Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*En)


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Всего на Ĕ (Я, Iѣ – “ять” йотированный?) – 20 слов.

Proto-Slavic form: *ĕdro
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `bosom'
Page in Trubačev: VI 43
Old Church Slavic: jadra `embrace, bosom' [Nompn o]
Church Slavic: jadro `depth, womb, bosom' [Nompn o]
Czech: n№adro `breast, bosom' [n o]; #Cz. n№adra `breast, bosom' [Nompn o]
Old Czech:: n№adra `breast, bosom' [Nompn o]; #OCz. n№aґdra `breast, bosom' [n o]
Polish: jadro `net' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: je?dro `sail' [n o], je°dra [Nomp]; #SCr. je°dro (Vuk) `sail' [n o] {1}; #SCr. C№ak. i?dro `sail' [n o], idraІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?dro (Novi) `sail' [n o]
Slovene: jaґdro• `sail, "bosom" of a net' [n o]; #Sln. ne•?dro• `bosom' [n o]; #Sln. ne•?drje `bosom' [n jo], ne•?drja `bosom' [Nomp jo]
COMM: The forms with n- originate from the syntagms *vъn ĕdra and *vъn ĕdrĕxъ, cf. vь nĕdrĕxъ (Supr. 244, 26)
Notes: {1} According to the RJA, the accentuation of je°dro is wrong.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕ?dь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `food'
Page in Trubačev: VI 53-54
Old Church Slavic: jadь `food' [f i]
Church Slavic: jadь `food' [f i]
Russian: jad' (dial.) `food, dish' [f i]; #Ru. ed' (dial.) `meal, dinner-time' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: jĕdzґ `food' [f i]
Lower Sorbian: jezґ `food, meal, dish' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?d (arch., lit.) `food' [f i]
Slovene: je•?d `food, meal' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *eЂdi(o)s
Lithuanian: e†~dis `food, fodder' [m io]
Old Prussian: –dis `food' [m]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ed-i-
Page in Pokorny: 288
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕ?rъ II
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: VIII 178-179
Old Church Slavic: jarъ (Zogr., Mar. Ass.) `austere' [adj o]
Russian: jaґryj `furious, violent, vehement' [adj o] {1}
Czech: jaryґ `young, fresh, wild' [adj o]
Slovak: jaryґ `energetic, fresh, cheerful' [adj o]
Polish: jary (arch.) `clear, strong, hot' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?r (RJA) `heated, steep, cruel' [adj o]
Slovene: ja?r `furious, savage' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 501
COMM: The connection with Gk. zwrТj `pure, sheer (of wine)' is, of course, merely a possibility. Note that a reconstructed form *ioH-ro- or *ieh3-ro- would be affected by Hirt's law, which seems to be in conflict with the attested accentuation.
Other cognates: Gk. zwrТj `pure, sheer (of wine)' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zalziajnak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrę
GRAM: n. nt
Page in Trubačev: VIII 172
Church Slavic: jarę (RuCS) `lamb' [n nt]
Old Russian:: jarę `lamb' [n nt]
Czech: jer№aґtko `one and a half year-old sheep' [n nt]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?re `kid, young goat' [n nt], ja?reta [Gens]
Slovene: jare° `lamb' [n nt], jaręґta [Gens]
Bulgarian: jaґre `kid' [n nt]
COMM: Derivative in *-ę, which is frequenty in designations of young animals. See -> *ĕro, *ĕra, *ĕrъ for the etymology of the root.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrina
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VIII 173-174
Church Slavic: jarina `wool' [f ѓ]; #CS jarina (RuCS) `wool' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: jarina `wool' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: jarynaґ `spring corn, spring sowings, spring field' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. jarynaґ (dial.) `vegetables' [f ѓ]
Czech: jar№ina `spring corn' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jarina `spring corn' [f ѓ]
Polish: jarzyna `vegetables, spring corn' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?rina `lamb's wool' [f ѓ]; #SCr. jari°na `spring crop' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?rina (Vrgada) `lamb's (first) wool' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. jari~na (Orbanicґi) `late crop (grapes, wheat etc.)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jariґna `spring seed, summer fruit' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґrina `lamb's wool' [f ѓ]
COMM: Derivative in *-ina. See -> *ĕro, *ĕra, *ĕrъ for the etymology of the root.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕro; ĕra; ĕrь
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ; m. o
Page in Trubačev: VIII 175-176
Church Slavic: jara (RuCS) `spring' [f ѓ]
Russian: jar (dial.) `heat, fire' [m o]
Old Russian:: jara `spring' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: jar `spring' [m o]
Czech: jaro `spring' [n o]
Polish: jar (dial.) `spring, spring corn' [m o]; #Pl. jaro (16th c.) `spring, spring corn' [n o] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: ja?ra `great heat, mirage, spirit' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ja?r `spring' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *jeЂro-
Lithuanian: e†ґras `lamb' [m o] 3; #Lith. je†ґras (dial.) `lamb' [m o] 3
Latvian: ję~rs `lamb' [m o]; #Latv. jЊre `one year old sheep, mother lamb' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: eristian (EV) `lamb' [n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hieh1-r-
IE meaning: `season'
COMM: There is a possibility that the root is identical with *Hieh1- `send'.
Other cognates: Skt. paryѓriґn•–- (Kath+) `cow which has its first calf after a year' [f]; Gk. йraЇ `time, season' [f]; YAv. yѓrЌ- `year' [n]; Go. jer `year' [n]; OHG jѓr `year' [n]
Notes: {1} According to Banґkowski (2000: 574), the form jaro was made up by W. Pola.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrostь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `fury'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 177
Old Church Slavic: jarostь `wrath' [f i]
Russian: jaґrost' `fury, rage' [f i]
Czech: jarost `abundance in strength, unruly conduct' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґrЎst `fury, anger' [f i]
Slovene: jaro•?st `fury, anger' [f i]
Bulgarian: jaґrost `fury, anger' [f i]
Page in Pokorny: 501
COMM: Abstract noun in *-ostь (-> *ĕrъ II).
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrъ I
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: VIII 175-176
Old Russian:: jaryj `spring-' [adj o] {1}
Ukrainian: jaґryj `spring-, young' [adj o]
Czech: jaryґ (dial.) `spring-' [adj o]
Old Czech:: jaryґ `spring-' [adj o]
Polish: jary (dial.) `spring-, of the first shearing (wool)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?ra `great heat, mirage, spirit' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ja?r `spring' [m o]
Slovene: ja?r `spring-' [adj o], jaґra [Nomsf]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *jeЂro-
Notes: {1} Also jarovyi. Now only jarovoґj, dial. jaґrovyj.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrъka
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VIII 179-180
Czech: jarka `spring wheat, sheep born in spring' [f ѓ]; #Cz. jarka (dial.) `spring rye, ewe that had young in spring' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jarka `one year old sheep' [f ѓ]
Polish: jarka `increase or harvest of this or last year's spring, barren sheep' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?rka `spring corn, hen that has laid eggs for the first time' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ja?rka `spring maize' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja~rka (Orbanicґi) `species of grain' [f ѓ]
Slovene: ja?rka `summer fruit (e.g. of spring rye or wheat), young hen' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґrka `young chicken' [f ѓ]
COMM: Derivative in *-ъka. See -> *ĕro, *ĕra, *ĕrъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: VIII 180-181
Russian: jar' (dial.) `spring, spring field, spring wheat' [f i]
Old Russian:: jar' `spring corn' [f i]
Ukrainian: jar' `spring, spring corn' [f i]
Czech: jar№ `spring corn' [f i]; #Cz. jar (dial.) `spring' [f i]
Slovak: jar `spring' [f i]
Polish: jarz (15th-17th c.) `spring, spring corn' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: jar `spring barley (Hordeum distichum)' [f i]; #SCr. jar `spring barley (Hordeum distichum)' [m. o]
Slovene: ja?r `spring corn' [f i], jari? [Gens] {1}
Other cognates: Skt. paryѓriґn•–- (Kath+) `cow which has its first calf after a year' [f]; Gk. йra? `time, season' [f]; Av. yar- `year' [n]; Go. jer `year' [n]; OHG jѓr `year' [n]
Notes: {1} Pleteršnik actually has `Sommergetreide', which means `corn that is sown in spring and harvested in summer'. I assume that ja?r may be identified with jaro žito `corn sown in spring', cf. jaґrica `id.'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕrьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: VIII 180-181
Russian: jareґc (dial.) `one year old beaver' [m jo], jarcaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: jareґc' (dial.) `barley' [m jo]
Slovak: jarec `barley' [m jo]
Polish: jarzec (dial.) `spring barley' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?rac `he-goat' [m o], ja?rca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?rac (Vrgada) `he-goat' [m o], jaІ~rca [Gens]
Slovene: ja?rЌc `kid born in spring, (uncastrated) ram, spring wheat' [f i]
Bulgarian: jaґrec `kid' [m jo]
COMM: Derivative in *-ьcь. See -> *ĕro, *ĕra, *ĕrъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕ°snъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `clear'
Page in Trubačev: VI 51-52
Old Church Slavic: jasnъ (Supr.) `clear' [adj o]
Russian: jaґsny `clear' [adj o]
Czech: jasnyґ `clear' [adj o]
Slovak: jasnyґ `clear' [adj o]
Polish: jasny `clear' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?san `clear' [adj o]
Slovene: jaґsЌn `clear' [adj o]
Bulgarian: jaґsen `clear' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aЂis•k-(n)-
Lithuanian: aґiškus `clear' [adj u]
IE meaning: If the root is *h2eidh- (cf. Skt. edh- `set alight, kindle', Gk. a‡qw `kindle'), the acute may originate from the substitution of *-Hsk- for *-sk- , cf. Derksen 1996: 294.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `eat'
Page in Trubačev: VI 53-54
Old Church Slavic: jasti `eat' [verb], jamь [1sg], jastъ [3sg]
Russian: eґst' `eat' [verb], em [1sg], est [3sg]
Czech: jiґsti `eat' [verb]
Slovak: jest' `eat' [verb]
Polish: jesґcґ `eat' [verb]
Slovincian: ji°eёsc `eat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: je?sti `eat' [verb], je?dem [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. i?sti or i~sti (Vrgada) `eat' [verb], ide~ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. je?s (Orbanicґi) `eat' [verb], (j)i~ [3sg]
Slovene: je•ґsti `eat' [verb], je•ґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: jam `eat' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *eЂsti
Lithuanian: e†ґsti `eat' [verb]
Latvian: e^st `eat' [verb]
Old Prussian: –st(wei) `eat' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ed-mi
IE meaning: eat
Page in Pokorny: 288
Other cognates: Skt. aґtti `eat' [verb]; Hitt. ed-zi / ad- `eat' [verb]; Gk. њdmenai `eat' [verb]; Lat. edЎ `eat' [verb]; Go. itan `eat' [verb] [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `go, ride'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 183
Czech: jeti `ride, drive' [verb], jedu [1sg]
Old Polish: jaљ `rode' [3sgpt]
Upper Sorbian: jĕcґ `ride' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: jĕsґ `ride' [verb]
Lithuanian: joґti `ride' [verb]
Latvian: ja^t `ride' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ieh2-
Other cognates: Skt. yѓґti `go, travel, move' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕ°to
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `herd, flock'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 182-183
Church Slavic: jato `flock' [n o]
Russian: jat (dial.) `shoal of fish' [m o]
Polish: jato (obs.) `herd, flock' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?to `flock (of birds), swarm, herd' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?to (Vrgada) `flock (of birds), swarm, herd' [n o]
Slovene: jaґto• `herd, flock' [n o]; #Sln. ja?ta `herd, flock' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґto `flock (of birds)' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ieh2-toґm
COMM: The fixed root stress of this etymon must be due to Hirt's law.
Other cognates: Skt. yѓtaґ- `progress, course' [n]
Notes: -
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕxati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `go, ride'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 169-171
Old Church Slavic: jaxati `go, ride' [verb], jadǫ [1sg], jaxajǫ [1sg]
Russian: eґxat' `go, ride, drive' [verb], eґdu [1sg], eґdet [3sg]
Czech: jechati `run' [verb]
Slovak: jachat' `run, move, ride' [verb]
Polish: jechacґ `go, ride' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?hati `ride' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?hati (Vrgada) `ride' [verb]
Slovene: ja?hati `ride' [verb], ja?ham [1sg], ja?šem [1sg]
Bulgarian: jaґxam `ride' [verb]
COMM: The *-x-, which the ESSJa calls an intensive suffix, is a Slavic innovation, cf. Lith. joґti, Latv. ja^t `ride' and -> *ĕti. It is possible that it originates from the s-aorist.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕzda
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `ride'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 184-185
Church Slavic: jazda `ride' [f ѓ]
Russian: ezdaґ `ride, drive' [f ѓ]
Czech: jiґzda `ride, cavalry' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jazda `ride, cavalry' [f ѓ]
Polish: jazda `ride, cavalry' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: jezda `what one rides in/on, ride' [f ѓ]
Slovene: je•ґzda `riding' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jazdaґ `riding, ride' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. jezdaґ `riding, ride' [f ѓ]
COMM: Formation not entirely clear. The sequence *-zd- may have originated from *-dd- if we assume that a suffix -da was added to the present stem *ĕd- of *ĕxati.
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕ°zva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `wound'
Page in Trubačev: VI 56-57
Old Church Slavic: jazva `wound, injury, scar' [f ѓ]
Russian: jaґzva `ulcer, sore, (dial.) damage, injury' [f ѓ]
Czech: jizva `scar, scratch' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: jiezva `scar, scratch' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jazva `scar, scratch' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґzva `ulcer' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oi(Ђ)zґuёaЂ
Lithuanian: aґiža `crack' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: ai~za `crack' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: eyswo `wound' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(H)oi(H)gґ(h)-ueh2
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕzъ; ĕžь; ĕža; ezъ
GRAM: m. o; m. jo; f. jѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `weir'
Page in Trubačev: VI 59
Church Slavic: ĕzъ (RuCS) `fish weir' [m o]; #CS (j)ezъ (RuCS) `fish weir' [m o]; #CS
Russian: iž (dial.) `fishing tackle made of willow-twigs or a net' [m jo]; #Ru. eЁz `fish weir' [m o]
Old Russian:: ĕzъ `fish weir' [m o]; #ORu. (j)ezъ `fish weir' [m o]
BeloRussian: jaz `fishing tackle [m o]; #Bel. ez (dial.) `fish weir' [m o]
Ukrainian: jiz `fish weir' [m o]; #Ukr. jaz `fish weir' [m o]
Czech: jez `mill-pond, dam, weir, dike' [m o]
Polish: jaz `mill-pond, fish weir' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?z `drain (at a dam or weir), mill-pond, dike' [m o]; #SCr. je?z `mill-pond, dam, weir' [m o]; #SCr. ja?ž (dial.) `canal' [m jo]; #SCr. ja?ža (dial.) `brook streaming from a spring' [f jѓ]
Slovene: je•?z `dike, dam, weir' [m o], je•?za [Gens], je•zu? [Gens]; #Sln. je•ґža `dike, dam, weir, mill-pond' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: jaz `dam, weir, dike' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *Њzґ-; ezґ-o-
Lithuanian: ežia° `boundary(-strip), balk' [f jѓ] 2
Latvian: eža `boundary(-strip), balk' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: asy (EV) `boundary(-strip), balk'
COMM: Meanings such as `mill-pond', `drain, canal' and `brook' form a semantic link between *ĕz-/ez- `dam, weir' and -> *e?zero `lake', cf. MoE dike `thick bank or wall built to control water' vs. MoHG Teich `pond'. The original meaning in Balto-Slavic is best covered by the word balk, meaning both `boundary-strip, dividing ridge', `wooden beam' and (dial.) `fishing-weir'. Arm. ezr (-> *e?zero), which basically means `edge', agrees semantically very well with the Balto-Slavic etymon under discussion. We must reconstruct *h1Њgґh-o/ѓ-, with an obscure lengthened grade, alongside *h1egґh-o/ѓ-.
Other cognates: Arm. ezr `bank, border, limit' {1}
Proto-Slavic form: *ĕždžь; ĕždžikъ; ĕzgarъ; ĕzgarь; ĕskarъ
GRAM: m. jo; m. o; m. o; m. jo; m. o
PSLMEAN: `ruff'
Page in Trubačev: VI 60
BeloRussian: jadžgaґr `ruff' [m o]
Ukrainian: jazgar (dial.) `ruff' [m o] {1}
Czech: ježdiґk `ruff' [m o]
Polish: jaz†dz† (arch., N. dial.) `ruff' [m jo]; #Pl. jaszcz (arch., N. dial.) `ruff' [m jo] {2}; #Pl. jazgar (dial.) `ruff' [m o]; #Pl. jazgier (dial.) `ruff' [m o]; #Pl. jazgarz `ruff' [m jo]; #Pl. jazgierz (arch.) `ruff' [m jo]
Old Polish: jez†dz†yk `ruff' [m o]
Kashubian: iёwžѕ, iёwšč `ruff' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *egzґ-io-;; Њўzґg-io-
Lithuanian: ežgy~s `ruff' [m io] 4; #Lith. egžly~s (arch.) `ruff' [m io] 4; #Lith. ežegy~s (Pruss.) `ruff' [m io] 3b {3}
Old Prussian: assegis (EV) `perch'
Page in Pokorny: 292
COMM: It seems perfectly plausible to me that this etymon is cognate with *ežь `hedgehog'. Like its close relative the perch, the ruff has prickly fins (cf. MoHG Barsch `perch', Borste `bristle', Lith. ešery~s `perch', which presumably derives from *h2ekґ- `sharp'). The g of this word may be the well-known Baltic intrusive velar. In that case, archaic Lith. egžly~s would have preserved the original constellation. The Slavic forms would have to be borrowings from Baltic, which in view of their distribution is not unlikely.
Notes: {1} Other dialect forms are jaškar and jazgar. {2} In this case the term "northern dialects" probably refers to Kashubian. {3} The Standard Lithuanian word is pіgžly~s.

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