:: korobьja `box, basket' [f iѓ]
Polish: krobia `basket, box' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: kar~bas `basket' [m o]
Other cognates: Lat. corbis `basket' [f]; OHG korb `basket' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *korbъ; korba
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `basket'
Page in Trubačev: XI 52-54
Russian: koґrob `box, basket' [m o]
Old Russian:: korobъ `box, basket' [m o]
Czech: krabuše `wicker basket' [f jѓ]
Polish: kroba (dial.) `wicker box' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kraba `box' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: kar~bas `basket' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *korbh-o-s
Other cognates: Lat. corbis `basket' [f]; OHG korb `basket' [m]; Fi. karpas `basket' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *korda
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `pile of logs'
Page in Trubačev: XI 58-60
Old Church Slavic: krada (Supr.) `bonfire, stake' [f ѓ]
Russian: krada `bonfire' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: koґroda `pile of logs, wood-stack' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: krada `tinder-box, torch' [f ѓ]
Polish: kroґda (dial.) `hay-cock, stack of sheafs in a field' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kraґda `pile of logs, wood-stack, refining works' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kord-eh2
Other cognates: Go. hrЎt `roof' [n]; MHG rѓz(e) `stake' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *korenь
GRAM: m. n
PSLMEAN: `root'
Page in Trubačev: XI 62-65
Old Church Slavic: korenь `root' [m n]; #OCS korę (PsDim.) `root' [Accsm?? n] {1}
Church Slavic: korenь (RuCS) `root' [m n]; #CS korę (RuCS) `root' [m?? n]
Russian: koґren' `root' [m jo], koґrnja [Gens]
Czech: kor№en `root' [m o]
Slovak: koren№ `root' [m jo]
Polish: korzenґ `root' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?rijen `root' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?ren (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `root' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?rЊn (Novi) `root' [m o]
Slovene: korę?n `root' [m o]; #Sln. kǫ?ren `root' [m o]; #Sln. kǫ?rЌn `root' [m o]
Bulgarian: koґren `root' [m o]
Lithuanian: ke~ras `tree-stump, stub, bush, shrub' [m o] 4
Latvian: cęrs `bush, knotty root of a tree' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)or(H)-en-
Notes: {1} Also kory (see Birnbaum and Schaeken 1997: 32, 147-148).
Proto-Slavic form: *korica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `bark'
Page in Trubačev: XI 69-70
Old Church Slavic: koricę `cinnamon' [Nompf jѓ]
Russian: koriґca `cinnamon' [f jѓ]
Czech: skor№ice `cinnamon' [f jѓ]; #Cz. kor№ice (Kott) `cinnamon' [f jѓ]
Slovak: korica `small bread-basket' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?rica `bark, crust' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?rice (Vrgada) `scabbard, sheath' [Nompf jѓ]
Slovene: koґrica `bark, crust' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: koriґca `cover (of a book), binding' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kor-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 938
COMM: Derivative of -> *kora°.
Proto-Slavic form: *kori°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `reproach'
Page in Trubačev: XI 74-77
Old Church Slavic: koriti (Supr.) `jeer at' [verb], korjǫ [1sg]
Russian: koriґt' `upbraid (for), reproach (with)' [verb]
Czech: kor№iti se `submit, resign oneself' [verb]
Slovak: korit' sa `submit, resign oneself' [verb]
Polish: korzycґ się `humble oneself' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°riti `reproach (with)' [verb]
Slovene: koriґti `reproach, punish' [verb], koriґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: korjaґ `reproach (with), scold' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kor-
Indo-European reconstruction: *kor-
Other cognates: Lat. carinѓre `use abusive language' [verb]; OHG harawЊn `mock' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°rsta
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `scab'
Page in Trubačev: XI 93-95
Old Church Slavic: krasta (Euch.) `scab (of a leper)' [f ѓ]
Russian: koroґsta `scab' [f ѓ]
Czech: chraґsta `mange, scab' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: kraґsty `mange' [Nompf ѓ]
Slovak: chrasta `scab' [f ѓ]
Polish: krosta `rash, scab' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?sta `scab(s), leprosy' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kra?sta (Vrgada) `scab(s), leprosy' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kra?sta (Orbanicґi) `blister, corn' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kraґsta `scab(s)' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kraґsta `scab(s)' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *korHs-teh2
COMM: The often advocated connection with #Lith. kar~šti, #Latv. kѓ°rst `comb, card', Lat. carrere `card' (from PIE *(s)ker-s-) is problematic because the tone of the Baltic verb does not match the acute of *ko°rsta. Perhaps there is a relationship with PGm. *harska- `raw'.
Other cognates: MoHG verharschen `form scabs' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *koґrtъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `once, time'
Page in Trubačev: XI 99-100
Old Church Slavic: kratъ `once, time' [adv/m o]
Czech: kraґt `once, time' [adv/m o]
Slovak: dvakraґt `twice' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?t (arch.) `once, time' [adv/m o]
Slovene: kra°t `once, time' [m o], kraґta [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *korto-
Lithuanian: kar~tas `once, time' [m o] 2
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)koґrt-o-m
Page in Pokorny: 941
Other cognates: Skt. krёtvas (RV+) `- time(s)' [adv]; Skt. sakrёґt (RV+) `once' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *kortъ°kъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `short'
Page in Trubačev: XI 101-104
Church Slavic: kratъkъ `short' [adj o]
Russian: koroґtkij `short' [adj o]
Czech: kraґtkyґ `short' [adj o]
Slovak: kraґtky `short' [adj o]
Polish: kroґtki `short' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kraґtak `short' [adj o], kraґtka [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. kraІ?tak (Vrgada) `short' [adj o], kraІЇtka? [Nomsf], kraІ?tko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. kra~tak (Vrgada) `short' [adj o], kra~tka [Nomsf], kra~tko [Nomsn]
Slovene: kraґtЌk `short' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kraґtaўk `short' [adj o]
Lithuanian: kartu°s `bitter' [adj u] 4
Page in Pokorny: 941
COMM: I see no reason to separate *kratъ°kъ from Lith. kartu°s. The latter is attested with an acute root, but this may be analogical after saldu°s `sweet'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°rva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `cow'
Page in Trubačev: XI 106-112
Church Slavic: krava `cow' [f ѓ]
Russian: koroґva `cow' [f ѓ]
Czech: kraґva `cow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: krava `cow' [f ѓ]
Polish: krowa `cow' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: kruwa `cow' [f ѓ]; #USrb. kroґwa (dial.) `cow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?va `cow' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kra?va (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `cow' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kraґva `cow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kraґva `cow' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kaґrЂvaЂ
Lithuanian: kaґrve† `cow' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґorh2-ueh2
Page in Pokorny: 574
Other cognates: Gk. keraТj `horned' [adj]; Lat. cervus `deer' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kory°to
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `trough'
Page in Trubačev: XI 121-126
Church Slavic: koryto `trough' [n o]
Russian: koryґto `wash-tub, trough' [n o]
Czech: koryto `trough' [n o]
Slovak: koryto `trough, river-bed' [n o]
Polish: koryto `trough, river-bed' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°rito `trough, river-bed' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. kori?to (Vrgada, Novi) `trough' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. kori?to (Orbanicґi) `(drinking) trough' [n o]
Slovene: koriґto• `trough, bee-hive' [n o]
Bulgarian: koriґto `trough, depression, river-bed' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 938
COMM: This etymon can be analyzed as *kor- `cut' (PIE *(s)kor-) plus the suffix *-yto that we find in Ru. kopyґto `hoof'. We may compare #Lith. pra~kartas `manger, trough', #OPr. pracartis `trough', which contain a root *kort- `hew', which is an enlarged variant of the above-mentioned root.
Proto-Slavic form: *korъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: XI 120
Church Slavic: korъ `contumely' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?r (dial.) `reproach' [m o]
Bulgarian: kor `nickname' [m o]; #Bulg. kor (dial.) `reproach' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kor-
COMM: The etymological connection with Lith. ka~ras `war' [m o] seems quite uncertain.
Other cognates: Gk. kŽrnh (Hesych.) `penalty' [f]; OIr. caire `blame, disapproval' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *korьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: XI 128-130
Old Church Slavic: korecъ (Mar.) `measure' [Genpm jo] {1}
Russian: koreґc (dial.) `bucket' [m jo]
Czech: korec `dry measure' [m jo]
Old Czech:: kor№ec `dry measure' [m jo]
Polish: korzec `100 liters, 100 kilograms' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°rac `bark, crust' [m jo]
Slovene: koґrЌc `scoop, bucket, bushel' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kor-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 938
Notes: {1} Zogr. has korъ Gpl. in the same verse (Luke 16:7)
Proto-Slavic form: *kosa° I
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hair, braided hair'
Page in Trubačev: XI 131-133
Church Slavic: kosa `hair' [f ѓ]; #CS kosa (RuCS) `braided hair, braid' [f ѓ]
Russian: kosaґ `braid, plait' [f ѓ], koґsu [Accs]
Old Russian:: kosa `braided hair, braid' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: kosa `hair' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: kosa `braid, mane' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°sa `hair, wool' [f ѓ], ko?su [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?se (Vrgada) `hair, wool' [Nompf ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kosa? (Novi) `hair, wool' [f ѓ], kosu? [Accs], ko?su [Accs], kose? [Nomp], ko?se [Nomp]; #SCr. Kajk. kyeso? (Bednja) `hair, wool' [f ѓ], keso?u [Accs], kye?su [Accs]
Bulgarian: kosaґ `hair' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kosaЂ
Lithuanian: kasa° `braid' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: kexti `Zopfhaar'
Indo-European reconstruction: *Derivative with o-grade of the root *kes- `comb, scratch' (-> *česa°ti)
Page in Pokorny: 585
Other cognates: OIc. haddr `hair (of a woman)' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kosa° II
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `scythe'
Page in Trubačev: XI 133-135
Church Slavic: kosa `scythe' [f ѓ]
Russian: kosaґ `scythe, spit (geog.)' [f ѓ], kosuґ [Accs], koґsu [Accs]
Czech: kosa `scythe' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kosa `scythe' [f ѓ]
Polish: kosa `scythe' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: kosa `scythe' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°sa `scythe' [f ѓ], ko?su [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. kosa? (Novi) `scythe' [Nompf ѓ], kosu? [Accs], ko?su [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. kosa? (ko?sa) (Orbanicґi) `scythe' [f ѓ], ko?so [Accs]
Slovene: koґsa `scythe, spit (geog.)' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kosaґ `scythe' [f ѓ]
COMM: The ESSJa regards *kosa° `scythe' as etymologically identical with -> *kosa° I. This may indeed be the best solution. It seems unlikely that *kosa° `scythe' derives from PIE *kґos- , cf. #Skt. sґaґstra- n. `knife'. Positing original zero grade of the root, as has been done for Skt. sґaґstra- and #Lat. castrѓre, does not seem to explain the depalatalization of *kґ- because in that case we would expect *kox- << *ks•-, but before a consonant *kos- << *ks•- is possible. Likely candidates for this development, such as Slk. kostura `big knife', #Ukr. kostuґra `knife for slaughtering animals', seem to be related with -> *ko?stь `bone', however.
Proto-Slavic form: *kosmъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `tuft, lock of hair'
Page in Trubačev: XI 145-147
Church Slavic: kosmъ (RuCS) `hair, lock of hair' [m o]
Russian: koґsmy `locks, mane' [Nompm o]
Czech: kosm (Jungmann) `tuft, lock of hair' [m o]; #Cz. kosma (obs., poet.) `tuft, lock of hair' [f ѓ]
Polish: kosm `tuft, lock of hair' [m o]
Slovene: koґsЌm `tuft, flake' [m o]
Bulgarian: koґsaўm `hair, fibre, colour of animal's hair or coat' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kos-mo-
Page in Pokorny: 585
COMM: See -> *kosa° II.
Proto-Slavic form: *kosnǫti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XI 155-156
Old Church Slavic: kosnǫti sę `touch' [verb], kosnǫ [1sg]
Russian: kosnuґt'sja `touch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kosnuti (se) `touch' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 585
COMM: Verb in *-nǫti from the same root as -> *česa°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *košara; košarъ; košer§a
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `enclosure for sheep, basket'
Page in Trubačev: XI 183-186
Church Slavic: košerja `basket' [f jѓ]
Russian: košaґra (dial.) `large wicker basket' [m o]
Czech: košaґr `enclosure' [m o]
Slovak: košiar (dial.) `enclosure for sheep' [m o]
Polish: koszar `sheep-fold, enclosure for sheep' [m o]; #Pl. koszara `sheep-fold, enclosure for sheep' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°šara `basket, fence' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ko°šѓr `basket, bee-hive' [m o]; #SCr. ko?šѓr `basket, bee-hive' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. koša?ra `large (hay) basket' [f ѓ]
Slovene: koša?ra `round basket' [f ѓ]; #Sln. košaґr `round basket' [m jo]
Bulgarian: košaґra `sheep-fold, enclosure for sheep' [m o]
COMM: See -> *ko°šь.
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°šь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `basket'
Page in Trubačev: XI 195-197
Old Church Slavic: košь `basket' [m jo]
Russian: koš (dial.) `fishing-basket, bird-trap, bee-hive' [m o]
Ukrainian: kiš `basket' [m o], košaґ [Gens]
Czech: koš `basket' [m jo]; #Cz. ku•š (dial.) `basket' [m jo]
Slovak: ko^š `basket' [m jo]
Polish: kosz `basket' [m jo]
Lower Sorbian: koґš `basket' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?š `granary, basket' [m o], ko°ša [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?š (Orbanicґi) `basket' [m o], koša? [Gens]
Slovene: ko°š `basket, pannier, bee-hive, chest' [m jo], koґša [Gens]
Bulgarian: koš `basket' [m jo]
COMM: The connection with Lat. quѓlum and quasillum is hazardous.
Other cognates: Lat. quѓlum `wicker basket' [n o]; Lat. quasillum `small basket' [n o]
Proto-Slavic form: *kotera; kotora
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `quarrel, fight'
Page in Trubačev: XI 200-201
Old Church Slavic: kotora (Supr.) `quarrel, fight' [f ѓ]
Church Slavic: kotera (RuCS) `fight' [f ѓ]
Russian: kotoґra (dial.) `hostility, fight' [f ѓ]; #Ru. koґtora (dial.) `hostility, fight' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kotera `fight' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: kotoraґ `quarrel, offence' [f ѓ]
COMM: PIE origin doubtful. The North European evidence points to *kat-.
Other cognates: OIc. ho? `quarrel' [f]; MHG hader `quarrel, fight' [m]; OIr. cath `fight, host' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *koterъ; kotorъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `who, which'
Page in Trubačev: XI 201-203
Old Church Slavic: kotorъi `who, someone' [prn]; #OCS koterъi (Mar., Hil.) `who, someone' [prn]
Russian: kotoґryj `which, (rel.) who, which' [prn]
Slovak: koteryґ `which' [prn]; #Slk. kotoryґ `which' [prn]; #Slk. kotryґ `which' [prn]
Upper Sorbian: kotry `which, what' [prn]
Lower Sorbian: koґtary `which' [prn]
Serbo-Croatian: koteri (dial., obs.) `which' [prn]
Slovene: kotęґri `which' [prn]; #Sln. katęґri `which' [prn]
Bulgarian: koґtryj (Gerov) `which' [prn]; #Bulg. kotriґ (dial.) `which' [prn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kot(e)ros
Lithuanian: katra°s `which (of the two)' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєo-ter-o-
Other cognates: Skt. kataraґ- `which (of the two)'; Gk. pТteroj `which' [prn]; Go. hєa±ar `which' [prn]
Proto-Slavic form: *koti°ti sę
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `have young'
Page in Trubačev: XI 204-205
Russian: kotiґt'sja `have kittens, have young' [verb], kočuґs' [1sg], kotiґtsja [3sg]
Czech: kotiti se `have young' [verb]
Polish: kocicґ się `have young' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°titi (se) `have kittens, have young' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. koti?ti (Vrgada) `have kittens, have young' [verb]
Slovene: kotiґti `have young, brood' [verb], kotiґm [1sg]; #Sln. koґtiti `have young, brood' [verb]
Bulgarian: koґtja `have young' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kotъ I
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: XI 211-212
Czech: koґt (dial.) `post-natal period' [m o]
Polish: kot (dial.) `place where forest animals young' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?t `(time of) having young, litter, breed' [m o]
Slovene: ko°t `brood, litter' [m o], koґta [Gens]
Macedonian: kot `(time of) having young, breed' [m o]
COMM: Deverbative o-stem. See -> *koti°ti sę.
Proto-Slavic form: *kotъ II
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `booth, sty'
Page in Trubačev: XI 211-212
Old Czech:: kot `booth, stall (market)' [m o]; #OCz. koґt `booth, stall (market)' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?t (dial.) `sty for domestic animals, young animals' [m. o]
Other cognates: OE hea?or `incarceration, jail' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *kotьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: XI 214-215
Church Slavic: kotьcь `cage' [m jo]
Russian: koteґc (dial.) `(fish-)trap made from brushwood' [m jo]
Czech: kotec `sty' [m jo]
Old Czech:: kotec `booth, stall (market)' [m jo]
Old Polish: kociec `enclosure for domestic animals' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°tac `cattle-shed, weir' [m o]
Slovene: koґtЌc `compartment of a stable, pig-sty, bird-cage' [m o]
Other cognates: OE hea‹or `incarceration, jail' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *kovati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `forge'
Page in Trubačev: XII 10-12
Old Church Slavic: kovati (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `forge' [verb]
Russian: kovaґt' `forge, hammer' [verb], kujuґ [1sg], kujeЁt [3sg]
Czech: kouti `forge' [verb], kuji [1sg]
Old Czech:: kovati `forge' [verb], kuju [1sg]
Slovak: kovat' `forge, shoe' [verb]; #Slk. kut' `forge, shoe' [verb]
Polish: kucґ `forge' [verb]; #Pl. kowacґ (dial.) `forge' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°vati `forge, shoe' [verb], ku?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kova?ti (Vrgada) `forge, shoe' [verb], ku?ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kova~ti (Orbanicґi) `forge, shoe' [verb], kіje?n [1sg]
Slovene: kovaґti `forge, hammer' [verb], kuґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kovaґ `forge, hammer' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kouЂtei
Lithuanian: kaґuti `murder, beat, hew' [verb]
Latvian: kau^t `fight' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kouH2-
Other cognates: Lat. cіdere `beat, grind, forge' [verb]; OHG hǫggva `hew, beat' [verb]; OHG houwan `hew, beat' [verb]
Notes: {1} The variant kovǫ is secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *koza°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `goat'
Page in Trubačev: XII 19-21
Old Church Slavic: koza (Supr.) `goat' [f ѓ]
Russian: kozaґ `goat' [f ѓ]
Czech: koza `goat' [f ѓ]
Slovak: koza `goat' [f ѓ]
Polish: koza `goat' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°za `goat' [f ѓ], ko?zu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. koza? (Vrgada) `goat' [f ѓ], ko?zu [Accs], kozu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?za (Orbanicґi) `goat' [f ѓ], ko?zo [Accs]
Slovene: koґza `goat' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kozaґ `goat' [f ѓ]
COMM: Possibly a borrowing (cf. Dybo 2002: 478-480)
Proto-Slavic form: *kozьlъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `he-goat'
Page in Trubačev: XII 32-33
Old Church Slavic: kozьlъ (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `he-goat' [m o]
Russian: kozeЁl `he-goat' [m o], kozlaґ [Gens]
Czech: kozel `he-goat' [m o]
Slovak: kozol (dial.) `he-goat' [m o]
Polish: kozioљ `he-goat' [m o]; #Pl. kozieљ `he-goat' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°°zao `he-goat' [m o], ko°zla [Gens]
Slovene: koґzЌљ `he-goat' [m o], koґzla [Gens]
Bulgarian: kozeґl `he-goat' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *ko°ža
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `skin, leather'
Page in Trubačev: XII 35-36
Old Church Slavic: koža `skin, leather' [f jѓ]
Russian: koґža `skin, leather, rind' [f jѓ]
Czech: ku•že `skin, leather' [f jѓ]; #Cz. kože `skin, leather' [f jѓ]
Slovak: koža `skin, leather' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: koz†a `skin' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ko?ža `skin, leather, rind' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?ža (Vrgada) `skin, leather, rind' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ko?ža (Orbanicґi) `skin, hide, leather' [f jѓ]
Slovene: kǫґža `skin, leather, rind' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: koґža `skin, leather, rind' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫda
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `where, whither'
Page in Trubačev: XII 46-47
Russian: kudaґ `where, whither' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: ku°dѓ `where, whither' [adv]
Slovene: kǫґda `where, whither' [adv]; #Sln. kǫґd `where, whither' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєo-d-
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫdĕ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `where, whither'
Page in Trubačev: XII 47
Church Slavic: kǫdĕ `where, whither' [adv]
Russian: kudeґ (dial.) `where, whither' [adv]
Old Russian:: kudĕ `where, whither' [adv]
Bulgarian: kaўdeґ `where, whither' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєo-d-
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫ?sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `piece'
Page in Trubačev: XII 67
Church Slavic: kǫsъ `lump, piece' [m o]
Russian: kus (dial.) `piece of smth., food' [m o]
Czech: kus `part, piece' [m o]
Slovak: kus `piece' [m o]
Polish: kęs `piece, bit, morsel' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?s `piece, lump' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?s (Vrgada) `piece' [m o], ku?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?s (Orbanicґi) `piece, part' [m o], ku?sa [Gens]
Slovene: kǫ?s `piece' [m o]
Bulgarian: kaўs `piece' [m o]
Lithuanian: kan~dis `bite' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kond-s-??
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫpina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `bush'
Page in Trubačev: XII 63-64
Old Church Slavic: kǫpina `bush, shrub' [f ѓ]
Russian: kupinaґ (arch.) `bush' [f ѓ]; #Ru. kuґpina (dial.) `mound, knoll' [f ѓ]
Czech: kupina `bunch, bush, bramble bush' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kǫpina `bush' [f ѓ]
Polish: kępina `hummock' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kopiґna `bramble bush' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kaўpiґna `bramble bush' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫsati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `bite'
Page in Trubačev: XII 65-66
Old Church Slavic: kǫsati `bite' [verb]
Russian: kusaґt' `bite' [verb]
Czech: kousati `bite' [verb]
Slovak: kuґsat' `bite' [verb]
Polish: ka§sacґ `bite' [verb]; #Pl. kęsacґ `bite' [verb]
Slovincian: ka§sac `bite' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kuґsati `eat with a spoon' [verb]
Slovene: kosaґti `break in pieces, pulverize' [verb], kosa?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: kaўґsam `tear, hurt' [verb]
Lithuanian: ka§ґsti `bite' [verb], kaґnda [3sg]
Latvian: kuo^st `bite' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kond-s-??
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫtati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `muffle up, conceal'
Page in Trubačev: XII 69-70
Russian: kuґtat' `muffle up (in)' [verb]
Old Russian:: kutati `muffle up (in), conceal' [verb]
Ukrainian: kuґtaty `muffle up (in), take care of, reassure' [verb]
Bulgarian: kaўґtam `hide, conceal' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫtja
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `hut'
Page in Trubačev: XII 70-74
Old Church Slavic: kǫštę (Supr.) `hut' [Gensf jѓ]
Old Russian:: kuča `hut, cabin' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: kuґča `bird-cage, pig-sty' [f jѓ]
Czech: kuča (dial.) `hut, shack' [f jѓ] {1}
Slovak: kučka (E. dial.) `little house' [f ѓ]
Polish: kuczka `hut, shack' [f ѓ] {2}
Serbo-Croatian: ku?cґa `house' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?cґa (Vrgada, Noi) `house' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?cґa (Orbanicґi) `house, (obs.) kitchen' [f jѓ]
Slovene: kǫґča `peasant hut, shack' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: kaўґšta `house' [f ѓ]
Notes: {1} According to Machek (1997: 304), this word may have been borrowed from Ukrainian through Polish. {2} Perhaps from Ukrainian.
Proto-Slavic form: *kǫґtъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `corner'
Page in Trubačev: XII 75-78
Old Church Slavic: kǫtъ `corner' [m o]
Russian: kut (dial.) `corner' [m o]
Czech: kout `corner' [m o]
Slovak: kuґt `corner' [m o]
Polish: ka§t `corner' [m o]
Slovincian: ko†ґu§t `corner' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?t `corner' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. kuґt (Novi) `corner' [m o], kіta? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kuo~t (Orbanicґi: obs.) `corner' [m o], kuota? [Gens]
Slovene: kǫґt `corner' [m o]
Bulgarian: kaўt `corner, angle' [m o]
Lithuanian: kam~pas `corner' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *krajь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `edge'
Page in Trubačev: XII 88-89
Old Church Slavic: krai `edge, end, shore'
Russian: kraj `edge, country, land' [m jo]
Czech: kraj `edge, end, region' [m jo]
Slovak: kraj `edge, end, region' [m jo]
Polish: kraj `edge, country, land' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?j `end, (dial.) edge, bank' [m jo], kra?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kraІ~j (Vrgada) `shore, end' [m jo], kra?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kraґj (Novi) `end' [m jo], kra?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kra~j (Orbanicґi) `side, rim, piece (of wood, thread), end' [m jo], kra?ja [Gens]
Bulgarian: kraj `end, edge, area' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krЎi-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *krakati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `croak'
Page in Trubačev: XII 92-93
Church Slavic: krakati (RuCS) `croak' [verb]
Old Russian:: krakati `croak' [verb], kraču [1sg]
Czech: kraґkati `croak' [verb]
Slovak: kraґkat' `croak' [verb]
Polish: krakacґ `croak' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kraґkati `croak' [verb]
Slovene: kra?kati `croak' [verb], kra?kam [1sg], kra?čem [1sg]
Lithuanian: krokoti (dial.) `croak' [verb]
Latvian: kra~ka^t `croak' [verb]
Other cognates: Lat. crЎc–re `croak' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *krasa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: XII 95-97
Old Church Slavic: krasojǫ `adornment, decoration' [Insf ѓ]
Russian: krasaґ `beauty' [f ѓ]
Czech: kraґsa `beauty' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kraґsa `beauty' [f ѓ]
Polish: krasa `colour, beauty' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kraґsa `snake' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *krasti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `steal'
Page in Trubačev: XII 102-105
Old Church Slavic: krasti `steal' [verb], kradǫ [1sg]
Russian: krast' `steal' [verb], kraduґ [1sg], kradeЁt [3sg]
Czech: kraґsti `steal' [verb]
Polish: krasґcґ `steal' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?sti `steal' [verb], kraґdЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kra?s (Orbanicґi) `steal' [verb], krѓde?n [1sg]
Slovene: kraґsti `steal' [verb], kraґdem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kradaґ `steal' [verb]
Latvian: kra^t `gather, heap' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kreh2-d(h)
Proto-Slavic form: *krasьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `beautiful'
Page in Trubačev: XII 109-110
Old Church Slavic: krasьnъ `beautiful, pleasant' [adj o]
Russian: kraґsnyj `red, (obs., coll.) beautiful' [adj o]
Czech: kraґsnyґ `beautiful, pretty' [adj o]
Slovak: kraґsny `beautiful, pretty' [adj o]
Polish: krasny (poet.) `red, beautiful' [adj o]; #Pl. krasґny (poet.) `red, beautiful' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kra?san `beautiful, pretty' [adj o]; #SCr. kraґsan `beautiful, pretty' [adj o]
Slovene: kraґsЌn `splendid, beautiful' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *krečetъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `gerfalcon'
Page in Trubačev: XII 111
Church Slavic: krečetъ (RuCS) `gerfalcon' [m o]
Russian: kreґčet `gerfalcon' [m o]
Old Russian:: krečetъ `gerfalcon' [m o]
Ukrainian: kreґčet `gerfalcon' [m o]
Polish: krzeczot `gerfalcon' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krek-
Proto-Slavic form: *kremy
GRAM: m. n
PSLMEAN: `flint'
Page in Trubačev: XII 118-123
Church Slavic: kremy `flint' [m n], kremene [Gens]
Russian: kremeґn' `flint' [m jo]
Czech: kr№emen `flint' [m o]
Slovak: kremen№ `flint' [m jo]
Polish: krzemienґ `flint' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: kre?mЊn `flint' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. kre?men (Vrgada) `flint' [m o]
Slovene: kreґmen `flint, energy' [m o], kremęґna [Gens]
Latvian: krems `flint' [m o]; #Latv. krams `flint' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krem-
Proto-Slavic form: *krĕpъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `strong'
Page in Trubačev: XII 134
Old Church Slavic: krĕpъ `strong' [adj o]
Czech: kr№epyґ (obs.) `strong' [adj o]
Slovak: krepyґ `slow-witted, simple-minded' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kri?jep (poet.) `strong' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kreh1p-o-
Other cognates: OIc. hrѓЊfa `endure' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *krĕpъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `strong'
Page in Trubačev: XII 135-138
Old Church Slavic: krĕpъkъ `strong' [adj o]
Russian: kreґpkij `strong' [adj o], kreґpok [short]
Czech: kr№epkyґ `fresh, strong' [adj o]
Slovak: krepkyґ `adroit, smart' [adj o]
Polish: krzepki `strong, alive, quick' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kre?pak `strong, lively' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. kri?pak (Novi) `strong, lively' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. kre?pak (Orbanicґi) `strong, lively' [adj o]
Slovene: kre•ґpЌk `hard, stiff, tough' [adj o], kre•ґpka [Gens]; #Sln. kre•pa?k `hard, stiff, tough' [adj o], kre•pka° [Gens]
Bulgarian: kreґpaўk `tough, hard, strong' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kreh1p-u-ko-
Other cognates: OIc. hrѓЊfa `endure' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *krĕ°slo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `chair'
Page in Trubačev: XII 126-129
Russian: kreґslo `arm-chair, (dial.) flooring for the slaughter of livestock' [n o]
Czech: kr№eslo `arm-chair' [n o]
Slovak: krieslo `arm-chair' [n o]
Polish: krzesљo `chair' [n o]; #Pl. krzasљo (dial.) `chair' [n o]
Old Polish: krzasљo `chair' [n o]
Bulgarian: kresloґ `seat' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kreЂslo
Lithuanian: kre†ґslas `arm-chair' [m o] 3
Latvian: krę^sls `chair' [m o]
Old Prussian: creslan `arm-chair'
Proto-Slavic form: *kričati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cry, scream'
Page in Trubačev: XII 149-150
Old Church Slavic: kričati `cry, shout, scream' [verb], kričǫ [1sg], kričiši [2sg]
Russian: kričaґt' `cry, shout, scream' [verb], kričuґ [1sg], kričiґt [3sg]
Czech: kr№ičeti `cry, shout, scream' [verb]
Slovak: kričat' `cry, shout, scream' [verb]
Polish: krzyczecґ `cry, shout, scream' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kriґčati `scream' [verb], kriґč–m [1sg]
Slovene: kriґčati `scream' [verb], kričiґm [1sg]
Lithuanian: kry~kti `cry (of birds), quack' [verb]; #Lith. kry~kšti `cry, shout' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kreik-
Proto-Slavic form: *kri?kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cry, shout'
Page in Trubačev: XII 155-156
Church Slavic: krikъ `shouting, cries' [m o]
Russian: krik `cry, shout' [m o]
Czech: kr№ik `cry, shout' [m o]
Slovak: krik `cry, shout' [m o]
Polish: krzyk `cry, shout' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kri?k `cry, shout' [m o]
Slovene: kri?k `cry, scream' [m o]
Lithuanian: kry~kti `cry (of birds), quack' [verb]; #Lith. kry~kšti `cry, shout' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kreik-
Proto-Slavic form: *krina; krinica I
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `vessel, jug'
Page in Trubačev: XII 156-158
Old Church Slavic: krinicǫ (Supr.) `jug' [Accsf jѓ]
Church Slavic: krina (RuCS) `vessel, grain measure' [f ѓ]
Russian: kriniґca `earthenware pot, jug' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: krina `vessel, grain measure' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kri?nica (arch., dial.) `plate, clay bowl' [f jѓ]
Slovene: kriґnja `flour vessel' [f jѓ]; #Sln. kriґnjica `flour vessel (dim.)' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krei-
Proto-Slavic form: *krinica II; krьnica
GRAM: f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: XII 158-159
Russian: kriniґca (dial.) `spring, well' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: krynyґcja `spring, well' [f jѓ]
Polish: krynica `spring, well' [f jѓ]; #Pl. kiernica (dial.) `spring, well' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: krnica `stream' [f jѓ]; #OPl. krynica `stream, well' [f jѓ]; #OPl. krzynica `stream, well' [f jѓ]
Slovene: krniґca `deep spot in river or lake, vortex, basin' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *kriti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `buy'
Page in Trubačev: XII 160-161
Church Slavic: kriti (RuCS) `buy' [verb]
Old Russian:: kriti `buy' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєr(e)ih2-tei
Other cognates: Skt. kr–n•ѓґti `buy' [verb]; Gk. pr…asqai `buy' [verb]; OIr. crenaid `buy' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kr–dlo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wing'
Page in Trubačev: XII 152-154
Old Church Slavic: krilo `wing, roof' [n o]
Russian: kryloґ `wing' [n o] {1}
Ukrainian: kryloґ `wing' [n o]
Czech: kr№iґdlo `wing' [n o]
Slovak: kriґdlo `wing' [n o]
Polish: krzydљo (dial.) `wing' [n o]
Slovincian: kr№iЁ^dlo `wing' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: kriґlo `wing, fin, nostril, lap' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. kri~laІЇ `skirt, white linen half-slip, (esp. in songs) wings' [Nompn o]; #SCr. C№ak. kr–lo? (Orbanicґi) `lap' [n o]
Slovene: kriґlo• `wing, fin, nostril' [n o]
Bulgarian: kriloґ `wing' [n o]
Lithuanian: skrie~ti (dial.) `rotate, circle, fly' [verb] {2}
Latvian: skri°et `go, run, fly' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krei-dhlom
Notes: {1} With analogical y after kryt' `cover'. {2} Standard Lithuanian has skriґeti.
Proto-Slavic form: *kro?sno
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `weaver's beam, (pl.) loom'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 13-17
Church Slavic: krosna (RuCS) `canvas, loom' [Nompn o]
Russian: kroґsna `loom, threads' [Nompn o]; #Ru. kroґsno (dial.) `loom, threads' [n o]; #Ru. kroґsna `loom' [Nompn o]; #Ru. krosnaґ (dial.) `loom, canvas, linen' [Nompn o]
Old Russian:: krosna `canvas, loom' [Nompn o]
Czech: krosna `basket (carried over the shoulders)' [f ѓ]; #Cz. kru•sna `basket (carried over the shoulders)' [f ѓ]
Slovak: krosnaґ `loom' [Nompn o]
Polish: krosna `loom' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kro?sno (dial.) `weaver's beam' [n o]; #SCr. kro?sna `loom' [Nompn o]; #SCr. kro?sna (dial.) `loom, weaver's beam' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kro?snaІ? (Vrgada) `loom' [Nompn o]
Slovene: kroґsna `loom' [Nompn o]; #Sln. krosne `loom' [Nompf ѓ]
Bulgarian: krosnoґ `weaver's beam' [n o]; #Bulg. krosna `cradle' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. C№ak. kruo~sna `(part of a?) loom' [Nompn o]
Proto-Slavic form: *krojiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cut'
Page in Trubačev: XII 180-182
Russian: kroiґt' `cut (out)' [verb], krojuґ [1sg], kroiґt [3sg]
Czech: krojiti `cut' [verb]
Polish: kroicґ `cut' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kro°jiti `cut' [verb], kro°j–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kroji?ti (Vrgada) `cut' [verb], kroji~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kroji?t (Orbanicґi) `cut out (garment from cloth)' [verb], kroji~ [3sg]
Slovene: krojiґti `split, disrupt, unstitch, cut (out)' [verb]
Bulgarian: krojaґ `cut out (a garment), devise' [verb]
Latvian: krija^t `skin' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kroi-
Proto-Slavic form: *kroma
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `edge, slice'
Page in Trubačev: XII 185-186
Russian: kromaґ (dial.) `edge, (thick) slice of bread' [f ѓ]; #Ru. kroґma (dial.) `edge, (thick) slice of bread' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kroma `(thick) slice of bread' [f ѓ]
Polish: kroma (dial.) `heel of a loaf, slice of bread' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: kroma `edge' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: kšoma `edge' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krom-
Proto-Slavic form: *kromĕ
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `except'
Page in Trubačev: XII 185-186
Old Church Slavic: kromĕ `except, without' [prep]; #OCS kromĕ `far away' [adv]
Russian: kroґme `except, besides' [prep]
Czech: kromĕ `except' [prep]; #Cz. krom `except' [prep]
Polish: krom (dial.) `except, without' [prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krom-
Proto-Slavic form: *kropiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `besprinkle'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 8-9
Old Church Slavic: kropiti (Euch., Supr.) `besprinkle, asperse' [verb], kropljǫ [1sg]
Russian: kropiґt' `besprinkle, asperse, trickle' [verb], kropljuґ [1sg], kropiґt [3sg]
Czech: kropiti `besprinkle, splash' [verb]
Slovak: kropit' `besprinkle, splash' [verb]
Polish: kropicґ `besprinkle, drip' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kro°piti `pour, besprinkle' [verb], kro°p–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. kropi?ti `pour, besprinkle' [verb], kropi~š [2sg]
Slovene: kropiґti `besprinkle, asperse' [verb], kropiґm [1sg]
Lithuanian: skrepliuґoti `spit slime' [verb]
Latvian: kre~pa^t `spit thick slime' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)krop-
Proto-Slavic form: *krotiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `tame'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 17
Old Church Slavic: krotiti (Euch., Supr.) `tame, reassure' [verb], kroštǫ [1sg]
Russian: krotiґt' (dial.) `soothe, restrain, tame' [verb]
Czech: krotiti `soothe, restrain, tame' [verb]
Slovak: krotit' `soothe, restrain, tame' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kro°titi `tame, calm' [verb]
Slovene: krotiґti `tame, restrain' [verb], krotiґm [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)rot-
Proto-Slavic form: *krotъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `gentle, quiet'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 18-19
Old Church Slavic: krotъkъ `tame, placid, quiet' [adj o]
Russian: kroґtkij `gentle, meek' [adj o]
Czech: krotkyґ `quiet, tame' [adj o]
Slovak: krotkyґ `quiet' [adj o]
Old Polish: krotki `gentle, tame' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kro?tak `gentle, meek, quiet, slow' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. kro?tak (Orbanicґi) `tame, calm' [adj o]
Slovene: kroґtЌk `quiet, gentle, meek' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kroґtaўk `quiet, tame, gentle, meek' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)rot-
Proto-Slavic form: *krovъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `roof'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 20-21
Old Church Slavic: krovъ `roof, shelter' [m o]
Russian: krov `roof, shelter' [m o]
Czech: krov `roof, shelter' [m o]
Slovak: krov `roof' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kro?v `roof' [m o], kro?va [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kro~v (Vrgada) `roof' [m o], kro?va [Gens], krova? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kruo~f (Orbanicґi) `roof' [m o], krova? [Gens]
Slovene: kro°v `roof, lid' [m o], kroґva [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *krou(Ђ)o-
Lithuanian: kraґuti `heap, pile' [verb]
Latvian: krau~t `heap, pile' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kruH-
Page in Pokorny: 616
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫčina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `gall, anger'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 21-22
Church Slavic: kručina (RuCS) `gall, grief, anger' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: kručina `gall, grief, anger' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: kręczynka `gorse' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kručina (arch., obs.) `gall, anger' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kronk-
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫglъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `round'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 23-24
Church Slavic: krǫglъ `round' [adj o]
Russian: kruґglyj `round' [adj o] {1}
Polish: kra§gљy (poet.) `round' [adj o]; #Pl. kręgљy (dial.) `round' [adj o] {2}
Serbo-Croatian: kru?gao `round' [adj o]
Slovene: krǫґgЌљ `round' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kraўґgaўl `round' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krongh-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 936
Other cognates: OIc. hringr `ring' [m]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136}. {2} Cf. Cz. okrouhlyґ, Pl. okra§gљy `round'.
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫ?gъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `circle'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 25-27
Old Church Slavic: krǫgъ `circle' [m o]
Czech: kruh `circle' [m o]
Slovak: kruh `circle' [m o]
Polish: kra§g `circle' [m o], kręgu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: kru?g `circle' [m o], kru?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kru?g (Vrgada) `circle' [m o], kru?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kru?h (Orbanicґi) `big stone, rock (in a field), circle' [m o], kru?ga [Gens]
Slovene: krǫ?g `circle, disc' [m o]
Bulgarian: kraўg `circle, sphere' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krongh-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 936
Other cognates: OIc. hringr `ring' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫpĕti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 27-28
Church Slavic: krǫpĕti `contract' [verb]
Latvian: krum~pe^t `shrink' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kromp-
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫpъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `short, small'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 27-28
Church Slavic: krǫpъ `small' [adj o]; #CS krupyj (RuCS) `small' [adj o]
Old Czech:: krupyґ `rough, unPolished' [adj o]
Polish: krępy `rather short, thick, strong' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kraўp (dial.) `short' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kromp-
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫtiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `turn, twist, twirl'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 30-31
Church Slavic: krǫtiti sę `turn' [verb], krǫštǫ [1sg]
Russian: krutiґt' `twist, turn' [verb], kručuґ [1sg], kruґtit [3sg]
Czech: kroutiti `turn, twirl' [verb]
Slovak: kruґtit' `turn, twirl' [verb]
Polish: kręcicґ `turn, twirl' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kruґtiti `consolidate, compress' [verb]
Slovene: krotiti `turn, twist' [verb], krotim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kront-
Page in Pokorny: 584
Proto-Slavic form: *krǫtъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XIII 33-35
Church Slavic: krǫtъ `winding' [adj o]
Russian: krutoґj `steep, severe' [adj o]
Czech: krutyґ `cruel, severe' [adj o]
Slovak: krutyґ `cruel, severe' [adj o]
Polish: kręty `winding, crooked' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kru?t `hard, coarse, cruel, severe' [adj o]
Slovene: krǫ?t `fierce' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kront-o-
Page in Pokorny: 584
Proto-Slavic form: *krukъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `raven'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 42-43
Church Slavic: krukъ `raven' [m o]
Russian: kruk (dial.) `raven' [m o]
Ukrainian: kruk (dial.) `crane' [m o]
Polish: kruk `raven' [m o]
Slovincian: kreЁk `raven' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *krupьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `coarse'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 46-47
Russian: kruґpnyj `big, tall' [adj o]
Old Russian:: krupnyj `consisting of large parts, big' [adj o]
Old Czech:: krupnyґ `coarse' [adj o]
Polish: krupny `coarse' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kruґpan `coarse-grained, coarse, big, high' [adj o]; #SCr. kru°pan `coarse-grained, coarse, big, high' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. kru?pan (Orbanicґi) `large, heavy, bulky' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kruґpen `great' [adj u]
Lithuanian: kraupu°s `rough' [adj u]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kroup-
Page in Pokorny: 623
Other cognates: OIc. hrjuґfr `rough, scabby' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kruxъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `chunk'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 41
Church Slavic: kruxъ `fragment, chunk' [m o]
Russian: krux (dial.) `slice, lump' [m o]
Czech: kruch `piece, lump' [m o]
Slovak: kruch (dial.) `piece, lump, chunk of bread' [m o]
Polish: kruch `piece, lump' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kru?h `bread' [m o], kru?ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kru?h `bread' [m o], kru?va [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kru?h (Novi, Orbanicґi) `bread' [m o], kru?ha [Gens]
Slovene: kru°h `bread' [m o], kruґha [Gens]
Bulgarian: krux (dial.) `piece of salt or sugar' [m o]
Lithuanian: kruša° `hail' [f ѓ]
Latvian: krusa `hail' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krous-o-
Page in Pokorny: 622
Other cognates: Gk. kroЪw `beat' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *krіpa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `grainy substance, groats, hail'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 43-45
Old Church Slavic: {1}
Church Slavic: krupa `grain, groats' [f ѓ]
Russian: krupaґ `groats, sleet' [Nompf ѓ], krupuґ [Accs]
Czech: kroupa `groats, grain' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kruґpy `groats, hail' [Nompf ѓ]
Polish: krupy `groats' [Nompf ѓ]
Old Polish: krupy `groats, broth, hail' [Nompf ѓ]
Slovincian: kra†~p„ `groats' [Nompf ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kruґpa `hail, (arch.) crumb' [f ѓ]; #SCr. kru°pa `hail, (arch.) crumb' [f ѓ]; #SCr. kru?pa `hail, (arch.) crumb' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kru~pa (Vrgada) `hail' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. krіpa? (Novi) `hail' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kruґpa `barley-groats' [f ѓ]; #Sln. kru?pi `hail' [Nompf i]
Latvian: kr§au~pa `wart' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kroup-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 623
Other cognates: OIc. hryґfe `scabies' [f]
Notes: {1} Cf. OCS krupica `crumb'.
Proto-Slavic form: *kry
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `blood'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 67-70
Old Church Slavic: kry (PsDim.) `blood' [f і]; #OCS krъvь `blood' [f і], krъve [Gens]
Russian: krov' `blood' [f i], kroґvi [Gens]
Czech: krev `blood' [f i], krve [Gens]
Polish: krew `blood' [f i], krwi [Gens]
Old Polish: kry `blood' [f i]
Slovincian: kra†~ `blood' [f i], kr„vji°eё [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: krej `blood' [f i], krwĕ [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: kr?v `blood' [f i], kr?vi [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kr?v (Vrgada) `blood' [f i], kr?vi [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kri (Cres) `blood' [f i], krvi [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kr?f (Orbanicґi) `blood' [f i], kr?vi [Gens]
Slovene: kri? `blood' [f i], krvi? [Gens]
Bulgarian: kraўv `blood' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kruHs; krouio
Lithuanian: krau~jas `blood' [m jo]
Old Prussian: krawian `blood'; #OPr. crauyo (EV) `blood'
Indo-European reconstruction: *kruh2-s; kreuh2-
Page in Pokorny: 621
Other cognates: Skt. kraviґs- `raw meat' [n]; Skt. kravya- `blood' [n]; Gk. krљaj `meat' [n]; Lat. cruor `raw blood' [m]; OE hrЊaw `raw' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kry°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `cover, hide'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 71-72
Old Church Slavic: kryti `cover, hide' [verb], kryjǫ [1sg]
Russian: kryt' `cover' [verb], kroґju [1sg], kroґet [3sg]
Czech: kryґti `hide, keep' [verb]
Slovak: kryt' `cover, hide, keep' [verb]
Polish: krycґ `cover, hide' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kri?ti `hide, keep' [verb]
Slovene: kriґti `cover' [verb], kri?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kriґja `hide, cover' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kr(o)uЂtei
Lithuanian: kraґuti `heap, pile' [verb]
Latvian: krau~t `heap, pile' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kruH-
Page in Pokorny: 616
Proto-Slavic form: *krъvьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `bloody, blood(-)'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 66-67
Old Church Slavic: krъvьnъ `bloody, of the blood' [adj o]
Russian: kroґvnyj `blood(-)' [adj o]
Czech: krevniґ `blood(-)' [adj o]; #Cz. krevnyґ `blood(-)' [adj o]
Slovak: krvnyґ `blood(-)' [adj o]
Polish: krewny `sanguineous, bloody, blood(-)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kr?vn– `bloody, sanguineous' [adj o]; #SCr. kr°vn– `bloody, sanguineous' [adj o]; #SCr. krґvan `blood(-)' [adj o]
Slovene: krґvЌn `blood(-), sanguineous' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kraўґven `blood(-), sanguineous' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kruHs; krouio
Lithuanian: kru°vinas `bloody' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kruh2-s; kreuh2-
Page in Pokorny: 621
Other cognates: Skt. kraviґs- `raw meat' [n]; Skt. kravya- `blood' [n]; Gk. krљaj `meat' [n]; Lat. cruor `raw blood' [m]; OE hrЊaw `raw' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *krъxa; krъxъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `lump'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 51
Church Slavic: krъxa `grain' [f ѓ]
Russian: kroxaґ `crumb' [f ѓ], kroґxu [Accs]
Slovak: krh `bar, touchstone' [m o]; #Slk. krch `bar, touchstone' [m o]
Polish: krech `piece, lump' [m o]
Slovene: kr°h `crack, notch, rift' [m o], krґha [Gens]
Lithuanian: kruša° `hail' [f ѓ]
Latvian: krusa `hail' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krus-
Page in Pokorny: 622
Other cognates: Gk. kroЪw `beat' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *krьnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `buy'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 74-75
Church Slavic: krьnuti (RuCS) `buy, take, pay' [verb]
Old Russian:: krenuti `buy, take, pay' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєri-n-h2-
Other cognates: Skt. kr–n•ѓґti `buy' [verb]; Gk. pr…asqai `buy' [verb]; OIr. crenaid `buy' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kuča
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `heap'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 79
Russian: kuґča `heap, pile' [f jѓ]; #Ru. kuґča (dial.) `hill, shock, hay-cock' [f jѓ]
Czech: kuče (dial.) `lump, heap' [f jѓ]
Polish: kucza (arch., dial.) `heap, pile' [f jѓ]
Slovincian: kuča `tuft, mane' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kuґča `bunch, bundle, forelock, sheaf' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kouk-ieh2
Page in Pokorny: 589
Proto-Slavic form: *ku°diti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: XIII 82-83
Old Church Slavic: kudętъ (Supr.) `use ill language' [3pl]
Russian: kuґdit' (dial.) `force, persuade' [verb]
Slovak: kudit' (Jungmann, Kott) `blame, criticize' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?diti `slander, reproach, condemn' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?diti (Vrgada) `slander, reproach, condemn' [verb]
Slovene: kuґditi `blame, criticize, despise' [verb], kuґdim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *koud-
Other cognates: Skt. kutsaґyati `jeer at, blame, rebuke'; Gk. kudŽzw `jeer at' [verb]; OIc. hoґta `threaten' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kudo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: XIII 83-84
Russian: kudesaґ `miracles performed through an evil spirit' [Nompn o]; #Ru. kuґdes' `sorcery' [f i]
Old Russian:: kudesъ `magic, sorcery' [m o]
Polish: kudysґ (dial.) `evil spirit, devil' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *koud-
Other cognates: OHG hosc `scorn, mockery' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kudъ; kudь
GRAM: m. o; f. i
Page in Trubačev: XIII 84
Russian: kud (dial.) `evil spirit, demon, Satan' [m o]; #Ru. kud' (dial.) `sorcery' [f i]
Old Russian:: kudь `will, desire' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *koud-
Other cognates: OHG hosc `scorn, mockery' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kujati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 85
Old Church Slavic: kujajǫšta (Supr.) `grumbling' [Gensm pprsa]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?jati `be ailing, doze' [verb]
Slovene: kuґjati se `sulk, behave capriciously' [verb], kuґjam se [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *kuka I
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XIII 86-87
Russian: kuґka `fist, lever, handle' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: kuґka `big wooden hammer' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: kuґka `big wooden rattle' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?ka `hook, poker' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?ka (Orbanicґi) `hook' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kuґka `insect, intestinal worm, pig' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kuґka `hook' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: kau~kas `lump' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kouk
Page in Pokorny: 589
Other cognates: OIc. haugr `hill' [adj]; MHG hocker `hump' [adj]; OIr. cuґar `crooked' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kuka II
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `goblin'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 86-87
Russian: kuґka (dial.) `wood-goblin' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: kuґka (dial.) `something terrible living in the dark' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: kuka `evil spirit' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: kuka `intestinal worm' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *koukos; koukaЂ
Lithuanian: kau~kas `goblin' [m o]
Old Prussian: cawx `devil'
Proto-Slavic form: *kukati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cuckoo'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 35
Russian: kuґkat' (dial.) `cuckoo, call, cry, grieve' [verb]
Czech: kukati `cuckoo' [verb]
Polish: kukacґ `cuckoo' [verb]
Old Polish: kukacґ `cuckoo, appeal, complain' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?kati `groan, moan, cuckoo' [verb]
Slovene: kuґkati `cuckoo, grieve' [verb], kuґkam [1sg]
Bulgarian: kuґkam `cuckoo, grieve' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kukonosъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `hook-nosed'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 91-92
Church Slavic: kukonosъ `hook-nosed' [adj o]; #CS kukonosyj (RuCS) `hook-nosed' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: kuko°nos `having a hooked nose' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kouk-
Page in Pokorny: 589
Proto-Slavic form: *ku°pъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `heap, mound'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 114-115
Old Church Slavic: kupъ (Supr.) `heap' [m o]; #OCS vъkupь `jointly, ath the same time' [adv]; #OCS vъkupъ (Mar.) `jointly' [adv]; #OCS vъkupĕ `together, at the same time' [adv]
Church Slavic: kupъ (RuCS) `hill, burial mound' [m o]
Russian: vkuґpe (obs.) `together' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?p `heap, pile, crowd' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?p (Vrgada) `heap, pile' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?p (Orbanicґi) `heap, pile' [m o]
Slovene: ku°p `heap, mass' [m o], kuґpa [Gens]; #Sln. vku°p `together' [adv]; #Sln. vku?pe(j) `together' [adv]
Bulgarian: kup `heap, pile, crowd, mass' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kaґЂupo-
Lithuanian: kau~pas `heap' [m o] 4; #Lith. kaґupas (dial.) `heap' [m o] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *keh2up-o-
Other cognates: OHG hubil `hill' [m] {2}
Notes: {1} Cf. Latv. ka~pa `dune, hillock, snowmound'. {2} Here we find no trace of a laryngeal, however.
Proto-Slavic form: *kurenьje
GRAM: n. io
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: XIII 119
Old Church Slavic: kurenije (Euch.) `burning of incense, steam, fire' [n io]
Russian: kureґn'e `tobacco' [n io]
Czech: kour№eniґ `fumigation, evaporation' [n io]
Lithuanian: ku°rti `light, kindle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *?? {1}
Other cognates: OIc. hyrr `fire' [m]; Go. haґuri `coal' [n]
Notes: {1} The vocalism of *kur- seems to be secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *kurica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `hen'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 121-122
Russian: kuґrica `hen' [f jѓ]
Czech: kurica (dial.) `hen' [f jѓ]
Polish: kurzyca (15th-17th c.) `hen' [f jѓ]
Slovincian: ku~r№„caў `young hen' [f jѓ]
Slovene: kuґrica `pullet, little hen' [f jѓ]; #Sln. kurica `female genitals' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *kurъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `cock'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 129-130
Old Church Slavic: kurъ `cock' [m o]
Russian: kur (dial.) `cock' [m o]
Old Czech:: kur `cock' [m o]; #OCz. kuґr (??) `cock' [m o]
Polish: kur `cock' [m o]
Slovincian: ku†ґr `cock' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?r (dial.) `cock' [m o]
Slovene: ku°r `cock' [m o], kuґra [Gens]
Bulgarian: kur `cock, penis' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *kutiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 139-140
Church Slavic: kutiti `devise' [verb]
Russian: kutiґt' `live a disorderly life, booze' [verb], kučuґ [1sg], kuґtit [3sg]
Czech: kutiti `design, plan, venture' [verb]; #Cz. kutiti se `rummage (in)' [verb]
Slovak: kutit' `look for, rummage (in), venture' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kuґtiti `plunge completely into illness' [verb]
Slovene: kutiti se `bend, hide oneself, squat' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kuzn§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `smithy'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 124-125
Russian: kuґznja (dial.) `smithy' [f jѓ]
Czech: kuzn№a (dial.) `smithy' [f jѓ]; #Cz. kouzen№ (Dobrovskyґ) `smithy' [f i]
Slovak: kuґzn№a (dial.) `smithy' [f jѓ]; #Slk. kuґzen№ (dial.) `smithy' [f i]; #Slk. kuzn№a (dial.) `smithy' [f jѓ]
Polish: kuzґnia `smithy' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: kuґznja `smithy' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kouH-
Proto-Slavic form: *kіri°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `smoke'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 123-125
Old Church Slavic: kuritъ sę (Euch.) `smoke' [3sg]
Russian: kuriґt' `smoke' [verb], kurjuґ [1sg], kuґrit [3sg]
Czech: kour№iti `smoke' [verb]
Slovak: kuґrit' `kindle, smoke' [verb]
Polish: kurzycґ `raise dust, smoke' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kuґriti (dial.) `smoke, set fire to' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. kіri?t (Orbanicґi) `smoke (ham, etc.)' [verb], ku~rin [1sg]
Slovene: kuґriti `kindle, smoke' [verb], kuґrim [1sg]
Lithuanian: ku°rti `light, kindle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *?? {1}
Other cognates: OIc. hyrr `fire' [m]; Go. haґuri `coal' [n]
Notes: {1} The vocalism of *kur- seems to be secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *kva?sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `leaven, fermented drink'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 153-155
Old Church Slavic: kvasъ `leaven, fermented drink, kvass' [m o]
Russian: kvas `kvass, fermented drink' [m o], kvaґsa [Gens]
Czech: kvas `leaven, kvass, fermented drink' [m o]
Slovak: kvas `leaven, mud' [m o]
Polish: kwas `sourness, (arch.) fermented drink' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kva?s `leaven, kvass, malted drink' [m o], kva?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kva?s (Vrgada) `yeast' [m o], kva?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. kva?s (Orbanicґi) `yeast' [m o], kva?sa [Gens]
Slovene: kva?s `leaven, ferment' [m o]
Bulgarian: kvas `leaven, kvass' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *{1} kHuЎth2-so-??; kue/oHth2-so-??
COMM: Besides *kHuЎth2-so-, a secondary full grade *kua/oHso-, which would have to be posterior to Hirt's law, seems possible.
Other cognates: Lat. cѓseus `cheese' [m]; Go. hєa±o `foam' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kvĕ?tъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `flower'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 162-163
Old Church Slavic: cvĕtъ `flower' [m o]
Russian: cvet (obs.) `flower' [m o], cveґta [Gens], cvetyґ [Nomp]; #Ru. cvetoґk `flower' [m o], cvetyґ [Nomp]; #Ru. kvet (dial.) `flower' [m o]
Czech: kvĕt `flower' [m o]
Slovak: kvet `flower' [m o]
Polish: kwiat `flower' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: kvĕt `flower' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: cvi?jet `flower, bloom' [m o], cvi?jeta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. cvi?t (Vrgada) `flower, white wheat flour' [m o], cvi?ta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. cvie?t (Orbanicґi) `bloom' [m o]
Slovene: cve•?t `flower' [m o/u], cve•?ta [Gens], cve•tu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: cvjat `bloom' [m o]
Lithuanian: cvijeta [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґuoit-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *kvisti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bloom, blossom'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 167-168
Old Church Slavic: cvisti (Supr.) `bloom, blossom' [verb], cvьtǫ [1sg]
Russian: cvestiґ `bloom, blossom' [verb], cvetuґ [1sg], cveЁl [pretsgm]
Czech: kveґsti `bloom, blossom' [verb], kvetu [1sg], kvĕtu (obs., dial.) [1sg]; #Cz. kviґsti `bloom, blossom' [verb], kvetu [1sg], kvĕtu (obs., dial.) [1sg]; #Cz.
Old Czech:: kvisti `bloom, blossom' [verb], ktvu [1sg]
Old Polish: kwisґcґ `bloom, blossom' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: cva°sti `bloom, blossom' [verb], cva°tЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. cva~s (Orbanicґi) `bloom' [verb], cvate? [3sg]
Slovene: cveґsti `bloom, blossom' [verb], cveґtem [1sg]; #Sln. cvЌ°sti `bloom, blossom' [verb], cvЌte°m [1sg]; #Sln. cvЌstiґ `bloom, blossom' [verb], cvЌte°m [1sg]
Latvian: kvite^t `shimmer, glimmer' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґu(e)it-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *kydati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `throw, fling'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 252-253
Russian: kidaґt' `throw, fling, cast' [verb], kidaґju [1sg]
Ukrainian: kyґdaty `throw, fling, cast, cease' [verb]
Czech: kydati `throw, muck out' [verb]
Slovak: kydat' `throw, muck out' [verb]
Polish: kidacґ (dial.) `throw, fling, cast' [verb]
Old Polish: kidacґ `throw, fling, cast' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ki?dati `tear, muck out' [verb], ki?d?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ki?dati (Vrgada) `tear, muck out' [verb], ki?daІЇš [2sg]
Slovene: kiґdati `throw out, throw aside, muck out' [verb], ki?dam [1sg]
Bulgarian: kiґdam (dial.) `soil, stain' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kud-
Other cognates: Skt. coґdati `impel' [verb]; OIc. skjoґta `shoot, shove' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kydnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `throw, fling'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 252-253
Russian: kiґnut' `throw, fling, cast' [verb], kiґnu [1sg]
Ukrainian: kyґnuty `throw, fling, cast, cease' [verb]
Czech: kydnouti `throw, fling' [verb]
Slovak: kydnuґt' `throw, fling, strike' [verb]
Polish: kina§cґ (dial.) `throw, fling, cast' [verb]
Old Polish: kina§cґ `throw, fling, cast' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ki?nuti se `get away from' [verb]
Slovene: kiґniti `nod' [verb], ki?nim [1sg]
Bulgarian: kiґna (dial.) `tear' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kud-
Proto-Slavic form: *kyjь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `stick, club'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 257-258
Church Slavic: kyi (RuCS) `hammer, club' [m jo]; #CS kii (RuCS) `hammer, club' [m jo]
Russian: kij (dial.) `stick, wooden hammer, pestle' [m jo]
Czech: kyj `stick, club' [m jo]
Slovak: kyj `stick, club' [m jo]
Polish: kij `stick, cane' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: kij (15th c.) `hammer' [m jo]
Slovene: ki?j `big wooden beetle, corn-cob' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuЂios
Lithuanian: kіґjis `hammer' [m io]
Old Prussian: cugis `hammer'
Indo-European reconstruction: *kuH2-io-
Other cognates: Lat. cіdere `beat, grind, forge'; OHG hǫggva `hew, beat' [verb]; OHG houwan `hew, beat' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ky°la
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `outgrowth, hernia'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 262-263
Church Slavic: kyla `hernia' [f ѓ]; #CS kila `hernia' [f ѓ]
Russian: kilaґ `hernia, outgrowth on plants' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: kyґla `hernia' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. kylaґ `hernia' [f ѓ]
Czech: kyґla `hernia' [f ѓ]
Slovak: kyla `hernia' [f ѓ]
Polish: kiљa `hernia' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ki?la `hernia, oedema, swelling, outgrowth (on plants)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ki?la (Vrgada) `hernia, swelling' [f ѓ]
Slovene: kiґla `scrotal hernia, outgrowth (on plants)' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kiґla `hernia' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuЂlaЂ
Lithuanian: kіґla (dial.) `lump, hernia, stalk' [f ѓ]; #Lith. kіґlas (dial.) `lump, hernia' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kh2u-l-eh2
COMM: For the colour of the laryngeal cf. Gk. kaulТj `stalk, shaft' = Lith. kaґulas `bone'.
Other cognates: OIc. haull `hernia' [f]; OHG hЎla `hernia' [f]
Notes: For the colour of the laryngeal cf. Gk. kaulТj `stalk, shaft' = Lith. kaґulas `bone'.
Proto-Slavic form: *kypĕ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `boil, seethe'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 265
Old Church Slavic: kypĕti (Euch., Supr.) `seethe' [verb]
Russian: kipeґt' `boil, seethe' [verb], kipljuґ [1sg], kipiґt [3sg]
Czech: kypĕti `boil, overflow' [verb]
Slovak: kypiet' `boil, overflow' [verb]
Polish: kipiecґ `boil' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kiґpjeti `boil, overflow' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. k–pe?t (Orbanicґi) `boil' [verb], k–pi~ [3sg]
Slovene: kipe•ґti `boil, overflow' [verb], kipiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: kipjaґ `boil, overflow' [verb]
Lithuanian: kіpe†ґti `boil over' [verb], kі~pa [3sg]
COMM: In my opinion, Schrijver (1991: 260) correctly separates kypĕ°ti from #Latv. ku^pe^t `smoke, steam', #Lat. vapor `steam, heat', etc., which he derives from a root *k(w)h2up- (-> *kopъtь). An analysis of the East Baltic material nearly suffices to establish the roots *ku^p- `smoke, steam' and *kup- `boil, seethe', e.g. #Latv. ku^pt, #Latv. ku^pe^t `smoke, steam' vs. #Latv. kupe^t, #Latv. kupuo^t `seethe'. The latter root may go back to PIE *kup-, cf. Skt. kupyati `swell, heave or boil with rage or emotion, be angry, be angry with', Lat. cupiЎ `desire'. LIV distinguishes between *keuёp- `innerlich beben', *kuёeh1p- `sieden', and *kuep- `hauchen'. The root *kuёeh1p- is posited on the basis of forms that do not or not necessarily require a laryngeal, such as. #Lith. kіpe†ґti `boil over' (cf. #Lith. ku°pti, #Latv. kupt `rise (bread)' and OCS kypĕti, the etymon under discussion. The froms that do require a laryngeal, viz. #Latv. ku^pt and #Latv. ku^pe^t `smoke, steam' have a different meaning and can be linked to the forms mentioned under *kuёep- if we adopt Schrijver's reconstruction.
Other cognates: Lat. vapor `steam, heat' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kyprъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XIII 267
Church Slavic: kypryj (RuCS) `porous' [adj o]
Czech: kypryґ `ironed, rounded' [adj o]
Slovak: kypryґ `mellow, soft' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: kipry `weak, powerless' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kiґpaўr (dial.) `beautiful, neat' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuЂpeЂtei
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєh2up-
Other cognates: vapor `steam, heat' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kysati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `turn sour'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 269
Czech: kysati `turn sour, rot' [verb]
Polish: kisacґ (arch.) `turn sour, ferment, pickle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kisati (arch.) `turn sour, boil' [verb]; #SCr. ki?sati `rise (dough), pickle' [verb]; #SCr. kisa?ti `leave to rise (bread)' [verb]
Slovene: kiґsati `pickle' [verb], ki?sam [1sg], ki?šem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kiґsel `sour, fermented' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuЂsaЂtei
Latvian: ku^sa^t `boil' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kHuth2-s-??
Other cognates: Skt. kvaґthant- (YV+) `bubbling, boiling' [ppra]; Go. hєa±o `foam' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kyselъ; kysĕlъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `sour'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 271
Old Church Slavic: kysĕlu (Euch.) `sour, young (wine)' [Dsgn adj o]
Czech: kyselyґ `sour' [adj o]
Polish: kisiaљy (arch.) `sour' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ki?seo `sour' [adj o], ki?sela [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. ki?sЊ (Vrgada) `sour' [adj o], kisela? [Nomsf], ki?selo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. ki?sel (Orbanicґi) `sour' [adj o], ki?sela [Nomsf], ki?selo [Nomsn]
Slovene: kiґseљ `sour' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kiґsel `sour, fermented' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kHuth2-s-??
Other cognates: Skt. kvaґthant- (YV+) `bubbling, boiling' [ppra]; Go. hєa±o `foam' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kys(ь)lъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `sour'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 275
Russian: kiґslyj `sour' [adj o]
Slovak: kyslyґ `sour' [adj o]
Polish: kisљy (arch., dial.) `sour, fermented' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ki?sao (arch., dial.) `sour' [adj o]
Slovene: kiґsЌљ `sour' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kHuth2-s-??
Other cognates: Lat. cѓseus `cheese' [m]; Go. hєa±o `foam' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kyvati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `nod'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 283-284
Old Church Slavic: kyvati `nod' [verb]
Russian: kivaґt' `nod' [verb]
Czech: kyґvati `wink, nod, move, shake' [verb]
Slovak: kyґvat' `wink, nod' [verb]
Polish: kiwacґ `wink, nod, wag' [verb]
Slovene: kiґvati `nod' [verb], kiґvam [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kh1u-
Other cognates: Lat. cЊvЊre `move the haunches in a lewd or effeminate manner' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kyxati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sneeze'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 254-255
Russian: kiґxat' (dial.) `laugh loudly, cough' [verb]
Old Russian:: kixati `sneeze' [verb]
Czech: kyґchati `sneeze' [verb]
Slovak: kyґchat' `sneeze' [verb]
Polish: kichacґ `sneeze' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kiґhati `sneeze' [verb], ki?hѓm [1sg], ki?šЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. k–ha?ti (Vrgada) `sneeze' [verb], ki~šeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. k–ha?t (Orbanicґi) `sneeze' [verb], ki~šen [1sg]
Slovene: kiґhati `sneeze' [verb], ki?ham [1sg], ki?šem [1sg]
Bulgarian: kiґxam `sneeze' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъde
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `where'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 173-174
Old Church Slavic: kъde `where' [adv]
Russian: gde `where' [adv]
Czech: kde `where' [adv]
Slovak: kde `where' [adv]
Polish: gdzie `where' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: gdje? `where' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. kade? (Orbanicґi) `where' [adv]
Slovene: kje•ґ `where' [adv]; #Sln. kje•° `somewhere' [adv]
Bulgarian: gde `where' [adv]
Lithuanian: kur~ `where' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєu-dhe
Other cognates: Skt. kuґha `where?' [adv]; Lat. nЊcubi `lest somewhere' [conj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъjь
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `who, what, which'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 116-117
Old Church Slavic: kъi `who, what, which' [prn], kaja [Nomsf], koje [Nomsn]
Russian: koj `what, which' [prn]
Slovak: kyґ `what, which' [prn], kaґ [Nomsf], keґ [Nomsn]
Polish: ki (arch., dial.) `what, which' [prn], ka [Nomsf], kie [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: ko°j– `what, which' [prn], ko°jѓ [Nomsf], ko°jЊ [Nomsn]
Bulgarian: koj `who, which' [prn], kojaґ [Nomsf], koeґ [Nomsn]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kos
Lithuanian: ka°s `who, which' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєo-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 644
Proto-Slavic form: *kъk(ъ)n§ь
GRAM: m. jo?; f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: XIII 177
Old Church Slavic: kъkъnju (Supr.) `shins' [Locdm jo or Locdf jѓ]
Lithuanian: kau~kas `lump' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kuk-
Page in Pokorny: 589
Other cognates: OIc. haugr `hill' [adj]; MHG hocker `hump' [adj]; OIr. cuґar `crooked' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъlbь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: XIII 182-183
Russian: kolbґ (dial.) `gudgeon' [m jo]
Polish: kieљb `gudgeon' [m jo]; #Pl. kieљb `gudgeon' [m o]
Kashubian: kґeљb `gudgeon' [m jo]; #Kash. kґeљp `gudgeon' [m jo]
Lithuanian: ki°lbas (obs.) `gudgeon' [m o] 1; #Lith. keґlbas (obs.) `gudgeon' [m o] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *KulP-i-
Certainty: -
Other cognates: OIr. gulban `beak, sting' [m]; W gylfin `bird's bill, beak, snout, sharp-pointed nose' [m]; W gylf `bird's bill, beak, nose, mouth, sharp-pointed instrument' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъlka; kъlkъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `bony stump'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 188
Russian: kolk (dial.) `bony stump underneath a horn of a cow or bull' [m o]
Czech: kelka (obs.) `stump of an arm or leg, artificial limb' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?k `thigh, hip, (dial.) ham, rock' [m o], ku°ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ku~k (Vrgada) `hip, rock' [m o], kіka? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ku?k (Novi, Orbanicґi) `hip' [m o]
Slovene: ko°љk `thigh, hip, cliff' [m o]
Bulgarian: kaўґlka `thigh, hip' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. klaўґka (dial.) `thigh, hip, side, bend of a river' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kulЂk-
Lithuanian: kulkšni°s `ankle(-bone)' [f i] 4
Latvian: kulksnis `tarsal joint, hough' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klHk-??
Other cognates: Lat. calex `heel' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъlpь
GRAM: f. i; m. jo
Page in Trubačev: XIII 189-190
Russian: kolpґ (dial.) `spoonbill' [f i]
Old Russian:: kolpь (dial.) `spoonbill' [f i]
Polish: {1}
Kashubian: kwљpґ `swan' [m jo]; #Kash. kґe†љp `swan' [m jo]
Slovincian: ko°uёp `swan' [m jo], ko°uёpjaў [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: koљpґ `swan' [m jo], koљpja [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ku?p (Herc.) `swan' [m o]; #SCr. ku?f (Dubr.) `swan, pelican' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kulpis
Indo-European reconstruction: *KulP-i-
Certainty: -
Other cognates: OIr. gulban `beak, sting' [m]; W gylfin `bird's bill, beak, snout, sharp-pointed nose' [m]; W gylf `bird's bill, beak, nose, mouth, sharp-pointed instrument' [m]
Notes: {1} Place-names derived from kieљp- occur in various parts of Poland (see Banґkowski 2000: 665-666).
Proto-Slavic form: *kъlъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `fang, tusk'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 192-193
Russian: kol (dial.) `sharp lower tooth of a horse, fang, tusk' [m o]
Czech: kel `fang, tusk, shoot' [m o], klu [Gens]
Slovak: kel `fang, tusk' [m o], kla [Gens]
Polish: kieљ `canine (tooth), fang, tusk' [m o], kљa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?l `canine (tooth), fang, tusk' [m o]
Slovene: kЌ°l `tusk (of a pig)' [m o], kla° [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *klH-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *kъ(n)
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `to'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 173-174
Old Church Slavic: kъ `to' [prep]
Russian: k(o) `to' [prep]
Czech: k(e/u) `to' [prep]
Slovak: k(u) `to' [prep]
Polish: ku `to' [prep]
Old Polish: k(u) `to' [prep] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: k(a) `to' [prep]
Slovene: k `to' [prep]
Bulgarian: kaўm `to' [prep]
Macedonian: kon `to' [prep]
Notes: {1} By the beginning of the 18th century, the variant ku had ousted k, which still occurs dialectally.
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrkati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 216
Czech: krkati `croak' [verb]
Slovak: krґkat' `croak' [verb]
Polish: karkacґ `cackle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: krґkati `stuff oneself' [verb]; #SCr. kr?kati (Elez.) `eat greedily' [verb]
Bulgarian: kaўґkati `gurgle, rumble, stuff oneself, booze' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrknǫti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 216
Old Church Slavic: krъknǫti (Supr.) `squeak' [verb]
Czech: krknouti `belch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: kr?knuti `bang, crash, squeak' [verb]
Slovene: krґkniti `squeak' [verb], kr?knem [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrma I
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `stern'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 220-222
Old Church Slavic: krъma (Zogr., Mar.) `stern' [f ѓ]
Russian: kormaґ `stern' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: krґma `stern, helm' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. krma? (Vrgada, Novi) `stern, helm' [f ѓ]
Slovene: krґma `stern' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kaўrmaґ `stern' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwr-m-
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrma II; kъrmъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `food, fodder'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 222-223; XIII 227-229
Old Church Slavic: krъma (Supr.) `food' [f ѓ]
Russian: korm `fodder, forage' [m o]
Old Russian:: kъrmъ `food, feast, banquet' [m o]; #ORu. kormъ `food, feast, banquet' [m o]
Czech: krm (obs.) `fodder' [m o]
Slovak: krm `fodder' [m o]; #Slk. krma (dial.) `fodder, mother's milk' [f ѓ]
Polish: karm (arch, dial.) `food, fodder' [m o]
Slovincian: kaІrma `fodder' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: krґma `fodder' [f ѓ] {1}; #SCr. C№ak. krЇma? `(cattle) fodder' [f ѓ], krЇmo? [Accs]
Slovene: krґma `nourishment, fodder, hay' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kaўrmaґ `fodder, mother's milk' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kґrh3-mo-
Notes: {1} According to the RJA, the original meaning `food' occurs until the 16th century.
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `maimed'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 236-237
Church Slavic: krъnъ `mutilated (with ears slit or cropped)' [adj o]
Russian: kornoґj (dial.) `stocky, thickset' [adj o]; #Ru. koґrnyj (dial.) `stocky, thickset' [adj o]
Polish: ka†~rn `notch' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: kr?n `broken off, dented, knocked out (teeth), maimed' [adj o]; #SCr. krґnja `crop-eared, snub-nosed, toothless' [adj o]; #SCr. kr?nja `crop-eared, snub-nosed or toothless person' [m jѓ]
Slovene: kr°n `maimed, mutilated' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kurnas
Latvian: kur~ns `deaf' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєr-no-
COMM: I assume that in Slavic this root was secondarily associated with *krH- `to cut' (Derksen 1996: 226-227).
Other cognates: Skt. kaґrn•a- `ear'
Proto-Slavic form: *kъ°rpa
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: XIII 237
Old Church Slavic: krъpa `texture, fabric' [f ѓ]
Slovak: krpa `earthenware pot' [f ѓ]
Polish: karpa (dial.) `stump and roots of a felled tree' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: karpa `stump and roots of a felled tree' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: kr?pa `rag, patch' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kr?pa (Vrgada) `rag, patch' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. kr?pa (Vrgada) `piece of cloth, rag, towel' [f ѓ]
Slovene: krґpa `patch, stain' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: kaўґrpa `piece of cloth, towel' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kuґrЂp(i)aЂ
Lithuanian: ku°rpe† `shoe' [f Њ]
Latvian: kur~pe `shoe' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: kurpe `shoe'
Indo-European reconstruction: *kr(H)p/b-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 581
Other cognates: Gk. karbŽtinai `shoes of undressed leather, brogues' [Nompf]; Gk. (Hesych.) karpŽtinon `shoe of undressed leather, brogue' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъrzno
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `fur'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 244
Church Slavic: krъz(ь)no `piece of clothing made of fur' [n o]
Old Russian:: korzno `cloak' [n o] {1}
Czech: krzno `military cloak' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: krґzno `fur' [n o]; #SCr. kr°zno `fur' [n o]
Slovene: krґzno `skin, pelt, fur' [n o]
Other cognates: Lat. (Gaul.) crocina `pelt, fur' [f]
Notes: {1} Also kъrzno, korьzno, krъzno, korozno.
Proto-Slavic form: *kъr§ь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: XIII 242
Old Russian:: kъrь `cleared spot, shrubbery' [m jo]; #ORu. korь `cleared spot, shrubbery' [m jo]
Czech: ker№ `bush' [m jo], ker№e [Gens]; #Cz. ker№ (lit., poet.) `bush' [m jo], kr№e [Gens]
Slovak: ker `bush' [m o], kra [Gens]
Polish: kierz `bush' [m jo], krza [Gens], krzu [Gens]
Lithuanian: ki°rna (dial.) `root of a tree or shrub on a riverbank that is hollowed out by water, soggy spot overgrown with bushes, spot with fallen trees' [f ѓ] 1
Old Prussian: kirno `bush'
COMM: A jo-stem containing the zero grade of the root of -> *korenь.
Proto-Slavic form: *kъsьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `slow'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 246-247
Church Slavic: kъsnъ (Nik.) `slow' [adj o]
Russian: koґsnyj `inert, sluggish' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?san `late, tardy' [adj o]; #SCr. ka?sno (dial.) `late, tardy' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?san (Vrgada) `late, tardy' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. ka?san (Orbanicґi) `late, tardy' [adj o]
Slovene: kЌsa?n `sluggish, slow, late' [adj o]; #Sln. kaґsЌn `sluggish, slow, late' [adj o]
Bulgarian: kaўґsen `late' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kusґ-no-; kusґ-lo-
Lithuanian: ku°šlas (dial.) `blind, weak (plants), small' [adj o]
Latvian: kusls (dial.) `stiff, small, weak' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъšiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cast lots'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 247
Church Slavic: kъšiti `cast lots' [verb]
Old Russian:: košitisja `cast lots' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kus-io-
Proto-Slavic form: *kъšь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `lot, fate'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 247
Church Slavic: kъšь (RuCS) `lot, fate' [m jo]; #CS košь (RuCS) `lot, fate' [m jo]
Old Russian:: kъšь `lot, fate' [m jo]; #ORu. košь `lot, fate' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kus-io-
Proto-Slavic form: *kъto
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `who'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 248
Old Church Slavic: kъto `who?' [prn]
Russian: kto `who?' [prn]
Czech: kdo `who?' [prn]
Old Czech:: kto `who?' [prn]; #OCz. chto `who?' [prn]
Polish: kto `who?' [prn]
Old Polish: kto `who?' [prn]; #OPl. chto `who?' [prn]
Serbo-Croatian: tko? `who?' [prn]; #SCr. ko? `who?' [prn]
Slovene: kdo•ґ `who?' [prn]
Lithuanian: kas `who, what?' [prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kєos+to
Other cognates: Go. hєas `who?' [prn]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъxati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIII 176
Serbo-Croatian: ka?hati (dial.) `push, shove' [verb]
Slovene: ka?hati `cough loudly' [verb], ka?ham [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъxnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `cough, sneeze'
Page in Trubačev: XIII 176
Church Slavic: kъxnǫti `sneeze' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ka?hnuti `cough, sneeze' [verb]; #SCr. ka°hnuti `cough, sneeze' [verb]
Slovene: kęґhniti `sneeze (once)' [verb], kę?hnem [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *kъznь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: XIII 249
Old Church Slavic: kъznь (Ril., Supr.) `art, manner' [f i]
Church Slavic: kъznь (RuCS) `occupation, profession, art' [f i]
Russian: koґzni `machinations, intrigues' [Nompf i]
Old Russian:: kъznь `occupation, profession, art' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *The vocalism of this etymon is unexpected.
Other cognates: Lat. cіdere `beat, grind, forge'; OHG hǫggva `hew, beat' [verb]; OHG houwan `hew, beat' [verb]

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