Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*G)


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Всего на G (Г) – 162 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *gabati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 76-77
BeloRussian: habaґc' `seize' [verb]
Ukrainian: haґbaty `seize' [verb]
Czech: habati (Kott) `seize' [verb]; #Cz. habat' (dial.) `seize, appropriate' [verb]
Slovak: habat' `seize, take, grab' [verb]
Old Polish: gabacґ `attack, pursue' [verb]
Slovene: gaґbati `be in need, starve, be lost, die' [verb], ga?bam [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaґbam `grieve' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghЎbh-
COMM: LIV classifies *gabati from *ghebh- `fassen, nehmen; geben', from which it also derives Skt. gaґbhasti- `hand', Go. giban `give', Lith. gebe•ґti `be able', gabeґnti `transport, remove'. LIV also has a root *gґheHb- `ergreifen, nehmen', which is claimed to be represented in Italo-Celtic only, e.g. Lat. habЊre, OIr. gaibid `take seize'. To a certain extent this classification seems abitrary. Mamy forms could be derived from a root *ghabh- (the Germanic verb may contain the prefix *ga- and therefore be unrelated) instead.
Proto-Slavic form: *gaditi
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 79-80
Church Slavic: gaditi `blame' [verb]
Russian: gaґdit' `defecate (of animals), defile' [verb]
Czech: haditi `scold' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ga?diti `fill with aversion, soil' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ga?diti se (Vrgada) `be repulsive' [verb]
Slovene: gaґditi `make loathsome, scold, slander' [verb], ga?dim [1sg]
COMM: See -> *ga°dъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *ga°dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: VI 81-82
Old Church Slavic: gadъ `creeping animal' [m o]
Russian: gad `reptile, amphibian, vermin' [m o]
Czech: had `reptile, snake' [m o]
Slovak: had `snake' [m o]
Polish: gad `reptile, scoundrel, (arch.) insects, livestock, poultry' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ga?d `loathing, nausea' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ga?d (Vrgada) `repulsion, repulsive person' [m o]
Slovene: ga°d `adder' [m o]
Bulgarian: gad `animal, scoundrel, loathing' [m o]
Lithuanian: ge†ґda `shame, disgrace' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: g–dan `shame, disgrace' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gwoh1dh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 484
COMM: The comparative evidence points to *gwoh1dh-o-.
Other cognates: MoDu. kwaad `angry, evil' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *gajati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a?
Page in Trubačev: VI 84
Russian: gaґjat' (dial.) `yawn, talk, scream, curse' [verb]
Old Russian:: gajati `caw, croak' [verb]
Lithuanian: giedoґti `sing' [verb]
Latvian: dzie^da^t `sing' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(w)eHi-
Other cognates: Skt. gѓґyati `sing' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ga°snǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `be extinguished, go out'
Page in Trubačev: VI 104-105
Russian: gaґsnut' `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Czech: hasnouti `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Slovak: hasnuґt' `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Polish: gasna§cґ `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ga?snuti `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Slovene: gaґsniti `be extinguished, go out' [verb], ga?snem [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaґsna `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Lithuanian: ge°sti `be extinguished, go out' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєЎs-
COMM: Perfective of -> *gѓsi°ti. The acute tone of the root is productive in this formation.
Other cognates: Skt. jaґsate `be exhausted' [verb]; Gk. sbљnnu?mi `extinguish' [verb];
Proto-Slavic form: *gatъ; gatь
GRAM: m. o; f. i
Page in Trubačev: VI 108-109
Russian: gat' `road of brushwood, (dial.) weir' [f i]
Old Czech:: hat' `road of brushwood, road in a marshy area' [f i]
Slovak: hat' `weir, fence from twigs' [f i]
Polish: gacґ `road of brushwood, weir from brushwood or twigs' [f i]
Old Polish: gat `belt, girdle' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: hat `pond, weir' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ga?t `drain next to a weir (Vuk), weir' [m o]
Slovene: ga?t `weir, drain' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gweh2-to-/-ti-
COMM: Derivative with a t-suffix from *gweh2- `go'.
Other cognates: Skt. gѓtuґ- (RV+) `way, course, progress' [m]; LAv. gѓtu- `way, place' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *ga°ziti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: VI 113
Church Slavic: izgaziti (RuCS) `ruin' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ga?ziti `trample, wade' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ga?ziti (Vrgada) `trample, wade' [verb]
Slovene: gaґziti `wade' [verb], ga?zim [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaґzja `wade, trample' [verb]
Lithuanian: goґžti `overthrow, overturn, pour out' [verb]
Latvian: ga^zt `overthrow, overturn, pour (out)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(є)eHgґh-
COMM: The Baltic forms appear semantically distant, but cf. RuCS izgaziti.
Other cognates: Skt. gѓґhate (RV+) `penetrate, step into the water, wade' [3sipm]
Proto-Slavic form: *gѓda°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `guess'
Page in Trubačev: VI 77-78
Church Slavic: gadati `tell fortunes, guess' [verb]
Russian: gadaґt' `tell fortunes, guess' [verb], gadaґju [1sg]
Czech: haґdati `guess' [verb]
Slovak: haґdat' `guess' [verb]
Polish: gadacґ `talk, chatter' [verb]
Slovene: gaґdati `guess, chatter' [verb], ga?dam [1sg]
Bulgarian: gadaґja `guess' [verb]
COMM: The root of *gadati, which seems to have lengthened grade, could be regarded as a variant of *gwet, cf. the synonymous -> *gѓta°ti, Go. qi±an `say, speak'. Late Vedic gaґdati `say, speak' may have originated from *gat- as a "Reimbildung" after vaґdati (Mayrhofer KEWA: 318), which renders a direct comparison with *gadati doubtful (pace ESSJa s.v.). More convincing than the suggested connection with *gwet- is the etymology that links *gadati to OIc. gaґta `get, learn, guess', Gk. candŽnw `contain', Lat. prehendЎ `take, seize' < *ghed-. Finally, a connection with -> *goditi `please' < *ghedh- cannot be ruled out, cf. Latv. gadi^t `happen to find'.
Other cognates: Gk. candŽnw `contain' [verb]; Lat. prehendЎ `take, seize' [verb]; OIc. geta `get, learn, guess' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gѓsi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `extinguish'
Page in Trubačev: VI 104
Old Church Slavic: ugasiti `extinguish' [verb], ugašǫ [1sg]
Russian: gasiґt' `extinguish' [verb], gašuґ [1sg], gaґsit [3sg] {1}
Czech: hasiti `extinguish' [verb]
Polish: gasicґ `extinguish' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gaґsiti `extinguish' [verb], ga?š–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gaІЇsi?ti `extinguish' [verb], gaІ~s–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gѓsi?t (Orbanicґi) `extinguish, put out' [verb], ga~si [3sg]
Slovene: gasiґti `extinguish' [verb], gasiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: gasjaґ `extinguish' [verb]
Lithuanian: gesyґti `extinguish' [verb]
COMM: Causative formation with lengthened grade in the root, which must be reconstructed as *gєЎs-.
Other cognates: Skt. jѓsaґyati `extinguish, exhaust' [verb]; Gk. sbљnnu?mi `extinguish' [verb];
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *gѓta°ti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 105
Church Slavic: gatati `tell fortunes, guess' [verb]
Old Polish: gatacґ `talk, chatter' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gaґtati `tell fortunes, guess, await, talk' [verb]
Slovene: gaґtati `guess, tell fortunes' [verb], ga?tam [1sg] {1}
Bulgarian: gatam `tell fortunes, guess' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 480
COMM: The etymological relationship with Go. qi±an etc. is plausible, but the fact that there is a synonymous verb -> *gѓda°ti presents a problem. Unless we wish to assume that the latter verb, which may contain a root *ghЎd-, originates from a variant of *gwet-, we may consider the possibility that we are dealing with two etymologically distinct roots that became mixed up.
Other cognates: Go. qi±an `say, speak' [verb]
Notes: {1} Possibly of Serbo-Croatian: origin.
Proto-Slavic form: *glabati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 114
BeloRussian: glabac' `rake together, gather, rob' [verb] {1}
Polish: gљabacґ (dial.) `seize, rake together, appropriate' [verb] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: gla?bati `gnaw' [verb]
Bulgarian: glaґbam `eat while picking out the best bits' [verb]
COMM: The BeloRussian: and Polish forms are apparently alterations of *grab-.
Proto-Slavic form: *glabiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 114
Slovene: glaґbiti `snatch, grab, rob' [verb] {1}
Notes: {1} Cf. graґbiti `snatch, grab, rake'.
Proto-Slavic form: *gla°dъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `smooth, plain''
Page in Trubačev: VI 115-116
Old Church Slavic: gladъkъ `smooth, even' [adj o]
Russian: glaґdkij `smooth' [adj o]
Czech: hladkyґ `smooth, plain' [adj o]
Slovak: hladkyґ `smooth, plain' [adj o]
Polish: gљadki `smooth, plain' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gla?dak `smooth' [adj o], gla?tka [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. gla?dak (Vrgada) `smooth' [adj o], glatka? [Nomsf], gla?tko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. gla?dak (Orbanicґi) `smooth' [adj o], gla?tka [Nomsf], gla?tko [Nomsn]
Slovene: glaґdЌk `smooth, plain' [adj o]
Bulgarian: glaґdaўk `smooth, plain' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *glaЂdus
Lithuanian: glodu°s `smooth' [adj u] 4
Latvian: glu~ošs `smooth' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghleH2dh-
Page in Pokorny: 431
Other cognates: Lat. glaber `smooth, hairless' [adj]; OHG glat `shining' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *glazъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: VI 117-118
Russian: glaz `eye' [m o]
Czech: hlaz (Kott) `eye' [m o] {1}
Polish: gљaz `rock, cobble-stone' [m o]
COMM: Etymology unclear.
Notes: {1} Probably a borrowing from Russian:.
Proto-Slavic form: *glezna; glezno; gleznъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. o; m. o
PSLMEAN: `ankle(-bone)'
Page in Trubačev: VI 118
Old Church Slavic: gleznĕ (Hilf.) `ankles' [Nomdf ѓ]
Church Slavic: glezna `ankle-bone, heel' [f ѓ]
Czech: hlezen `ankle' [m o]; #Cz. hlezno `ankle' [n o]
Polish: glozna (obs., W. dial.) `elbow, ankle, shin' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gle?žanj `ankle(-bone)' [m jo]; #SCr. gle?zan `ankle(-bone)' [m o]
Slovene: glęґžЌnj `ankle, wrist' [m jo]; #Sln. glęґžЌn `ankle, wrist' [m o]; #Sln. glęґžno• `ankle, wrist' [n o]
Bulgarian: gleґzen `ankle-bone' [m o]; #Bulg. gleґzna `ankle-bone' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *glegґh-n-
Certainty: -
COMM: Slavic *glezn- and Germani forms such as OIc. klakkr, with a geminate arising from Kluge's law, point to a reconstruction *glegґh-n- for the Slavic form.
Other cognates: OIc. klakkr `lump, blot' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gle°§dati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `look at'
Page in Trubačev: VI 122-123
Old Church Slavic: ględati `look at, see' [verb], ględajǫ [1sg]
Russian: gljaґdat' (dial.) `look at' [verb]
Slovak: hl'adat' `look for, try' [verb]
Old Polish: ględacґ `look at' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gle?dati `look at, see' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. gl§e?dati (Vrgada) `look at, see, watch, expect' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. gle?dat (Orbanicґi) `look, see smth.' [verb]
Slovene: glęґdati `look at, see' [verb], glę?dam [1sg]
Bulgarian: gleґdam `look at' [verb]
Latvian: glen^st2 `(scarcely) perceive' [verb]; nu°oglen~st `notice' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghlend
COMM: LIV (200) reconstructs *ghlendh- because a proto-form with root-final *d would trigger Winter's law, which is not in agreement with the circumflex of the Balto-Slavic forms. It is unclear to me, however, what exactly is the evidence for a Balto-Slavic acute. The mobile accentuation of Ru. gljadeґt' (-> *ględĕti) is inconclusive, while there is ample evidence for *glę°dati, with fixed stress on an originally acute syllable. To my knowledg, there is no Baltic evidence for an original circumflex, the Latvian forms being ambiguous. I therefore prefer the reconstruction *ghlend-, which has the additional advantage of corresponding with the Germanic forms.
Other cognates: OIr. as-gleinn `investigate, examine' [verb]; MHG glinzen `shine' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ględĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `look at'
Page in Trubačev: VI 123
Russian: gljadeґt' (dial.) `look at' [verb], gljažuґ [1sg], gljadiґt [3sg]
Czech: hledĕti `look at' [verb]
Old Polish: ględziec' `look at' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *glendeЂ-
COMM: See -> *glę°dati.
Proto-Slavic form: *glĕnь; glĕnъ
GRAM: f. i; m. o
Page in Trubačev: VI 120-121
Church Slavic: glĕnъ (RuCS) `moisture, juice' [m o]
Russian: glen' `moisture, juice' [f i]
Old Russian:: glĕnъ `moisture, juice' [m o]
Czech: hlen `mucus, moisture, sediment' [m o]
Slovak: hlien `slime, mud' [m o]
Polish: glon `alga' [m o]; #Pl. glaґn (dial.) `alga, mud, dung' [m o]
Old Polish: glan `sediment, dregs' [m o]
Slovene: gle•?n `mucus, sediment, silt, clay, waterplant' [m o]
Bulgarian: glen (dial.) `waterplant, duckweed' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gloH1i-n-
Page in Pokorny: 362
COMM: Cf. -> *glĕvъ, *gli°na. The root is *gloH1i-.
Proto-Slavic form: *glĕvъ; glĕvь; glĕva
GRAM: f. i; m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `slime'
Page in Trubačev: VI 121
Russian: gleЁv (dial.) `slime, mould, (sticky slime on) fish scales' [m o]; #Ru. glev' (dial.) `slime on fish scales' [f i]; #Ru. glevaґ (dial.) `slime on fish scales' [f ѓ]; #Ru. glevaґ (dial.) `slime on fish scales' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gloH1i-uo-
Page in Pokorny: 362
Other cognates: Gk. gloiТj `any glutinous substance' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gli°na
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `clay'
Page in Trubačev: VI 125-126
Russian: gliґna `clay' [f ѓ]
Czech: hliґna `clay' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hlina `clay' [f ѓ]
Polish: glina `clay' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: gla†~naў `clay' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gnji?la `clay' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґi?la (Vrgada) `clay' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gliґna `clay' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gliґna `clay' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gleґЂinaЂ
Lithuanian: gleґine† `moist clay' [f Њ] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *gleH1i-n-
Page in Pokorny: 362
Other cognates: Gk. gl…a `loam' [f]; Gk. gl…nh `loam' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *gliґstъ; gl–sta°
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `worm'
Page in Trubačev: VI 128-129
Russian: glist `intestinal worm' [m o], glistaґ [Gens]
BeloRussian: hlist `intestinal worm' [m o], hlistaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: hlyst `intestinal worm' [m o], hlystaґ [Gens]
Czech: hliґst `intestinal worm' [m o]; #Cz. hliґsta `intestinal worm' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hliґsta `intestinal worm' [f ѓ]
Polish: glista `intestinal worm, earth-worm' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gliґsta `intestinal worm, earth-worm' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gli?sta (Orbanicґi) `worm' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gli?s (Orbanicґi) `worm' [f i], gli?sti [f i]
Slovene: gliґsta `intestinal worm, earth-worm' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: glist `intestinal worm, earth-worm' [m o]
Lithuanian: glai~stas `layer of clay, plaster' [m o] 2/4
COMM: Though masculine o-stems belonging to AP (b) in principle continue old neuters, I am uncertain if this holds for original oxytona, i.e. words that were already oxytone before Dybo's law. Here the reconstruction of an old oxytonon may account for the unexpected absence of a laryngeal in the root, which can now be attributed to the Early Slavic loss of laryngeals in pretonic position. In view of Hirt's law, which would have generated root stress, a reconstruction with a zero grade (*glh1it-toґ) is preferable. The semantically different Lith. glai~stas probably contains a old neuter.
Proto-Slavic form: *gli°va
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `fungus'
Page in Trubačev: VI 129-130
Russian: gliґva (dial.) `bergamot (kind of pear)' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: hliґva `bergamot (kind of pear), tree-fungus' [f ѓ]
Czech: hliґva `kind of mushroom, tumour' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hliva `kind of mushroom, tumour' [f ѓ]
Polish: gliwa (dial.) `kind of mushroom' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: glji?va `tree-fungus' [f ѓ]; #SCr. glji?va `gland, tonsil' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gliґva `mushroom, tree-fungus' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gliva (dial.) `small edible mushroom' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gleґЂiuёaЂ
Lithuanian: gleґive†s `slime' [Nompf Њ] 1; #Lith. gleґivos (dial.) `slime' [Nompf ѓ]
Latvian: gl–ve `green slime on water, mire' [f Њ]
Page in Pokorny: 362
Proto-Slavic form: *globa
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 131-133
Russian: globaґ (Psk.) `cross-beam, pole' [f ѓ]; #Ru. gloґba (dial.) `path' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: hlobaґ `curved tree, iron wedge, trouble, worry, burden' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. hloґba (dial.) `fine, misfortune' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: gљoba `malice, anger' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: gљoba `value' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: glo?ba `fine' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gloґba `fine' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gloґba `fine' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(h)lobh-eh2
COMM: The etymology of *glob- is unclear and so is the issue of we must distinguish more than one root.
Proto-Slavic form: *globati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 133-134
Serbo-Croatian: glo°bati `gnaw' [verb]
Slovene: glǫґbati `excavate, gnaw' [verb], glǫґbam [1sg], glǫґbljem [1sg] {1}
Notes: {1} For the meaning 'excavate' we must reckon with influence of globo°k `deep', cf. globiґti `excavate', gloґbsti `excavate, carve'.
Proto-Slavic form: *globi°ti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 134
Russian: globit'sja (dial.) `be greedy, (?) worry' [verb]
Ukrainian: hlobyґty `strengthen a shaft in a mill with wedges, caulk, insult' [verb]
Czech: hlobiti (Jungmann, Kott) `strengthen, wedge' [verb]; #Cz. hљobit' (dial.) `beat, eat, ask' [verb]
Slovak: hlobit' `beat, knock down' [verb]; #Slk. hlobic (dial.) `wedge' [verb]
Polish: gљobicґ (arch.) `squeeze, oppress' [verb]; #Pl. gљobicґ (dial.) `wedge, hoop' [verb]
Old Polish: gљobicґ `beg of, ask persistently' [verb]; #OPl. gљobicґ się `be concerned for' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: gљobisґ (arch.) `give, offer' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: glo°biti `impose a fine' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. glo?biti (Vrgada) `impose a fine' [verb]
Slovene: globiґti `impose a fine, pillage' [verb], globiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: globjaґ `impose a fine' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(h)lobh-
Proto-Slavic form: *glo°gъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `hawthorn'
Page in Trubačev: VI 136-137
Russian: glog `cornel' [m o]
Ukrainian: glig `hawthorn' [m o], gloґgu [Gens]
Czech: hloh `hawthorn' [m o]
Slovak: hloh `hawthorn' [m o]
Polish: gљoґg `hawthorn' [m o], gљogu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: glo?g `hawthorn' [m o]
Slovene: glo°g `hawthorn' [m o], glo•ґga [Gens]
Bulgarian: glog `hawthorn' [m o]
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. glw~^Г—Г› `beard of corn' [nompf]
Proto-Slavic form: *glota
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 138-139
Old Russian:: glota `crowd' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: glotaґ `narrowness, throng' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. gloґta `narrowness, throng, family' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: glo?ta `the poor, family, crowd, weed (in corn), dust, litter' [f ѓ]
Slovene: glǫ?ta `weed, darnel, Brachypodium, riff-raff' [f ѓ]; #Sln. gloґta (arch.) `crowd, Brachypodium' [f ѓ] {1}
Bulgarian: gloґta `dust, litter' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. gloґta (dial.) `flock, crowd' [f ѓ]
COMM: Etymology unclear.
Notes: {1} The latter form occurs in the Slover slovenskega knjižnega jezika.
Proto-Slavic form: *glǫbo°kъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `deep'
Page in Trubačev: VI 141-142
Old Church Slavic: glǫbokъ `deep' [adj o]
Russian: gluboґkij `deep' [adj o]; #Ru. gluboґk `deep' [adj o], glubokaґ [Nomsf], glubokoґ [Nomsn]
Czech: hlubokyґ `deep' [adj o]
Slovak: hlbokyґ `deep' [adj o]
Polish: gљęboki `deep' [adj o]
Slovene: globo°k `deep' [adj o]
COMM: It is often assumed that the root of this adjective is connected with *gleubh, cf. Gk. glЪfw `cut out, engrave', but the presence of *ǫ < *oN (not *uN) can hardly be accounted for. Note that Slk. hlbokyґ seems to derive from glъbo°kъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *glu?xъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `deaf'
Old Church Slavic: gluxъ `deaf' [adj o]
Russian: gluxoґj `deaf' [adj o]
Czech: hluchyґ `deaf, (dial.) empty' [adj o]
Slovak: hluchyґ `deaf, empty, barren' [adj o]
Polish: gљuchy `deaf' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: glu?h `deaf' [adj o], gluґha [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. glu?h (Vrgada) `deaf' [adj o], glіha? [Nomsf], glu?ho [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. glju?h (Orbanicґi) `deaf' [adj o], gljіha? [Nomsf], glju?ha [Nomsf]
Slovene: glu?h `deaf, muted, quiet, empty' [adj o]
Bulgarian: glux `deaf' [adj o]
Lithuanian: glu°šas `dumb' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *The Slavic and Baltic forms diagree as far as the ablaut grade of the root is concerned. In Slavic, we find zero grade in -> glъxnǫti.
Proto-Slavic form: *glumiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 148-149
Old Church Slavic: glumiti sę (Ril., Supr.) `be distracted, talk idly' [verb], glumljǫ sę [1sg]
Church Slavic: glumiti (RuCS) `amuse' [verb]
Russian: glumit'sja `mock, desecrate' [verb]
Old Russian:: glumiti `amuse' [verb]
Polish: gљumicґ (dial.) `spoil, mock' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gluґmiti `play (on stage)' [verb]
Slovene: gluґmiti se `joke' [verb], gluґmim se [1sg]
Page in Pokorny: 451
COMM: Derivative of -> *glumъ, *gluma.
Other cognates: OIc. gleyma `forget, make a merry noise' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *glumъ; gluma
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 147-148
Old Church Slavic: glumъ (Ril., Supr.) `idle talk, mockery' [m o]
Church Slavic: glumъ (RuCS) `noise, amusement' [m o]
Russian: glum (dial.) `stupidity, mockery, joke, noise' [m o]
Old Russian:: glumъ `noise, amusement' [m o]
Ukrainian: hlum `mockery' [m o]
Old Czech:: hluma `actor, comedian' [f ѓ]
Polish: gљum `mockery, torture, misfortune' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gluґma `joke, gaiety' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gluґma `joke, foolishness' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gluґma `joke' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghlou-m-
Page in Pokorny: 451
Other cognates: OIc. glaumr `jubilation' [m], OE glЊam `jubilation, joy' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *glupъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `foolish, stupid'
Page in Trubačev: VI 151-152
Church Slavic: glupъ `foolish, stupid' [adj o]
Russian: gluґpyj `foolish, stupid' [adj o]; #Ru. glup `foolish, stupid' [adj o], glupaґ [Nomsf], gluґpo [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: hloupyґ `foolish, stupid' [adj o]
Slovak: hlupyґ `foolish, stupid' [adj o]
Polish: gљupi `foolish, stupid' [adj jo]
Old Polish: gљupy `foolish, stupid' [adj jo]
Slovincian: glu†^piЁ `foolish, stupid' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: glu?p `foolish, stupid' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. glu?p (Orbanicґi) `stupid' [adj o]
Slovene: glu?p `foolish, stupid' [adj o]
COMM: The connection with OIc. gloґpr `fool' [m] is uncertain.
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *glъtati
GRAM: №v.
PSLMEAN: `swallow, devour'
Page in Trubačev: VI 157-158
Russian: glotaґt' `swallow' [verb], glotaґju [1sg]
Old Russian:: glъtati `swallow' [verb]
Czech: hltati `swallow, devour' [verb]
Slovak: hltat' `swallow, devour' [verb]
Polish: glutacґ (dial.) `drink noisily' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gu°tati `devour' [verb], gu°tѓm [1sg]
Slovene: goљtaґti `swallow, devour, belch' [verb], goљta?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaўґltam `swallow, devour' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *glut-
Other cognates: Lat. gluttiЎ `devour' [verb]; Lat. glіtiЎ `devour' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *glъxnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `become deaf'
Page in Trubačev: VI 145
Russian: gloґxnut' (Dal') `become deaf, (sounds) subside' [verb]
Old Russian:: glъxnuti `become deaf' [verb]
Old Czech:: hlechnuґti `become deaf' [verb]
Bulgarian: glaўґxna `fall silent' [verb]
COMM: Verb in -nǫti containing the zeo grade of -> *glu?xъ. A variant with full grade also exists, e.g. Slk. hluchnuґt', Pl. gљuchna§cґ `become deaf, (sounds) subside'.
Proto-Slavic form: *glьjь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `clay, loam'
Page in Trubačev: VI 162
Russian: glej (dial.) `clay, loam' [m jo]
Ukrainian: hlej `moist clay' [m jo]
Czech: gl'ej (dial.) `clay, resin' [m jo]
Slovak: glej `clay' [m jo]
Polish: glej `loam' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: gle?j `kind of clay' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *glH1i-
Page in Pokorny: 362
Other cognates: Gk. gloiТj `any glutinous substance' [m]; MLG klei `clay'
Proto-Slavic form: *gnesti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `knead, press'
Page in Trubačev: VI 165-166
Old Church Slavic: gnesti `oppress, press, constrict' [verb], gnetǫ [1sg]
Russian: gnestiґ `oppress, weigh down' [verb], gnetuґ [1sg], gneteЁt [3sg]
Czech: hniґsti `press, knead, constrict' [verb], gnĕtu [1sg]
Slovak: hniest' `press, knead' [verb]
Polish: gniesґcґ `press, squeeze' [verb], gniotę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: gnje°sti `knead, beat' [verb], gnje°tЊm [1sg]
Slovene: gneґsti `knead, press' [verb], gneґtem [1sg]
Bulgarian: gnetaґ `press, oppress' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gnet-
Other cognates: OIc. kno‹a `knead' [verb]; OHG knetan `knead' [verb]; OE cnedan `knead' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gnĕ°vъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `anger, wrath'
Page in Trubačev: VI 169-170
Old Church Slavic: gnĕvъ `anger, wrath' [m o]
Russian: gnev `anger, wrath' [m o], gneґva [Gens] {1}
Czech: hnĕv `anger, wrath' [m o]
Slovak: hnev `anger, wrath' [m o]
Polish: gniew `anger, wrath' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: gnĕw `anger, wrath' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gnje?v `anger, wrath' [m o]
Slovene: gne•°v `anger, wrath' [m o], gne•ґva [Gens]
Bulgarian: gnjav `anger, wrath' [m o]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 137).
Proto-Slavic form: *gnĕЇzdo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `nest'
Page in Trubačev: VI 171-173
Old Church Slavic: gnĕzdo `nest' [n o]
Russian: gnezdoґ `nest' [n o], gneЁzda [Nomp]
Ukrainian: hnizdoґ `nest' [n o], hniґzda [Nomp]
Czech: hniґzdo `nest' [n o]
Old Czech:: hniezdo `nest' [n o]
Slovak: hniezdo `nest' [n o]
Polish: gniazdo `nest' [n o]; #Pl. gniaґzdo (dial.) `nest' [n o]
Slovincian: gnґa†ґuёzdo `nest' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: gnije°zdo `nest' [n o], gnije°zda [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґ–zdo? (Vrgada) `nest' [n o], gnґi~zdaІ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. gnj–zlo? (Orbanicґi) `nest' [n o], gnji~zla [Nomp]; #SCr. Kajk. gn–Њzde? (Bednja), gnjie~zdo [Nomp]
Slovene: gne•ґzdo• `nest' [n o]
Bulgarian: gnezdoґ `nest' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *nizdo
Lithuanian: li°zdas `nest' [m o]
Latvian: ligzds `nest' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ni-sd-oґ-
IE meaning: nest
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. n–d•aґ- `resting-place abode, abode, (esp.) nest' [mn]; Lat. n–dus `nest' [m]; OE nest `nest' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *gnґi°da
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `nit'
Page in Trubačev: VI 173-174
Russian: gniґda `nit' [f ѓ]
Czech: hnida `nit' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hnida `nit' [f ѓ]
Polish: gnida `nit' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gnji?da `nit' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґi?da (Vrgada) `nit' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gniґda `nit' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gniґda `nit' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gniЂdaЂ
Lithuanian: gli°nda `nit' [f ѓ]
Latvian: gni~da `nit' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k/g/Hnid-
COMM: The PIE form of the word for `nit' cannot easily be reconstructed, as we seem to be dealing with distortion of the anlaut for taboo reasons.
Other cognates: Gk. kon…j `nit' [f]; OE hnitu `nit' [f]; OHG (h)niz `nit' [?]; Arm. anic `louse'
Proto-Slavic form: *gnґilъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `rotten'
Page in Trubačev: VI 175-176
Russian: gniloґj `rotten, damp' [adj o]; #Ru. gnil `rotten' [adj o], gnilaґ [Nomsf], gniґlo [Nomsn]
Czech: hnilyґ `rotten' [adj o]
Slovak: hnilyґ `rotten' [adj o o]
Polish: gniљy (obs.) `rotten' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gni?o `rotten' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґi?(l) (Vrgada) `rotten' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. gnji?l (Orbanicґi) `rotten, decayed' [adj o]
Slovene: gni?љ `rotten' [adj o], gniґla [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: gnil `rotten' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 437
COMM: If the original accent paradigm was (c), the full grade *ghneiH-lo- is preferable because this shape of the root would not have triggered Hirt's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *gnґi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `rot'
Page in Trubačev: VI 176-177
Old Church Slavic: gnijǫštii (Euch.) `suppurating' [Datsf pprsa]
Russian: gnit' `rot' [verb], gnijuґ [1sg], gnieЁt [3sg]
Czech: hniґti `rot' [verb]
Slovak: hnit' `rot' [verb]
Polish: gnicґ `rot' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gnji?ti `rot' [verb], gnji?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґija?ti (Vrgada) `rot' [verb], gnґijaІ?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґiґt (Vrgada) `rot' [verb], gnґi?jen [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gnji~t (Orbanicґi) `rot' [verb], gnj–je? [3sg]
Slovene: gniґti `rot' [verb], gniґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: gniґja `rot' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghn(e)iH-
Page in Pokorny: 437
Other cognates: OHG gn–tan `grind' [verb]; OE gnidan `grind' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gno?jь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pus, manure'
Page in Trubačev: VI 175-176
Old Church Slavic: gnoi `manure, mould, ulcer, suppurating wound' [m jo]
Russian: gnoj `pus' [m jo], gnoja [Gens]
Czech: hnu•j `manure' [m jo], hnoje [Gens]
Slovak: hnoj `manure' [m jo]
Polish: gnoґj `manure' [m jo], gnoju [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gno?j `pus, manure' [m jo], gno?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gnґo?j (Vrgada) `pus, manure' [m jo], gnґo?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gnuo?j (Orbanicґi) `dung' [m jo], gno?ja [Gens]
Slovene: gno•?j `pus, manure' [m jo], gnoja? [Gens]
Bulgarian: gnoj `pus' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghnoiH-
Page in Pokorny: 437
Proto-Slavic form: *gnǫsьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: VI 184-185
Old Church Slavic: gnǫsьnъ (Supr.) `vile, repulsive' [adj o]
Certainty: -
Proto-Slavic form: *gnǫšati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 182
Old Church Slavic: gnǫšati sę (Supr.) `be filled with aversion, abhor' [verb], gnǫšǫ [1sg] {1}
Certainty: -
Notes: {1} The form gnǫšaaše sę `were filled with aversion' [3sgimpf] could also belong to a verb gnǫsiti sę.
Proto-Slavic form: *gnu?sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: VI 183-184
Russian: gnus `vermin' [m o]
Czech: hnus `aversion, filth' [m o]
Old Czech:: hnus `pus, manure, filth' [m o]
Slovak: hnus `aversion' [m o]
Old Polish: gnus `weak, slow person' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gnu?s `filth' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gnju?s (Orbanicґi) `dirty fellow, swindler' [m o]
Slovene: gnu?s `aversion, disgust, abomination, stain, vermin' [m o]
Certainty: -
COMM: Etymology unclear. There are Old Church Slavic: forms that seems to have secondary nasalization. See also -> *gnьsъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *gnusiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 182
Russian: gnusiґt' (dial.) `abhor' [verb]
Czech: hnusiti `oppress, fill with disgust' [verb]
Slovak: hnusit' `make dirty, repulsive' [verb]
Polish: gnusicґ się (dial.) `dawdle, loiter' [verb]
Old Polish: gnusicґ `be slow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gnuґsiti `make dirty, repulsive' [verb]
Slovene: gnuґsiti `make repulsive, defile, loathe' [verb], gnuґsim [1sg]
Bulgarian: gnusjaґ se `loathe' [verb]
Notes: {1} This form could also belong to gnǫšati sę.
Proto-Slavic form: *gnusьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `vile, repulsive'
Page in Trubačev: VI 184-185
Old Church Slavic: gnusьnъ (Supr.) `vile, repulsive' [adj o]
Russian: gnuґsnyj `vile' [adj o]
Czech: hnusnyґ `vile, repulsive' [adj o]
Slovak: hnusnyґ `vile, repulsive' [adj o]
Polish: gnusґny `slow, inert' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gnu?san `loathsome, filthy' [adj o]; #SCr. gnuґsan `loathsome, filthy' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. gnju?san (Orbanicґi) `filthy, squalid' [adj o], gnju?sna [Nomsf], gnjіsna? [Nomsf], gnju?sno [Nomsn]
Slovene: gnuґsЌn `disgusting' [adj o]
Bulgarian: gnuґsaўn `disgusting, repulsive' [adj o]
Certainty: -
Proto-Slavic form: *gnušati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VI 182
Old Church Slavic: gnušati sę (Supr.) `be filled with aversion, abhor' [verb], gnušǫ [1sg]
Certainty: -
Proto-Slavic form: *gnьsь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: VI 183-184
Old Church Slavic: gnesь (Euch.) `dirt, pus' [Accf i]
Church Slavic: gnьsь (RuCS) `vileness, crime' [f i]; #CS gnesь (RuCS) `vileness, crime' [f i]
Old Russian:: gnьsь `vileness, crime' [f i]; #ORu. gnesь `vileness, crime' [f i]
Lithuanian: gniі~sas `parasite' [m o] {1}
Certainty: -
Other cognates: The ESSJa holds that the forms mentioned above reflect a late variant *gn'usъ rather an original e-grade *gneus. In neither case would I expect a development *u > *ь. In order to get the desired reflex we must posit a comparatively early form *gnjus-. Here the *j could have been adopted from *gnjous- < *gneus-, but there is no evidence for variants with an e-grade. Lith. gniі~sas is probably a borrowing from BeloRussian: (thus Skardžius 1931: 76), though one may call it suspect that this is precisely the language that has forms containing a sequence gnju, e. g. gnjus `bastard, miser'.
Proto-Slavic form: *gobino
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `abundance'
Page in Trubačev: VI 185
Old Church Slavic: gobinĕ (Supr.) `abundance' [Locsn o]
Church Slavic: gobino (RuCS) `abundance' [n o]
Old Russian:: gobino `abundance' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: gobino `spelt' [n o]
COMM: This word is generally considered a borrowing from Germanic.
Other cognates: Go. gabei `wealth' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *gobьzъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `abundant'
Page in Trubačev: VI 186
Church Slavic: gobьzь (RuCS) `abundant, productive' [adj o]; #CS gobьzyi (RuCS) `abundant, wealthy' [adj o] {1}
Old Russian:: gobьzь `abundant, productive' [adj o]; #ORu. gobьzyi `abundant, wealthy' [adj o]; #ORu.
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghobh-
COMM: This word is generally considered a borrowing from Germanic.
Other cognates: Go. gabeigs `wealthy' [asj]
Notes: {1} Cf. OCS gobedzie (Euch.) Asg. n. `abundance', gobьzjęštiĕ (Ps. Sin.) Nsgf. ptc. prs. act. `fruitful'.
Proto-Slavic form: *godina
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 187-188
Old Church Slavic: godina `time, suitable time, hour' [f ѓ]
Russian: godiґna `time, period, (arch.) year' [m o]
Czech: hodina `hour' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hodina `hour' [f ѓ]
Polish: godzina `hour' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: go?dina `year, (Dubr.) weather, (Cr.) rain' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. go?dina (Vrgada) `year' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. go?dina (Novi) `year' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gǫ?dina `year, name-day, rain' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: godiґna `year, age' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghodh-
Page in Pokorny: 423
COMM: Derivative of -> * godъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *godi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `please'
Page in Trubačev: VI 188-190
Old Church Slavic: godę `pleasing' [Nomsm pprsa]
Church Slavic: goditi `please, satisfy' [verb]
Russian: godiґt' `wait, loiter' [verb], gožuґ [1sg], godiґt [3sg]; #Ru. godiґt'sja `be suited' [verb], gožuґs' [1sg], godiґtsja [3sg]
Czech: hoditi `throw' [verb]; #Cz. hoditi se `throw at one another, suit, agree' [verb]
Polish: godzicґ `reconcile, unite, heal' [verb]; #Pl. godzicґ się `agree, succeed' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: go°diti `please' [verb], go°d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. godi?t (Orbanicґi) `please' [verb]
Slovene: godiґti `rear, please' [verb], godiґm; #Sln. godiґti se `succeed, take place' [verb]
Latvian: gadi^tie^s `happen' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghodh-
Page in Pokorny: 423
Other cognates: Go. go±s `good' [adj]; OHG guot `good' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *godьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `suitable'
Page in Trubačev: VI 191-192
Church Slavic: godьnъ `convenient, suitable, timely [adj o]
Russian: goґdnyj `suitable, valid' [adj o]; #Ru. goґden `suitable, valid' [adj o], godnaґ [Nomsf], goґdno [Nomsn]
Czech: hodnyґ `suitable, worthy, quiet, obedient (child)' [adj o]
Slovak: hodnyґ `big enough, good, suitable, worthy, quiet, obedient (child)' [adj o]
Polish: godny `worthy, suitable, (arch.) big' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: go?dan `suitable, able' [adj o]
Slovene: goґdЌn `ripe, early' [adj o]
Bulgarian: goґden `suitable, able' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 423
Proto-Slavic form: *go?lǫbь
GRAM: m. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pigeon, dove'
Page in Trubačev: VI 215-217
Old Church Slavic: golǫbь `pigeon, dove' [m i]
Russian: goґlubь `pigeon, dove' [m jo]
Czech: holub `pigeon, dove' [m o]
Slovak: holub `pigeon, dove' [m o]
Polish: goљa§b `pigeon, dove' [m jo], goљębia [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: go?lіb `pigeon, dove' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. go?lіb (Vrgada) `pigeon, dove' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. go?lіb (Novi) `pigeon, dove' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. go?lop (Orbanicґi) `pigeon' [m o]
Slovene: golǫ?b `(male) pigeon, dove' [m o]
COMM: The suffix *-(V)mbh- is frequent in bird-names, but the origin of the root is unclear. The connection with Lat. columba is impossible within an Indo-European frame-work.
Proto-Slavic form: *go?r§e
GRAM: n. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `grief, woe'
Page in Trubačev: VII 40-41
Old Church Slavic: gorje `woe' [n jo]
Russian: goґre `grief, woe, misfortune' [n jo]
Czech: hor№e `grief, woe' [n jo]
Polish: gorze (arch.) `grief, woe, misfortune' [n jo]
Lower Sorbian: goґrґe `grief, woe, irritation, anger' [n jo]
Slovene: gorję? `woe' [n jo]
Bulgarian: \
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhor-
Page in Pokorny: 493
COMM: For the etymology, see -> gorĕti.
Other cognates: Skt. ghrёn•aґ- `heat, glow' [m]; Gk. qermТj `warm' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?dъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `right time'
Page in Trubačev: VI 191-192
Old Church Slavic: godъ `time, suitable time, holiday, year' [m o]
Russian: god `year' [m o], goґda [Gens]
Czech: hod `religious holiday' [m o]; #Cz. hody `feast' [Nomp o]
Polish: gody `feast' [Nomp o]
Serbo-Croatian: go?d `important holiday, year, right time' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. go?d (Vrgada) `name day, memorial day, anniversary' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. guo?t (Orbanicґi) `holiday, special event (?)' [m o]
Slovene: go•?d `right time, moment, maturity' [m o/u], go•?da [Gens], godu? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *godos; gЎdos
Lithuanian: guo~das `honour, worship, hospitality' [m o]
Latvian: gu°ods `honour, banquet, wedding' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghodh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 423
Other cognates: Go. go±s `good' [adj]; OHG guot `good' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?jь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: VI 197
Old Russian:: goi `peace, friendship' [m jo]
Czech: hoj (obs.) `(1599) medicine, (Kott) abundance, wealth' [m jo]
Old Czech:: hoj `abundance' [m jo]
Slovak: hoj (poet.) `abundance' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: go?j `peace' [m jo], go?ja [Gens]
Slovene: go°j `care, cultivation' [m jo], goґja [Gens]; #Sln. gǫґja `care, cultivation' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: gaju°s `vigorous' [adj u] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєoiH-o-?
Other cognates: Skt. gaґya- (RV+) `house, household, family, property' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?ldъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hunger'
Page in Trubačev: VI 199-200
Old Church Slavic: gladъ `hunger' [m o]
Russian: goґlod `hunger' [m o]
Czech: hlad `hunger' [m o]
Slovak: hlad `hunger' [m o]
Polish: gљoґd `hunger' [m o], gљodu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: hљoґd `hunger' [m o], hљodu [Gens], hљoda [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gla?d `hunger, craving' [f i]; #SCr. gla?d (NW dial.) `hunger, craving' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. glaІ?d (Vrgada) `hunger, craving' [m o], glaІ?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gla?d (Novi) `hunger, craving' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gla?t (Orbanicґi) `hunger' [m o], gla?da [Gens]
Slovene: gla?d `hunger' [m o/u], gla?da [Gens], gladu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: glad `hunger' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 434
COMM: A masculine o-stem gєoldh-o- from the verbal root attested in -> *zьldĕti.
Other cognates: Skt. grёґdhyati `be greedy' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?lsъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `voice'
Page in Trubačev: VI 219-220
Old Church Slavic: glasъ `voice' [m o]
Russian: goґlos `voice' [m o]
Czech: hlas `voice' [m o]
Slovak: hlas `voice' [m o]
Polish: gљos `voice' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: hљoґs `voice' [m o], hљosa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gla?s `voice' [m o], gla?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. glaІ?s (Vrgada) `voice' [m o], glaІ?sa [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gla?s (Novi, Orbanicґi) `voice' [m o], gla?sa [Gens]
Slovene: gla?s `voice, news, knowledge' [m o/u], gla?sa [Gens], glasu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: glas `voice' [m o]
Lithuanian: galsas (Mik.) `sound, echo' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 350
COMM: The root is probably best reconstructed with "European" *a. PSl. *go?lsъ may reflect *gal-so-.
Other cognates: Lat. gallus `cock' [m]; OIc. kalls `demand' [n]; W galw `call' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?rdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `fortification, town'
Page in Trubačev: VII 37-38
Old Church Slavic: gradъ `wall, town, city, garden' [m o]
Russian: goґrod `town, city' [m o], goґroda [Gens]
BeloRussian: hoґrad `town, city' [m o], hoґrada [Gens]
Ukrainian: hoґrod `town, city' [m o], hoґroda [Gens]
Czech: hrad `fortress, castle' [m o]
Slovak: hrad `castle' [m o]
Polish: groґd `fortress, castle, (arch.) city' [m o], grodu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: hroґd `castle' [m o], hrodu [Gens], hroda [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?d `city, fortress, castle' [m o], gra?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. graІ?d (Vrgada) `city' [m o], graІ?da [Gens]
Slovene: gra?d `city, fortress, castle' [m o/u], gra?da [Gens], gradu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: grad `city, fortress' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gordos
Lithuanian: gar~das `fence, enclosure, stall' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghordh-o-
Other cognates: Skt. grёhaґ- `house, residence' [m]; Go. gards `house' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *go?stь
GRAM: m. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `guest'
Page in Trubačev: VII 67-68
Old Church Slavic: gostemъ (Supr.) `guests' [Datpm i]
Russian: gost' `guest' [m i]
Ukrainian: hist `guest' [m o], hoґstja [Gens]
Czech: host `guest' [m o]
Slovak: host' `guest' [m jo]
Polish: gosґcґ `guest' [m i]
Serbo-Croatian: go?st `guest' [m o], go?sta [Gens]
Slovene: go•?st `guest' [m o/u], gostu? [Gens], goґsta [Gens]
Bulgarian: gost `guest' [m i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghost-i-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 453
Other cognates: Lat. hostis `enemy, (OLat.) stranger' [m]; Go. gasts `guest' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gojiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `treat, heal'
Page in Trubačev: VI 195-197
Russian: goґit' (dial.) `clean thoroughly, take care of, feed well, heal' [verb]; #Ru. goiґt'sja (Smol.) `heal' [verb]
Old Russian:: goiti `give live to, animate' [verb]
Ukrainian: hoґjity `heal' [verb]
Czech: hojiti `treat, heal' [verb]
Old Czech:: hojiti sĕ `breed' [verb]
Polish: goicґ `treat, heal' [verb]
Slovincian: gu°oёjiўc `treat, heal' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: hoґjicґ `heal' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: goґjsґ `heal' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: go°jiti [verb] `fatten, foster, raise', go°j–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. goji?ti (Vrgada) `fatten, foster, raise', goji~m [1sg]
Slovene: gojiґti `foster, feed' [verb], gojiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: gojaґ `fatten' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gwh3oi-eie- (gwoih3-eie-??)
COMM: Apparently, we a are dealing with a causative of the PIE root for `live', which in this framework is reconstructed as *gweH3i. In this case a root *gwoH3i would not yield the attested forms. The causative may have been based on the metathesized root *gwiH3, in which case we must reconstruct *gwoiH3-eie.
Proto-Slavic form: *golĕmъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `big'
Page in Trubačev: VI 202-204
Church Slavic: golĕmo `much' [adv]; #CS golĕmyi (RuCS) `big, high' [adj o]
Russian: goljaґmyj `tall and thin' [adj o]
Old Russian:: golĕmyi `big, high' [adj o]
Old Czech:: holemyґ `big' [adj o]
Polish: golemy `huge' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: go°lem `big, huge' [adj o]
Bulgarian: goljaґm `big, strong' [adj o]
Macedonian: golem `big' [adj o]
COMM: The root of this adjective may be identified with the root of Lith. gale†ґti `be able' and W gallu `id.', which is best reconstructed as *gal(H), with an "European" a.
Proto-Slavic form: *golĕnь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `shin'
Page in Trubačev: VI 201-202
Old Church Slavic: golĕnь `shin' [f i]
Russian: goґlen' `shin' [f i]
Czech: holen№ `shin' [f i]
Old Czech:: holen№ `shin' [f i]
Slovak: holen№ `shin (of animals), leg (of a boot)' [f i]
Polish: golenґ `shin' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: go?lijen `shin' [f i]
Slovene: gole•?n `shin' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *golH-
COMM: See -> *go°lъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *golgolati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `speak'
Page in Trubačev: VI 204
Old Church Slavic: glagolati `speak' [verb], glagoljǫ [1sg]
Czech: hlaholati (Kott) `make a noise, talk' [verb] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: glago°lati `speak, tell' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 350
COMM: Denominative verb. See -> *golgolъ.
Other cognates: W galw `call' [verb]
Notes: {1} Modern Standard Czech: hlaholiti.
Proto-Slavic form: *golgolъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `speech, word'
Page in Trubačev: VI 205
Old Church Slavic: glagolъ `word, speech, event' [m o]
Czech: hlahol `noise, singing, (arch.) speech' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: glaґgolj (arch.) `speech' [m jo]; #SCr. gla?golj (arch.) `speech' [m jo]
Slovene: glѓgol `verb' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 350
COMM: Noun with intensive reduplication of the root *gol- < *gal- (-> *go?lsъ).
Other cognates: W galw `call' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *golota
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `nakedness'
Page in Trubačev: VI 213-214
Russian: golotaґ (dial.) `the poor' [f ѓ]
Czech: holota `the poor, nakedness' [f ѓ]
Slovak: holota `emptiness, poverty, nakedness' [f ѓ]
Polish: goљota (obs.) `nakedness' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: golo°ta `nakedness' [f ѓ]
Slovene: golo•?ta `nakedness' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: golotaґ `nakedness' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *golH-
COMM: Abstract noun in *-ota.
Proto-Slavic form: *golotь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `thin layer of ice'
Page in Trubačev: VI 214-215
Church Slavic: golotь (CroatCS, MBulg.) `ice, ice-crystal(s), hail' [f i]; #CS golotь (RuCS) `ice' [f i]; #CS golъtь (RuCS) `ice' [f i]
Russian: goґlot' `thin layer of ice on frozen earth' [f i]; #Ru. golъtь `ice' [f i]
Old Russian:: golotь `ice' [f i]; #ORu. golъtь `ice' [f i]
Czech: holot', holot (Jungmann) `ice-covered ground' [f i]; #Cz. holet' (dial.) `hoar-frost, ice-covered ground' [f i], holti [Gens]
Old Czech:: holet `hoar-frost' [f i], holti [Gens]
Slovene: golot `crystal' [m o]
Latvian: ga°le `thin crust of ice, remnants of ice on the road after the snow has gone' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *The ESSJa adheres to the view that *golotь is cognate with -> *go°lъ `naked' (cf. Berneker SEW I: 322). Seemingly more straightforward from a semantic point of view is the link with forms such as Lat. gelі `ice', which derives from *gel- or *gґel- `freeze'. On the other hand, it is a fact that there are compounds referring to `ice' that contain the adjective *go°lъ, e.g. #Ru. gololeґdica, #Pl. goљomroґz. Furthermore, the etymology that starts from the root `freeze' would give rise to the question of the relationship between the initial velars of *golotь and -> *xo?ldъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *golǫbъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `blue'
Page in Trubačev: VI 217
Russian: goluboґj `pale blue' [adj o]
Old Polish: goљęby `greyish, ashy, blue-grey, dove-coloured (of horses)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: golu°bij– `dove-(coloured), blue-grey' [adj o]
Slovene: golǫ?bji `dove-' [adj o]
Lithuanian: gelumbe†~ `blue cloth' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: golimban `blue' [adj]
COMM: Colour adjective deriving from the word for `dove'.
Proto-Slavic form: *golva°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `head'
Page in Trubačev: VI 221-222
Old Church Slavic: glava `head, chapter' [f ѓ]
Russian: golovaґ `head' [f ѓ], goґlovu [Accs]
Czech: hlava `head' [f ѓ]
Polish: gљowa `head' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: hљowa `head' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: glaґva `head' [f ѓ], gla?vu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. glaІЇva? (Vrgada) `head' [f ѓ], glaІ?vu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. glѓva? (Orbanicґi) `head (also head of cattle, head of cabbage)' [f ѓ], gla?vo [Accs]
Slovene: glaґva `head' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: glavaґ `head' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *golЂuёaґЂ
Lithuanian: galva° `head' [f ѓ] 3
Latvian: gal^va `head' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: gallі `head' [f ѓ]; #OPr. galwo (EV) `head' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *golH-u-eh2
COMM: I consider it plausible that *golva° is cognate with -> *go°lъ `bald', where the *g- seems to have replaced *k-.
Other cognates: Lat. calva `skull' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *go°lъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `naked'
Page in Trubačev: VII 14-15
Old Church Slavic: golъ (Supr.) `naked' [adj o]
Russian: goґlyj `naked' [adj o]; #Ru. goґl `naked' [adj o], golaґ [Nomsf], goґlo [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: holyґ `naked' [adj o]
Slovak: holyґ `naked' [adj o]
Polish: goљy `naked' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: go?(l) `naked' [adj o], go°la [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. go~ (Vrgada) `naked' [adj o], gola? [Nomsf], golo? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. guo~l (Orbanicґi) `naked' [adj o], gola? [Nomsf], golo? [Nomsn]
Slovene: go°љ `naked' [adj o], goґla [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: gol `naked' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *golH-o-
COMM: In spite of the incompatibility of the initial consonants (*g : *k), it is tempting to connect the (Balto-)Slavic and the Germanic forms with Lat. calvus `bald' and Skt. kulva- `bald, thin-haired'.
Other cognates: OHG kalo `bald' [adj], kal(a)wes [Gens]; OE calu `bald', calwes [Gens]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *gomola; gomol§a; gomula
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. jѓ; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `lump'
Page in Trubačev: VII 18-19
Church Slavic: gomola (RuCS) `lump' [f ѓ]; #CS gomula (RuCS) `lump' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: gomola `lump' [f ѓ]; #ORu. gomula `lump' [f ѓ]
Czech: homole `cone' [f ѓ]
Polish: gomoґљa `lump' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: go°molja `pile (of cheese)' [f jѓ]
Slovene: gomoґla `barren ground, waste ground, fat clay' [f ѓ]; #Sln. gomoґlja `lump' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gomolos; gomulos
Lithuanian: ga~malas `lump, chunk' [m o]; #Lith. ga~mulas `lump, chunk' [m o]
COMM: Etymology unclear.
Proto-Slavic form: *gonĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suffice'
Page in Trubačev: VII 22
Old Church Slavic: gonĕti `suffice' [verb], gonĕjǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: gonĕti (RuCS) `suffice' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *goneЂtei
Lithuanian: gane†ґti `suffice' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhon-
Other cognates: Gk. eЩqen»j `in abundance' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *goni°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `chase, persecute'
Page in Trubačev: VII 23
Old Church Slavic: goniti `chase, persecute' [verb], gonjǫ [1sg]
Russian: goniґt' (dial.) `persecute' [verb]
Old Russian:: goniti `chase, hunt, persecute' [verb] {1}
Czech: honiti `chase, hunt, persecute' [verb]
Slovak: honit' `chase, hunt, persecute' [verb]
Polish: gonicґ `chase, hunt, persecute' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: go°niti `chase, persecute' [verb], go?n–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. goni?ti (Vrgada) `chase, persecute' [verb], go?niš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. goni?t (Orbanicґi) `drive, chase' [verb], go?nin [1sg]
Slovene: goґniti `drive repeatedly' [verb], gǫґnim [1sg]
Bulgarian: goґnja `chase, hunt, persecute' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *goniЂtei
Lithuanian: ganyґti `graze, pasture' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhon-
Page in Pokorny: 491
Other cognates: Skt. haґnti `strike, slay' [verb]; Gk. qe…nw `kill' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (b) according to Zaliznjak (1985: 137).
Proto-Slavic form: *gora°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `mountain'
Page in Trubačev: VII 29-31
Old Church Slavic: gora `mountain' [f ѓ]
Russian: goraґ `mountain' [f ѓ], goґru [Accs]
Czech: hora `mountain' [f ѓ]; #Cz. huІra (dial.) `mountain' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hora `(wooded) mountain' [f ѓ]
Polish: goґra `mountain' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: hora `mountain' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: go°ra `mountain, (dial.) wood' [f ѓ], go?ru [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. gora? (Vrgada) `mountain' [f ѓ], go?ru [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. gora? (Novi) `mountain' [f ѓ], go?ru [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. gora? (Orbanicґi) `mountain' [f ѓ], goro? [Accs], go?ro [Accs]
Slovene: goґra `mountain, woods (on a mountain)' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: goraґ `woods' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: giria° `woods' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Derivative containing the o-grade of the root *gєrH-.
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 477
Other cognates: Skt. giriґ- `mountain, hill' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *goґrdjь; goґrdja
GRAM: m. jo; f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `fence'
Page in Trubačev: VII 36-37
Old Church Slavic: graždъ (Supr.) `stable' [Accsm jo]
Russian: goroґža `fence, palisade' [f jѓ]
Czech: hraґz `dike, dam' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: hraґzĕ `piseґ wall, garden fence, dam' [f jѓ]
Slovak: hraґdza `dam, weir, embankment, ditch' [f jѓ]
Polish: grodza `piseґ wall, enclosure' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?‹a `building material, (dial.) fence' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gra~ja (Orbanicґi) `thornbush (at the roadside), thorny branches (used by way of fence) [f jѓ]
Slovene: graґja `fence, weir, building' [f jѓ]
Other cognates: Skt. grёhaґ- `house, residence' [m]; Go. gards `house' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gorĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `burn'
Page in Trubačev: VII 42-43
Old Church Slavic: gorĕti `burn' [verb], gorjǫ [1sg], goriši [2sg]
Russian: goreґt' `burn' [verb], gorjuґ [1sg], goriґt [3sg]
Czech: horĕti `burn' [verb]
Slovak: horiet' `burn' [verb]
Polish: gorzecґ `burn' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: go°rjeti `burn' [verb], go°r–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gori?ti (Vrgada) `burn' [verb], gori~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gore?t (Orbanicґi) `burn' [verb], gori~ [3sg]
Slovene: gore•ґti `burn' [verb], goriґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: gorjaґ `burn' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *goreЂtei
Lithuanian: gare†ґti `evaporate, breathe out' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhor-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Other cognates: Skt. ghrёn•aґ- `heat, glow' [m]; Gk. qermТj `warm' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *gornъ; gorno
GRAM: m. o; n o
Page in Trubačev: VII 49
Old Church Slavic: granъ (Euch.) `verse, line' [Accm o] {1}
Church Slavic: granъ `verse, line' [m o]; #CS grano `verse, line' [n s]
Czech: hrany `death bell' [Nomp m]
Slovak: hrana `death bell' [Nomp n]
Upper Sorbian: hrono `phrase, pause, pulse' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: grono `speech, talk, story' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gworH-no-
COMM: A derivative in *-no- from the root of -> *žьrti.
Other cognates: Skt. grёn•ѓґti `praise, honour' [verb]
Notes: {1} Spelled grannъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *go°rxъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `pea, peas'
Page in Trubačev: VII 45
Russian: goroґx `pea, peas' [m o]
Czech: hraґch `pea, peas' [m o]
Slovak: hrach `pea, peas' [m o]
Polish: groch `pea, peas' [m o]
Slovincian: gru°oё» `pea, peas' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: hroch `pea, peas' [m o]; #USrb. hroґch (dial.) `pea, peas' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: groch `pea, peas' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?h `pea, bean' [m o]
Slovene: gra°h `pea, bean' [m o]
Bulgarian: grax `pea, peas' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gors•-
Lithuanian: garšva° `Aegopodium podagraria' [f ѓ]; gar~šas `Aegopodium podagraria' [m o]
Latvian: gѓrša `Aegopodium podagraria' [f jѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *gorьjь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `worse'
Page in Trubačev: VII 54-55
Old Church Slavic: gor§ii `worse, worst' [adj jo], gorьši [Nomsf], gorje [Nomsn]
Czech: horšiґ `worse' [adj jo]; #Cz. huІr№e `worse' [adv]
Old Czech:: hor№iґ `worse' [adj jo]; #OCz. hoґr№e `worse' [adv]
Polish: gorszy `worse' [adj jo]; #Pl. gorzej `worse' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: go?r– `worse, worst' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. go?r– (Vrgada) `worse, worst' [adj jo]
Slovene: gǫґrji `worse, more impressive' [adj jo]; #Sln. gǫґrši `worse, more impressive, nicer' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhor-
Page in Pokorny: 493
COMM: Vaillant (1929) has compared *gorьjь to #Skt. gaґr–yas-, the comparative of guruґ- `heavy' < *gwrh2-uґ-. I see no formal objections to deriving *gorьjь from *gworh2-, but consider it more likely that we have to seek a connection with -> *go?r'e, etc.
Proto-Slavic form: *gorьkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bitter'
Page in Trubačev: VII 55-56
Old Church Slavic: gorьkъ `bitter' [adj o]
Russian: goґr'kyj `bitter' [adj o]; goґrek `bitter' [adj o], gor'kaґ [Nomsf], goґr'ko [Nomsn]
Czech: hor№kyґ `bitter' [adj o]
Slovak: horkyґ `bitter' [adj o]
Polish: gorzki `bitter' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: goґrak `bitter' [adj o], goґrka [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. go?rak (Vrgada) `bitter' [adj o], gЎrka? [Nomsf], go?rko [Nomsn]
Slovene: goґrЌk `warm, bitter' [adj o], goґrka [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: goґraўk `bitter' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhor-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Proto-Slavic form: *gospodinъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `lord, master'
Page in Trubačev: VII 61-63
Old Church Slavic: gospodinъ `lord, master' [m o]
Russian: gospodiґn `master, gentleman' [m o]
Old Czech:: hospodin `the Lord' [m o]
Slovak: hospodin `the Lord' [m o]
Polish: gospodzin (arch.) `master' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gospo°din `master' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gospodi~n (Vrgada) `master' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gospodiґn (Novi) `master' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gospodi~n (Orbanicґi) `sir (in particular when addressing a priest)' [m o]
Slovene: gospodi?n `master' [m o]
Bulgarian: gospodiґn `master' [m o]
COMM: See -> *gospodь.
Proto-Slavic form: *gospodь
GRAM: m. i
PSLMEAN: `lord, master'
Page in Trubačev: VII 61-63
Old Church Slavic: gospodь `lord, master' [m i]
Russian: gospoґd' `the Lord, God' [m o], goґspoda [Gens]
Ukrainian: hospoґd' `the Lord, God' [m o], hoґspoda [Gens]; #Ukr. hoґspid' `the Lord, God' [m o], hoґspoda [Gens]
Old Czech:: hospod `the Lord, god' [m i]
Polish: gospoґd (dial.) `lord, master' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: go?spЎd `the Lord' [m i?]
Slovene: gospo•?d `lord, master' [m o]
Bulgarian: goґspod `the Lord' [m i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghost(i)-pot-
Other cognates: Lat. hospes `host' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *govę°do
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `head of cattle'
Page in Trubačev: VII 74-75
Russian: govjaґdo (dial.) `head of cattle' [n o]
Czech: hovado `head of cattle, cattle' [n o]
Slovak: hov„do `head of cattle, cattle' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: go°vedo `head of cattle' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gove?do (Orbanicґi) `head of cattle (cow, ox, bull)' [n o]
Slovene: govęґdo• `head of cattle' [n o]
Bulgarian: goveґdo `head of cattle' [n o]
Latvian: gu°ovs `cow' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєh3-eu-
COMM: The root *gov- reflects *gєh3-eu-. The suffix is reminiscent of -> *agnę, -ęt-, but it is unclear why we find *-do- instead of *-t-.
Proto-Slavic form: *govĕti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VII 72-73
Old Church Slavic: govĕti (Supr.) `live a God-fearing life' [verb]
Russian: goveґt' `fast' [verb] {1}
Czech: hovĕti `satisfy, show indulgence' [verb]
Slovak: hoviet' `favour, satisfy, show indulgence' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: go°vjeti `attend to, respect, please' [verb]
Bulgarian: goveґja `fast, be silent (respectfully)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhou
Other cognates: Lat. favЊre `favour' [verb]
Notes: {1} #Lith. gove†ґti and #Latv. gave^t `fast' are borrowings from East Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *govori°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `speak, talk'
Page in Trubačev: VII 75-76
Old Church Slavic: govoriti (Supr.) `make noise, chatter' [verb] {1}
Russian: govoriґt' `speak, talk' [verb], govorjuґ [1sg], govoriґt [3sg]
Czech: hovor№iti `speak, talk' [verb]
Slovak: hovorit' `speak, talk' [verb]
Old Polish: goworzycґ `speak, talk' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: govo°riti `speak, talk' [verb], go°vor–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. govori?ti (Vrgada) `speak, talk' [verb], govo?r–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. govori?t (Orbanicґi) `speak, talk, say' [verb], govo?rin [1sg]
Slovene: govoriґti `speak, talk' [verb], govoriґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: govoґrja `speak, talk, say' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gou-
Other cognates: Skt. joґguve `call, invoke' [verb]; Gk. gТoj `weeping, wailing' [m]
Notes: {1} Only govori imp. and govoręštemъ Dpl.m. pprsa.
Proto-Slavic form: *govorъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `talk'
Page in Trubačev: VII 76-77
Old Church Slavic: govorъ `noise, shout, rumour, murmur' [m o]
Russian: goґvor `sound of voices, talk' [m o]
Czech: hovor `conversation, talk' [m o]
Slovak: hovor `conversation, talk' [m o]
Polish: gowor (arch.) `speech, conversation, talk' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: go?vЎr `speech, dialect' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. go?vor (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `speech, dialect' [m o]
Slovene: gǫ?vor `speech, talk' [m o]
Bulgarian: goґvor `speech, talk, dialect' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gou-
Other cognates: Skt. joґguve `call, invoke' [verb]; Gk. gТoj `weeping, wailing' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *govьno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `shit'
Page in Trubačev: VII 77-78
Church Slavic: govno (RuCS) `shit, dung, garbage' [n o]
Russian: govnoґ `shit' [n o]
Old Russian:: govno `shit, dung, garbage' [n o]
Ukrainian: hivnoґ `shit' [n o]
Czech: hovno `shit' [n o]
Slovak: hovno `shit' [n o]
Polish: goґwno `shit' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: goґvno `shit' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gЎvno? (Vrgada) `shit' [n o]
Slovene: gǫґvno `shit' [n o]
Bulgarian: govnoґ `shit' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(є)ouH-
Other cognates: Skt. gіtha- `excrements' [m]; Av. gі±a- `excrements' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫ°ba
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `(tree-)fungus'
Page in Trubačev: VII 78-80
Old Church Slavic: gǫba `sponge' [f ѓ]
Russian: gubaґ `lip' [f ѓ]; #Ru. gubaґ (dial.) `mushroom' [f ѓ]; #Ru. guґba (dial.) `mushroom' [f ѓ]
Czech: houba `mushroom, tree-fungus' [f ѓ]; #Cz. huba `snout, mouth' [f ѓ]
Slovak: huba `mushroom, tree-fungus, snout, mouth' [f ѓ]
Polish: gęba `mouth, snout, face' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gu?ba `mushroom, tree-fungus, amadou, leprosy, snout' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gǫґba `mushroom, tree-fungus' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gaўґba `mushroom, tree-fungus' [f ѓ]
COMM: I have adopted the widespread view that *gǫba `tree-fungus' and gǫba `lip, mouth' are etymologically identical, the latter being secondary. Formally there are no problems. In the case of Cz. huba and houba we may be dealing with differentiation resulting from the generalization of either the short or the long variant of the root (the long variant originated from the so-called "Czech: lengthening").
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫgnati; gǫgn§ati;
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `speak through the nose'
Page in Trubačev: VII 81-82
Church Slavic: gugnati (RuCS) `whisper, grumble' [verb]
BeloRussian: gugnaґc' `speak through the nose' [verb]
Czech: huhn№ati `speak through the nose' [verb]
Slovak: huhn№at' `speak through the nose' [verb]
Polish: gugna§cґ (obs., dial.) `speak through the nose' [verb]
Slovene: gognjaґti `speak through the nose, murmur' [verb], gognja?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaўґgna `speak through the nose' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫgnavъ; gǫgn§avъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `speaking through the nose'
Page in Trubačev: VII 81-82
Russian: gugnaґvyj (dial.) `speaking through the nose, unclearly' [adj o]; #Ru. gugnjaґvyj (dial.) `speaking through the nose, unclearly' [adj o]; #Ru. gunjaґvyj (dial.) `speaking through the nose, unclearly' [adj o]
Ukrainian: gugnaґvyj `speaking through the nose' [adj o]; #Ukr. gugnjaґvyj `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Czech: huhn№aґvy `speaking or spoken through the nose, nasal' [adj o]
Slovene: gognja°v `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Bulgarian: gaўgniґv `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫgniti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `speak through the nose'
Page in Trubačev: VII 82
Russian: gugniґti `tell, speak' [adj o]
Ukrainian: gugnyґty `speak through the nose' [adj o]
Bulgarian: gaўgniґv `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫgnivъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `speaking through the nose'
Page in Trubačev: VII 82
Old Church Slavic: gǫgъnivъ `speaking thickly, speaking through the nose, dumb' [adj o]
Russian: gugniґvyj `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Bulgarian: gaўgniґv `speaking through the nose' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫ?stъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dense'
Page in Trubačev: VII 87
Church Slavic: gǫstъ `dense' [adj o]
Russian: gustoґj `dense' [adj o]; #Ru. gust `dense' [adj o], gustaґ [Nomsf], guґsto [Nomsn]
Czech: hustyґ `dense' [adj o]
Slovak: hustyґ `dense' [adj o]
Polish: gęsty `dense' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gu?st `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], guґsta [Nomsf], guґsto [Nomsn]: C№ak. gu?st (Vrgada) `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], gіsta? [Nomsf], gu?sto [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. guo?s (Vrgada) `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], guo?sta [Nomsf], guo?sto [Nomsn]
Slovene: gǫ?st `dense' [adj o], gǫґsta [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: gaўst `dense' [adj o]
Latvian: guosts `quantity, masse' [m o]
COMM: The formation is *gǫt-tъ, cf. -> *gǫtьnъ and #Ru. dial. gut' `thicket'. The etymology of the root is unclear.
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫ?sь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `goose'
Page in Trubačev: VII 88-89
Russian: gus' `goose' [m jo], guґsja [Gens]
Czech: hus (dial.) `goose' [f i]
Old Czech:: hus `goose' [f i]
Slovak: hus `goose' [f i]
Polish: gęsґ `goose' [f i]
Slovene: go•?s `goose' [f i], gosi? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gansis / zґansis
Lithuanian: ža§si°s `goose' [f i]
Latvian: zu°oss `goose' [f i]
Old Prussian: sansy `goose'
Indo-European reconstruction: *gґhh2ens-
Page in Pokorny: 412
Other cognates: Skt. hamў†saґ- `goose, swan' [m]; Gk. ^Г•ГУГљ [mf]; Lat. ѓnser `goose' [m]; OHG gans [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `play an instrument'
Page in Trubačev: VII 85-86
Church Slavic: gǫsti `play an instrument' [verb], gǫdǫ [1sg]
Russian: gust' (dial.) `howl, weep, sing' [verb]; #Ru. gustiґ (dial.) `hum, make a sound, howl, weep, sing' [verb]
Ukrainian: hustiґ (dial.) `hum' [verb]
Czech: housti (arch.) `play (the violin)' [verb]
Slovak: huґst' `play an instrument, chatter incessantly' [verb]
Polish: ga§sґcґ (arch.) `play, jingle, strum' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: guґsti (arch.) `play, hum' [verb]
Slovene: gǫґsti `play the violin, grumble' [verb], gǫґdem [1sg]
Lithuanian: gau~sti `make a sound, hum' [verb], gaudžiu° [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫtьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dense'
Page in Trubačev: VII 87
Church Slavic: gǫstъ `dense' [adj o]
Russian: gustoґj `dense' [adj o]; #Ru. gust `dense' [adj o], gustaґ [Nomsf], guґsto [Nomsn]
Czech: hutnyґ `dense, substantial' [adj o]
Slovak: hutnyґ `dense' [adj o]
Polish: gęsty `dense' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gu?st `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], guґsta [Nomsf], guґsto [Nomsn]: C№ak. gu?st (Vrgada) `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], gіsta? [Nomsf], gu?sto [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. guo?s (Vrgada) `thick, dense, solid' [adj o], guo?sta [Nomsf], guo?sto [Nomsn]
Slovene: gǫ?st `dense' [adj o], gǫґsta [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: gaўst `dense' [adj o]
Latvian: guosts `quantity, masse' [m o]
COMM: See -> *gǫ?stъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫzъ; gǫza; guzъ
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `bump'
Page in Trubačev: VII 91-92
Russian: guz (dial.) `behind, buttock, lower part of a sheaf, butt-end, bump' [m o]; guґza (Dal') `wrinkle, fold' [f ѓ]; guzaґ (Voron.) `lower part of a sheaf, butt-end' [f ѓ]
Czech: huza (Kott) `coccyx' [f ѓ]; huzo (Jungmann) `rump (of a bird)' [n o]
Polish: guz `bump, lump' [m o]
Old Polish: guz `bump, lump, gizzard, dwarf' [m o]; ga§z `bump, lump' [m o]
Slovincian: gu†ґz `bump, lump' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gu?z `buttock' [m o]; guґza `behinf' [m o]
Slovene: gǫґza `buttock, behind' [f ѓ]; guґza `behind, pouch, wrinkle' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gaўz `behind' [m o]
COMM: Another instance of variation betweem ǫ and *u (see also -> *gyža). On the basis of OIc. kǫkkr `ball', we may reconstruct gongґ-. The connection with Gk. gТggroj `conger-eel, tubercular disease in olive-trees' and goggrwґnh `excrescence on the neck' is dubious, as the meaning `conger-eel' is generally regarded as primary. The comparison with Gk. gТgguloj `round, hard' seems more promising.
Other cognates: OIc. kǫkkr `ball' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫžь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: VII 93-94
Russian: guž `tug, cartage' [m jo], gužaґ [Gens]
Czech: houž (dial.) `plait, braid' [m jo]
Slovincian: go†ґuё§ž `strap of a flail' [m jo]
Slovene: gǫґž `strap of a flail or yoke' [f i], goži? [Gens]
Bulgarian: gaўž `band, bandage, turban' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gongh-
Certainty: -
COMM: Probably a non-Indo-European word. We may reconstruct *gongh-io-.
Other cognates: OIc. kengr `bend, hook' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gǫžьvь; gǫžьva
GRAM: f. i; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VII 94-95
Russian: guґžvaґ (dial.) `twig used for tying up' [m jo]
Czech: houžev `braid or band made from twigs' [f i]
Polish: ga§z†va `strap of a flail' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: go†ґu§ž `strap of a flail' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: gu?žva `basket or braid from plaited twigs' [f i]
Slovene: gǫґžva `braid from plaited twigs' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gaўґžva `band, bandage, noose' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gongh-
Certainty: -
Other cognates: OIc. kengr `bend, hook' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gra°biti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `seize, grab'
Page in Trubačev: VII 97
Old Church Slavic: grabiti `rob' [verb], grabljǫ [1sg]
Russian: graґbit' `rob, rake' [verb]
Polish: grabicґ `rake, gather' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?biti `seize, grab, rake' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. gra?biti (Vrgada) `seize, grab, rake' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. gra?bit (Orbanicґi) `rake' [verb]
Slovene: graґbiti `seize, grab, rake' [verb], gra?bim [1sg]
Bulgarian: graґbja `rob, ramsack, snatch' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *groЂb-
Lithuanian: groґbti `seize' [verb]
Latvian: gra^bt `seize' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghreb-
COMM: In Balto-Slavic and Germanic, the roots *ghrebh- `dig, rake' and *ghreb- `seize, grab' were mixed up to a considerable degree (Kortlandt 1988, Derksen 1991: 321-322).
Other cognates: OIc. graґpa `seize' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gra°dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hail'
Page in Trubačev: VII 101
Old Church Slavic: gradъ `hail' [m o]
Russian: grad `hail' [m o]
Czech: hrady `thundercloud' [Nompm o]; #Cz. hrad' (dial.) `hail' [f i]
Old Czech:: hrad `hail' [m o]
Slovak: hrad (dial.) `hail' [m o]; #Slk. hraґd (dial.) `hail' [m o]
Polish: grad `hail' [m o]
Slovincian: graІґuёd `hail' [m o], gra~du [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?d `hail' [m o], gra?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gra?t (Orbanicґi) `hail' [m o], gra?da [Gens]
Slovene: gra°d `hail' [m o], graґda [Gens]
Bulgarian: grad `hail' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *greH3d-o-
COMM: #Lith. gruґodas `frozen earth or mud' 3 is probably cognate with -> *grǫda, *gruda `heap, lump', Lith. grіґdas `corn', etc., as advocated by the ESSJa and Fraenkel.
Other cognates: Lat. hrѓduґni- `hail(-stone)' [f]; Lat. grandЎ `hail' [f]; Arm. karkut `hail'
Proto-Slavic form: *grajati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `caw, croak'
Page in Trubačev: VII 102
Church Slavic: grajati (RuCS) `caw, croak' [verb]
Russian: graґjat' `caw, croak, laugh loudly, quarrel' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gra?jati `caw, croak' [verb]; #SCr. graґjati `talk, cry' [verb]
Slovene: graґjati `scold' [verb], graґjam [1sg], graґjem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *graЂ-
Lithuanian: groґti `caw, croak, howl, roar, scold' [verb]
Other cognates: OHG krѓen `crow' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *grakati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `caw, croak'
Page in Trubačev: VII 102
Church Slavic: grakati (RuCS) `caw, croak' [verb], graču [1sg]
Old Russian:: grakati `caw, croak' [verb], graču [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: graґkati `caw, croak, cry' [verb]
Slovene: graґkati `caw, croak, cry' [verb], graґkam [1sg], graґčem [1sg]
Other cognates: Lat. graculus `daw, jackdaw' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gramada
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `heap, pile'
Page in Trubačev: VII 103-104
Old Church Slavic: gramada `heap, pile' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: gramada `pile' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gramaґda `clod, pile of firewood' [f ѓ]; #SCr. gra°mada `lump of earth' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gramaґda `heap, pile' [f ѓ]; #Sln. grmaґda `heap, pile' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gramaґda `mass, big pile' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: gru°mulas `lump' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2gr-Ўm-
Other cognates: Skt. grѓґma- `(military) host, village, community' [m]; Gk. ўge…rw `to gather' [verb]; Lat. gremium `lap' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *grebenь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `comb'
Page in Trubačev: VII 112-113
Russian: greґben' `comb' [m jo]
Czech: hr№eben `comb' [m o]; #Cz. hr№eben№ (dial.) `comb' [m jo]
Slovak: hreben№ `comb' [m jo]
Polish: grzebienґ `comb' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: gre?ben `comb' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gre?ben `card (for combing fibers)' [m o]
Slovene: grebę?n `comb' [m o]
Bulgarian: greґben `comb' [m o]
COMM: Originally an n-stem derivative of -> *greti.
Proto-Slavic form: *greti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dig, scrape, rake'
Page in Trubačev: VII 109-110
Old Church Slavic: greti (Zogr., Mar., Ass.) `row' [verb], grebǫ [1sg]
Russian: grestiґ `row, rake' [verb], grebuґ [1sg], grebeЁt [3sg]
Czech: hr№e(b)sti `bury' [verb]
Old Czech:: hr№eґsti `bury' [verb], hr№ebu [1sg]
Slovak: hriebst' `dig' [verb]
Polish: grzesґcґ `bury' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gre°psti `scrape, scratch' [verb], gre°bЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gre?s (Orbanicґi) `scratch' [verb], grebe?n [1sg]
Slovene: greґbsti `dig, comb' [verb], greґbem [1sg]
Bulgarian: grebaґ `spoon, scoop, rake, row' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grebtei
Lithuanian: gre†ґbti `rake, seize, rob' [verb] {1}
Latvian: grebt `scrape, excavate, seize' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghrebh-
Other cognates: Skt. grёbhn•ѓґti `seize, take, hold' [verb]; Go. graban `dig' [verb]
Notes: {1} The acute root vowel is analogical after groґbti `seize' (Derksen 1996: 321-322).
Proto-Slavic form: *gręЇda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: VII 120-122
Russian: grjadaґ `ridge, bed (of flowers)' [f ѓ], grjaduґ [Accs], grjaґdy [Nomp]; #Ru. grjadaґ (Domostroj, 18th/19th c.) `ridge, bed (of flowers), series, (dial.) pole, staff' [f ѓ], grjaґdu [Accs], grjaґdy [Nomp]
Czech: hr№ada `perch' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hrada `perch' [f ѓ]
Polish: grzęda `garden bed, perch' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: greґda `beam' [f ѓ], gre?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. grЊda? (Vrgada) `beam' [f ѓ], gre?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. grЊda? (Novi) `beam' [f ѓ], gre?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. grieda? (Orbanicґi) `beam' [f ѓ], grie?do [Accs]
Slovene: greґda `beam, garden bed' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gredaґ `beam' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grindaґЂ
Lithuanian: grinda° (dial.) `flooring of a bridge, (pl.) wooden floor in a barn' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: gri°da `floor, threshing-floor' [f ѓ]
COMM: The Balto-Slavic and Germanic evidence points to *ghrndh-.
Other cognates: OIc. grind `gate made of spars or bars, fence, dock, store-houses' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *grę?znǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `sink'
Page in Trubačev: VII 125
Old Church Slavic: pogręznǫti `sink, submerge' [verb]
Russian: grjaґznut' `sink into smth. sticky, boggy' [verb]
Czech: hr№eznouti `sink, get stuck in' [verb]
Old Czech:: hr№aґznuti `sink, plunge, fall' [verb]
Slovak: hriaznut' `sink, get stuck in' [verb]
Polish: grzezna§cґ `sink, get stuck in' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gre?znuti `drown, sink' [verb]
Slovene: gręґzniti `sink, collapse' [verb], grę?znem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grim-
Lithuanian: grim~zti `sink' [verb], grim~zta [3sg]
Latvian: grim~t `sink' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 405
COMM: See -> *gręzti.
Proto-Slavic form: *grę?zь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `mud, dirt'
Page in Trubačev: VII 125-126
Russian: grjaz' `mud, dirt' [f i]
Czech: hr№ez (Jungmann) `mud, dirt' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: gre?z (arch., dial.) `mud, dirt' [f i]
Slovene: grę?z `watery, deep mud, abyss' [f i], grezi? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grim-
Lithuanian: grim~zti `sink' [verb], grim~zta [3sg]
Latvian: grim~t `sink' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 405
COMM: Deverbative i-stem. See -> *gręzti.
Proto-Slavic form: *gręsti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `go'
Page in Trubačev: VII 123-124
Old Church Slavic: gręsti `go, come' [verb], grędǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: gręsti (RuCS)`go, come' [verb], grędu [1sg]
Russian: gredut (dial.) `go' [3pl]
Old Russian:: gręsti `go, come' [verb], grędu [1sg]; #ORu. grĕsti `go, come' [verb], grĕdu [1sg] {1}
Ukrainian: grjastyґ `run fast and noisily, ride' [verb], grjaduґ [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: gre°sti `go' [verb], gre°dЊm [1sg]; #SCr. greґsti `go' [verb], greґdЊm [1sg]
Lithuanian: gri°dyti (Jušk.) `go, wander' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghrindh-
Other cognates: Go. grid `step' [Accs]; MHG grit `step' [m?]; OIr. ingreinn `persecute' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *gręza
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `mud, dirt'
Page in Trubačev: VII 123-124
Church Slavic: gręza (RuCS) `mud, dirt, mire, slime' [f ѓ]; #CS gręzja (RuCS) `mud, dirt, mire, slime' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: grjaza `mud, dirt, mire, slime' [f ѓ]; #ORu. grjazja `mud, dirt, mire, slime' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: grjazjaґ `mud, dirt, mire, slime' [f jѓ]
Slovene: gręґza `mud, dirt' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: grim~zti `sink' [verb], grim~zta [3sg]
Latvian: grim~t `sink' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *g(h)rm-
Page in Pokorny: 405
COMM: Deverbative ѓ-stem. See -> *gręzti.
Proto-Slavic form: *gręziti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sink'
Page in Trubačev: VII 124-125
Church Slavic: gręziti (RuCS) `sink' [verb]
Czech: hr№iґziti `sink' [verb]
Slovene: greziґti `sink' [verb], greziґm [1sg]
Page in Pokorny: 405
Proto-Slavic form: *gręzti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sink'
Page in Trubačev: VII 125
Old Russian:: grjazti `sink, wallow' [verb]
Lithuanian: grim~zti `sink' [verb], grim~zta [3ps], grim~zdo [3pt]
Latvian: grim~t `sink' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 405
COMM: In Slavic has *gręz- corresponding to Lith. grimzd-. In Latvian, where the *z was eliminated analogically due to reanalysis of the sta-present, there are forms with a root grimd- (see Endzelin 1922: 582). The situation is reminiscent of PSl. -> *loza° vs. #Lith. lazda°.
Proto-Slavic form: *grĕ(ja)ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `warm, heat'
Page in Trubačev: VII 116-117
Old Church Slavic: grĕjati `warm, heat' [verb], grĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: gret' `warm, heat' [verb]
Czech: hr№aґti `warm, heat' [verb]; #Cz. hr№iґt (dial.) `warm, heat' [verb]
Slovak: hriat' `warm, heat' [verb]
Polish: grzacґ `warm, heat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gre?jati `warm, shine' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. gre?jat (Orbanicґi) `warm' [verb]
Slovene: gre•ґti `warm, heat' [verb], gre•?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: greґja `warm, shine' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhr-eh1-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Other cognates: Skt. ghrёn•aґ- `heat, glow' [m]; Gk. qermТj `warm' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *grĕґxъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sin'
Page in Trubačev: VII 114-116
Old Church Slavic: grĕxъ `sin' [m o]
Russian: grex `sin' [m o]
Czech: hr№iґch `sin' [m o]
Slovak: hriech `sin' [m o]
Polish: grzech `sin' [m o]
Slovincian: gr№e†ґ»ґ `sin' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: hrĕch `sin' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gri?jeh `sin' [m o], grije°ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gri~h (Vrgada) `sin' [m o], gr–ha? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. grie~h (Orbanicґi) `sin' [m o]
Slovene: gre•ґh `sin' [m o]
Bulgarian: grjach `sin' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *gribati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VII 109-110
Russian: griґbat'sja (arch., dial.) `frown, become angry, pull faces' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gribati (arch., dial.) `dig, scrape' [verb]
Bulgarian: griґbam (dial.) `bury' [verb]
COMM: Iterative of -> *greti° with lengthened zero grade of the root.
Other cognates: Skt. grёbhn•ѓґti `seize, take, hold' [verb]; Go. graban `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gri°va
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `mane'
Page in Trubačev: VII 129-130
Russian: griґva `mane' [f ѓ]
Czech: hr№iґva `mane' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hriva `mane' [f ѓ]
Polish: grzywa `mane' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gri?va `mane' [f ѓ]
Slovene: griґva `mane, overgrown boundary' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: griґva `mane' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *griґЂuёaЂ
Latvian: gri~va `river mouth' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gwriH-ueh2-
Certainty: +
COMM: An instance of Hirt's law.
Other cognates: Skt. gr–vѓґ- `neck' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *grivьna
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: VII 130-132
Russian: griґvna `old monetary unit, (obs.) three kopecks' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: hryґvna `(current) monetary unit' [f ѓ]
Czech: hr№ivna `old monetary unit' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: hr№iґvna `mark' [f ѓ]
Polish: grzywna `fine, unity, measure of weight for silver ' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gri?vna `iron ring on scythe, bracelet, name of a monetary unit' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gri?vna `necklace, name of a monetary unit' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: griґvna `bracelet' [f ѓ]
Certainty: +
COMM: A derivative of -> *gri°va.
Proto-Slavic form: *grobъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `grave'
Page in Trubačev: VII 112-113
Old Church Slavic: grobъ `grave, tomb' [m o]
Russian: grob `coffin, (obs.) grave' [m o], groґba [Gens]; #Ru. grob (dial.) `coffin, grave' [m o], grobaґ [Gens]
Czech: hrob `grave' [m o]
Slovak: hrob `grave' [m o]
Polish: groґb `grave' [m o], grobu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: gro?b `grave' [m o], gro°ba [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?b (Novi) `grave' [m o], groba?; #SCr. C№ak. gro?p (Orbanicґi) `grave, tomb' [m o], groba?; #SCr. Kajk. gre?b (Bednja) `grave' [m o], gryeba?
Slovene: gro°b `grave' [m o], groґba [Gens]
Bulgarian: grob `grave' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghrobh-o-
COMM: Deverbative o-stem. See -> *greti°.
Other cognates: Go. graba `grave' [f]; OHG grab `grave' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *gro?mъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `thunder'
Page in Trubačev: VII 138-139
Old Church Slavic: gromъ `thunder' [m o]
Russian: grom `thunder' [m o], groґma [Gens]
BeloRussian: hrom `thunder' [m o], hroґmu [Gens]
Ukrainian: hrim `thunder' [m o], hroґmu [Gens]
Czech: hrom `thunder' [m o]
Slovak: hrom `thunder' [m o]
Polish: grom `thunder' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gro?m `thunder' [m o], gro°ma [Gens]; #SCr. gro?m (dial.) `thunder' [m o], gro°ma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?m (Vrgada) `thunder' [m o], gro?ma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?m (Novi) `thunder' [m o], gro?ma [Gens]
Slovene: gro•?m `thunder' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghrom-o-
Page in Pokorny: 458
Other cognates: Gk. crТmoj (Hesych.) `crashing sound, neighing' [m]; OIc. gramr `grim, hostile' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *gromada
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `heap, pile'
Page in Trubačev: VII 136-137
Church Slavic: gromada (RuCS) `heap, pile, bonfire' [f ѓ]
Russian: gromaґda `mass, bulk, pile' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: gromada `heap, pile, bonfire' [f ѓ]
Czech: hromada `heap, pile, multitude, gathering' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hromada `heap, pile, multitude, gathering' [f ѓ]
Polish: gromada `pile, multitude, village community, gathering' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gromaґda `cliff, crag, heap, pile' [f ѓ]; #SCr. gro°mada `cliff, crag, heap, pile' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gromaґda `heap, pile of firewood, bonfire' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gromaґda `heap, pile, mass, bulk' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: gru°mulas `lump' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2gr-om-
Other cognates: Skt. grѓґma- `(military) host, village, community' [m]; Gk. ўge…rw `to gather' [verb]; Lat. gremium `lap' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *groza°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `horror'
Page in Trubačev: VII 141-142
Old Church Slavic: groza (Supr., Cloz.) `horror' [f ѓ]
Russian: grozaґ `(thunder)storm, disaster, terror, (obs.) threats' [f ѓ]
Czech: hru•za `terror, horror, multitude' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hro^za `horror, multitude' [f ѓ]
Polish: groza `threat, terror, horror' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: gru°oёzaў `horror' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gro°za `horror, disgust' [f ѓ]; #SCr. groґza `horror, disgust' [f ѓ]
Slovene: groґza `horror, shudder, large crowd' [f ѓ]
COMM: See -> *grozi°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *gro°zdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: VII 142
Old Church Slavic: grozdъ `bunch of grapes' [m o]
Russian: grozd' `cluster, bunch' [f i], groґzdi [Gens]; #Ru. grozd (Dal') `cluster, bunch' [m o]
Old Russian:: grozdъ `grap' [m o] {1}; #ORu. grozdь `grape' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: gro?zd `vine, (bunch of) grapes' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?zd (Vrgada) `vine, (bunch of) grapes' [m o], grozda? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?s (Orbanicґi) `bunch (of grapes)' [m o], grozda? [Gens], gro?zda [Gens]
Slovene: gro°zd `grape' [m o], groґzda [Gens]
Bulgarian: grozd `grape' [m o]
Notes: {1} AP (b) according to Zaliznjak (1985: 137).
Proto-Slavic form: *grozdьje
GRAM: n. io
Page in Trubačev: VII 142
Church Slavic: grozdije `bunch of grapes' [n io]
Serbo-Croatian: gro?z‹e `vine, grapes' [n o]; #SCr. gro?z‹e (dial.) `vine, grapes' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gro?zjЊ (Vrgada) `vine, grapes' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gruo~jze (Orbanicґi) `vine, grapes' [n o]
Slovene: grǫґzdje `vine, grapes' [n jo]
Bulgarian: groґzde `vine, grapes' [n o]
Proto-Slavic form: *grozdьnъ; grozdьno
GRAM: m. o; n. o
Page in Trubačev: VII 142
Old Church Slavic: groznъ (Mar., Supr.) `bunch of grapes' [m o]
Ukrainian: hroґzno `vine, (bunch of) grapes' [n o]
Czech: hrozen `bunch' [m o], hroznu [Gens]
Slovak: hrozno `bunch' [n o]
Proto-Slavic form: *grozi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `threaten'
Page in Trubačev: VII 143
Russian: groziґt' `threaten' [verb], grožuґ [1sg], groziґt [3sg]
Czech: hroziti `threaten' [verb]
Slovak: hrozit' `threaten' [verb]
Polish: grozicґ `threaten' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gro°ziti `threaten, (g. se) detest, shudder' [verb], gro°z–m; #SCr. groґziti `threaten' [verb]
Slovene: groziґti `threaten, scare' [verb], groziґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: grozjaґ `threaten, mar' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grozґ-
Lithuanian: gražoґti `threaten' [verb]
Latvian: gręzuo^t `threaten' [verb]
COMM: See -> *groza°.
Proto-Slavic form: *grozьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `terrible'
Page in Trubačev: VII 144
Old Church Slavic: grozъnъ (Euch.) `frightening, terrible' [adj o] {1}
Russian: groґznyj `threatening, terrible' [adj o]; #Ru. groґzen `threatening, terrible' [adj o], groznaґ [Nomsf], groґzno [Nomsn]
Czech: hroznyґ `frightening, terrible, horrible' [adj o]
Slovak: hroznyґ `terrible, horrible' [adj o]
Polish: grozґny `threatening, terrible' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gro?zan `frightening, terrible' [adj o]; #SCr. gro?zan `frightening, terrible' [adj o]
Slovene: groґzЌn `horrible, stately, beautiful' [adj o]
Bulgarian: groґzen `ugly, horrible, terrible' [adj o]
COMM: Adjectival derivative of -> *groza°. Sln. groґzЌn `stately, beautiful' has been compared to #Latv. gręzns `beautiful, lush, proud', #Lith. gražu°s, #Lith. gra~žnas `beautiful'. Though this is an intriguing idea, it seems hardly plausbile that the Slovene: adjective is to be separated from the other Slavic forms.
Notes: {1} Only grozъnu Dsg.m. and grozъnoe Asg.n.
Proto-Slavic form: *grǫbъ; grubъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `coarse, rude'
Page in Trubačev: VII 145-146
Old Church Slavic: grǫbъ (Supr.) `ignorant, uneducated' [adj o]
Russian: gruґbyj `coarse, rude' [adj o]
Czech: hrubyґ `big, coarse, rough' [adj o]
Slovak: hrubyґ `thick, big, coarse' [adj o]
Polish: gruby `thick, big, coarse' [adj o]; #Pl. gręby (dial.) `wrinkled, sharp, tough' [adj o]
Slovincian: graЁbiЁґ `thick' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gru?b `coarse, rude, ugly' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. gru?b (Vrgada) `ugly' [adj o]
Slovene: grǫ?b `big, strong, conspicuous, rude' [adj o], grǫґba [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: grub `coarse, rude' [adj o]
Lithuanian: grubu°s `uneven, rough' [adj]
Latvian: grum~bulai^ns `uneven, rough' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gru(m)bh-
Certainty: -
COMM: The vocalism *ǫ, which cannot reflect *um, may be a secondary o-grade.
Other cognates: OIc. kryppa `hump' [f]; OHG kropf `crop, gizzard' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *grǫ°da; grǫdъ; gru°da; grudъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `heap, lump'
Page in Trubačev: VII 148-149
Church Slavic: gruda (RuCS) `heap, pile, breastbone, drop' [f ѓ]
Russian: gruґda `heap, pile' [f ѓ]; grud (dial.) `heap, pile' [m o]
Old Russian:: gruda `heap, pile, breastbone, drop' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: hrud `hill' [m o]
Ukrainian: hruґda `lump, earth with frozen lumps, hummocks' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. hrudaґ `lump, earth with frozen lumps, hummocks' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. hrud `height, hill' [m o]
Czech: hrouda `lump of earth, clay' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hruda `lump of earth, clay' [f ѓ]
Polish: gruda `lump of earth, clay' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: gra§d `dry, wooded place amidst swamps' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gru?da `clod, lump' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. gru?da (Orbanicґi) `clod, lump' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gruґda `lump, clod, heap' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: gruґda `lump, clod' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: gruґodas `frozen earth or mud' [m o] 3
COMM: These words are usually considered cognate with #Latv. grau^ds `grain', #OIc. grautr `groats', etc., in which case the root is *ghroud-. The nasal in Pl. gra§d may be secondary. I have adopted the ESSJa's set of lemmata, but it should be noted that the evidence for a nasalized vowel is very limited. One may wonder if the o-stem *grǫdъ belongs here. The reconstructions with *ǫ are partly based on the suggested connections with -> *gręda and grǫ?dь, neither of which is beyond doubt. Forms such as #Bulg. gaўrdaґ `breast', which points to a nasal, may not belong here.
Proto-Slavic form: *grǫ?dь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `breast'
Page in Trubačev: VII 148-149
Russian: grud' `breast' [f i], gruґdi [Gens], grudiґ [Gens] {1}
Czech: hrud' `breast' [f i]
Slovak: hrud' `breast' [f i]
Old Polish: grędzi `breast' [Nompf i]
Serbo-Croatian: gru?d `breast' [f i]
Slovene: grǫ?d `breast' [f i]
Bulgarian: graўd `breast' [f i]
COMM: The connection with -> *gruda, etc., is not entirely certain. An exception must be made for -> grǫdъ, which has a nasalized vowel and is semantically close.
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *grǫziti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sink'
Page in Trubačev: VII 150-151
Old Church Slavic: pogrǫziti `sink' [verb], pogrǫžǫ [1sg]
Russian: gruziґt' `load' [verb], gružuґ [1sg], gruґzit [3sg] {1}
Czech: hroužiti `sink, dip' [verb]
Slovak: hruґžit'sa `sink, dip' [verb]
Polish: gra§z†ycґ `sink, dip' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gru?ziti `dip, sink' [verb]
Slovene: groziґti `dive, dip' [verb], groziґm [1sg]
Page in Pokorny: 405
COMM: Causative formation. See -> *gręzti.
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *gruditi
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VII 152
Czech: hruditi se (Kott) `be unfriendly' [verb]
Polish: grudzicґ (dial.) `stir, spoil, blame' [verb]
Slovene: gruґditi `torment' [verb], gruґdim [1sg] {1}
Lithuanian: graudi°nti `move, touch' [verb]
Notes: {1} #Sln. gruґditi `lump, bite to pieces' obviously derives from gruґda `lump'.
Proto-Slavic form: *grustь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `sadness'
Page in Trubačev: VII 155
Russian: grust' `sadness, melancholy' [f i]
Ukrainian: hrust' `sadness, melancholy' [f i]
Slovene: gru?st `aversion' [m o]
Lithuanian: grіsti°s `sadness, harm' [f i]
Proto-Slavic form: *gryzati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `gnaw'
Page in Trubačev: VII 160-161
Czech: hryzati `gnaw' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: hryzacґ `gnaw' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: gryzasґ `gnaw' [verb]
Bulgarian: grizaґ `gnaw, torment' [verb]
COMM: See -> gry°zti.
Proto-Slavic form: *gry°zti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `gnaw'
Page in Trubačev: VII 160-161
Old Church Slavic: grizetъ (Sav.) `gnaws' [3sg]
Russian: gryzt' `gnaw' [verb], gryzuґ [1sg], gryzeЁt [3sg]
Czech: hryґzti `gnaw' [verb]
Slovak: hryґzt' `gnaw' [verb]
Polish: gryzґcґ `gnaw' [verb]
Slovincian: gra†~sc `gnaw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gri?sti `gnaw' [verb], griґzЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gri?sti (Vrgada) `gnaw' [verb], gr–ze?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gri?s (Vrgada) `gnaw' [verb], gr–ze?n [1sg]
Slovene: griґsti `gnaw, bite, eat' [verb], griґzem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gr(o)uЂzґ-
Lithuanian: graґužti `gnaw' [verb]
Latvian: grau^zt `gnaw' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *grъmĕždžь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `fester in the cornes of the eyes, gramiae'
Page in Trubačev: VII 158-159
Church Slavic: grьmĕždь (RuCS) `pus in the eye, gramiae' [m jo]; #CS gremĕždь (RuCS) `pus in the eye, gramiae' [m jo]; #CS gromĕždь (RuCS) `pus in the eye, gramiae' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: kr°mЊlj `fester in the corners of the eyes' [f i]; #SCr. kr?mЊlj `fester in the corners of the eyes' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. krmЊlji? (Vrgada) `gramiae' [Nompm jo??]; #SCr. C№ak. kr?mežalj (Orbanicґi) `sty, sleep (in the eyes)' [m jo]
Slovene: krmęґlj `fester in the corners of the eyes' [m jo]; #Sln. krme•ґžЌlj `fester in the corners of the eyes' [m jo]
Other cognates: Lat. gramiae `viscous humour, rheum that collects in the corner of the eyes' [Nompf]; Go. qrammi±a `moisture' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *grъmъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `bush, shrub'
Page in Trubačev: VII 159-160
Old Church Slavic: grъmu (savekovĕ) (Euch.) `the sabљk bush' [Locsm o/u]
Church Slavic: grъmъ (RuCS) `bush, shrub, garden' [m o]; #CS grьmъ (RuCS) `bush, shrub, garden' [m o] {1}
Russian: grom `hummock' [m o]
Old Russian:: grъmъ `bush, shrub, garden' [m o]; #ORu. grьmъ `bush, shrub, garden' [m o] {1}
Slovak: grmolec `stump' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?m `kind of oak, bush, shrubbery' [m o], grґma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. gr?m (Vrgada) `kind of oak, bush, shrubbery' [m o], grma? [Gens]
Slovene: gr?m `bush, shrub' [m o]
Lithuanian: krіґmas `bush, shrub' [m o]
Notes: {1} Also gromъ, gremъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *grьmĕti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `thunder, roar'
Page in Trubačev: VII 163-164
Old Church Slavic: grъmę (Supr.) `thundering' [Nomsm pprsa]
Russian: gremeґt' `thunder, roar' [verb], gremljuґ [1sg], gremiґt [3sg]
Czech: hr№m№eti `thunder, roar, rumble' [verb]; #Cz. hr№miґti `thunder, roar, rumble' [verb]
Slovak: hrmiet' `thunder, roar' [verb]
Polish: grzmiecґ `thunder, roar' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gr°mljeti `thunder' [verb], gr°m–m [1sg]; #SCr. germi?ti (Vrgada) `thunder' [verb], germi~ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. grЇme?t (Orbanicґi) `thunder' [verb], grЇmi~ [3sg]
Slovene: grme•ґti `thunder' [verb], grmiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: gaўrmjaґ `thunder' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *grimeЂtei
Lithuanian: grume†ґti `thunder, roar, rumble' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghrm-ehL1-
Page in Pokorny: 458
COMM: The zero grade must have been metathesized quite early - possibly in Balto-Slavic times - on the analogy of the full grade.
Other cognates: OIc. gramr `grim, hostile' [adj], OE grimman `rage'
Proto-Slavic form: *gubi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `destroy'
Page in Trubačev: VII 166
Old Church Slavic: gubiti `destroy' [verb], gubljǫ [1sg]
Russian: gubiґt' `ruin, squander' [verb], gubljuґ [1sg], guґbit [3sg] {1}
Czech: hubiti `destroy, devastate, exterminate' [verb]
Slovak: hubiti `ruin, destroy' [verb]
Polish: gubicґ `lose, ruin, destroy' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gu°biti `lose, destroy' [verb], gu°b–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gubi?ti (Vrgada) `lose, destroy' [verb], gubi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. gіbi?t (Orbanicґi) `lose' [verb], gu~bin [1sg]
Slovene: gubiґti `harm, spoil, destroy' [verb], gubiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: guґbja `lose, spoil, kill' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghoubh-eie-
Page in Pokorny: 450
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *gumьno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `threshing-floor'
Page in Trubačev: VII 173-175
Old Church Slavic: gumьno `threshing-floor, granary' [n o]
Russian: gumnoґ `threshing-floor, barn' [n o]
Czech: humno `threshing-floor' [n o]
Slovak: humno `threshing-floor, barn' [n o]
Polish: gumno `threshing-floor, barn' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: guґmno `threshing-floor' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gіno? (Orbanicґi) `threshing-floor' [n o]
Slovene: guґmno• `threshing-floor' [n o]
Bulgarian: guґmno `threshing-floor' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 482+726
COMM: The most widely accepted etymology, going back to Pogodin 1903, derives *gumьno° from the words for `cow' (-> *govędo ) and `trample' (-> *męti). A reconstruction in PIE terms would be *gєh3eu-mnёH-om.
Proto-Slavic form: *gvĕЇzda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `star'
Page in Trubačev: VII 181-183
Old Church Slavic: dzvĕzda `star' [f ѓ]; #OCS zvĕzda `star' [f ѓ]
Russian: zvezdaґ `star' [f ѓ]
Czech: hvĕzda `star' [f ѓ]
Slovak: hviezda `star' [f ѓ]
Polish: gwiazda `star' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: hwĕzda `star' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: zvije°zda `star' [f ѓ], zvije°zdu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zv–zda? (Vrgada) `star' [f ѓ], zv–zdu? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zvЊzda? (Novi) `star' [f ѓ], zve?zdu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. zviezda? (Orbanicґi) `star' [f ѓ], zviezdo? [Accs]; #SCr. Kajk. zv–Њzdo? (Bednja) `star' [f ѓ], zvi?e?zdu [Accs]
Slovene: zve•ґzda `star' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: zvezdaґ `star' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *g/zґuёoizdeЂ (g/zґuёoizґdeЂ?)
Lithuanian: žvaigžde†~ `star' [f Њ] 4; #Lith. žvaižde†~ (OLith., dial.) `star' [f Њ] 4
Latvian: zva°igzne `star' [f Њ]
COMM: On the basis of Balto-Slavic, we may propose a reconstruction *gґhuoigґh-dheh1-, but considering the fact that in Lithuanian we find #Lith. žvai(g)zde†~ alongside #Lith. žvai(g)žde†~ (with assimilation?), the reconstruction *gґhuoidh-dheh1- is a serious alternative, cf. #Latv. zvaidr–t, #Latv. zviedr–t `shimmer, shine'. Latvian forms with zvaig, e.g. zvaigala `cow with a star-shaped blaze' may be based on zva°igzne. Pokorny's reconstruction *g^huёoigє- is basd on the connection with Gk. fo‹boj `pure, bright, radiant', which I consider untenable.
Proto-Slavic form: *gvorъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `bubble'
Page in Trubačev: VII 184
Church Slavic: gvorъ (RuCS) `bubble' [m o]; #CS govorъ (RuCS) `bubble' [m o]
Russian: goґvor (dial.) `bubble (on water)' [m o]
Old Russian:: gvorъ `bubble' [m o]; #ORu. govorъ `bubble' [m o]
Ukrainian: hvor `gores in trousers' [m o]
Slovene: go°r `pile of dung' [m o], goґra [Gens]
Proto-Slavic form: *gvozdi
GRAM: m. io
PSLMEAN: `nail'
Page in Trubačev: VII 185-186
Old Church Slavic: gvozdii (Supr.) `nail' [m io]
Church Slavic: gvozdii (RuCS) `nail' [m io]
Bulgarian: gvoґzdej `nail' [m io]
COMM: See -> *gvozdь.
Proto-Slavic form: *gvozdь; gvozdъ
GRAM: m. i; m o
PSLMEAN: `nail'
Page in Trubačev: VII 185-186
Old Church Slavic: gvozdie (Cloz.) `nails' [Nompm i]
Russian: gvozd' `nail' [m jo], gvozdjaґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: gvizd' `nail' [m jo], gvozdjaґ [Gens]
Czech: hvozd `big, dense forest' [m o]
Polish: gwoґzґdzґ `nail' [m jo]
Old Polish: goґzґdzґ `nail' [m jo]; #OPl. gozd `woods' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: hoґzdzґ `nail' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: gvo?zd (arch., dial) `iron, nail, peg, pig' [m o]; #SCr. gvo?zd (arch., dial.) `iron, nail, peg, pig, dense forest' [m o]
Slovene: go°zd `(big, high) forest' [m o], goґzda [Gens]
COMM: Perhaps cognate with PGm. *kwasta. Otherwise unclear.
Other cognates: MLG quast(e) `bundle, broom, besom' [?]
Proto-Slavic form: *gybati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: VII 216
Old Church Slavic: gybati `perish' [verb], gybljǫ [1sg]
Russian: giґbat' (dial.) `break, press' [verb]; #Ru. gibaґt' (dial.) `bend' [verb]
Czech: hyґbati `move, touch' [verb]
Slovak: hyґbat' `move' [verb]
Polish: gibacґ `twist, bend' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: giґbati `swing, move, bend' [verb], giґbam [1sg], giґbljem [1sg]
Slovene: giґbati `move, perish' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 450
COMM: The root has lengthened zero grade.
Proto-Slavic form: *gy°nǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `perish'
Page in Trubačev: VII 218-219
Old Church Slavic: gybnǫti `perish' [verb], gybnǫ [1sg]
Russian: giґbnut' `perish' [verb], giґbnu§ [1sg], giґbnet [3sg]
Czech: hynout `perish, decay' [verb]
Slovak: hynuґt `perish, decay' [verb]
Polish: gina§cґ `perish' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gi?nuti `perish' [verb]
Slovene: giґniti `perish' [verb], gi?nem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghubh-
Notes: The acute root is secondary, as is often the case in verbs in -nǫti.
Proto-Slavic form: *gyža
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a?
PSLMEAN: `stump'
Page in Trubačev: VII 224
Church Slavic: gyža (RuCS) `unripe grape' [f jѓ]
Czech: hyže (Kott) `tip of the shinbone' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: giz†a `leg of pig or cattle, ham' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: gi?(d)ža (dial.) `stump of a vine' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: giґža `vine, stump of a cut off vine' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gunЂzґiёaЂ
Lithuanian: gі~že†, gіґže† `head of cabbage, (dial.) gizzard' [f Њ]; #Lith. gіžy~s `gizzard, (dial.) tip of the thighbone, head of cabbage, Adam's apple' [m io] 3/4; #Lith. gіґžis `gizzard, breastbone, tip of the holy bone of birds, elbow of a wing, protuberance (on the nose)' [f i] 1; #Lith. gunžy~s (Z№em.) `gizzard' [m io] 3
Latvian: gu~ža `thigh, ham' [f jѓ]
COMM: The Baltic material points unambiguously to an acute root, which is in agreement with the vocalism of *gyža, whether *y reflects *unЂ or *uЂ. The reconstruction of a nasal is only based on the Z№emaitian form and therefore less secure. On the other hand, it facilitates the connection with -> *gǫzъ, *gǫza, though it must be admitted that there is also evidence for -> *guzъ. Another form containing a nasal is #Lith. gu°nga `hump, hunch', where the *gґ was apparently depalatalized, unless we assume that this word is not related. Still more remote is #Lith. guga° `bump, knot (in wood), withers', where apart from the nasal also the glottalization is absent, cf. #Ru. guґglja (dial.) `bump', #Pl. guga `id.', #Lith. gau~garas ` mountain top'.
Proto-Slavic form: *gъbežь
GRAM: m. jo
Page in Trubačev: VII 188-189
Church Slavic: gъbežь (RuCS) `bend, joint' [m jo]; #CS gbežь (RuCS) `turn, bend, slope' [m jo]
Old Russian:: gъbežь (RuCS) `bend, joint' [m jo]; #ORu. gbežь (RuCS) `turn, bend, slope' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gub-
Latvian: gubezis `pile, hay-loft' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghubh-
Page in Pokorny: 450
Other cognates: OIc. gumpr `tail-bone' [m]; MoLG gubbe (Estonia) `small hay-stack' [f?]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъ?rdъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `proud'
Page in Trubačev: VII 206-207
Old Church Slavic: grъdъ `proud, haughty, majestic, amazing, terrible' [adj o]
Russian: goґrdyj `proud, haughty' [adj o]; #Ru. goґrd `proud, haughty' [adj o], gordaґ [Nomsf], goґrdo [Nomsn]
Czech: hrdyґ `proud, haughty' [adj o]
Slovak: hrdyґ `proud, haughty' [adj o]
Polish: gardy `fastidious, proud, haughty' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?d `terrible, ugly, (eccl.) proud' [adj o]
Slovene: gr?d `nasty, ugly' [adj o], grґda [Nomsf]
COMM: Formally *gъrdъ may be cognate with #Lith. gurdu°s 4 `weak, slow, uncommunicative, stiff', Latv. gur~ds `tired, weary', even though strictly speaking the mobility of the Slavic form does not correspond with the fixed stress reflected by the Latvian form. The meaning `uncommunicative, stiff' attested in Lithuanian is close to the meaning of the Slavic adjective, but one wonders if we are dealing with Slavic influence here. If there is an etymological relationship between the Baltic and Slavic forms, we may connect BSl. *gurЂdus with Gk. bradЪj `slow, dull, sluggish' < *gєrdus.
Proto-Slavic form: *gъ?rstь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `cupped hand'
Page in Trubačev: VII 212-213
Old Church Slavic: grъstijо§ (Euch.) `cupped hand' [Inssf i]
Russian: gorst' `cupped hand, handful' [f i]
Czech: hrst `cupped hand, handful' [f i]
Slovak: hrst' `cupped hand, handful, bundle' [f i]
Polish: garsґcґ `cupped hand, handful' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?st `cupped hand, handful' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. gr?s (Orbanicґi) `handful' [f i]
Slovene: gr?st `cupped hand, handful' [f i]
Latvian: gu°rste `bundle of flax' [f Њ]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъlbь
Page in Trubačev: VII 190
Serbo-Croatian: gu?b (dial.) `swan' [m o]; #SCr. gu?b (dial.) `goby' [m o] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gulbis
Lithuanian: gulbi°s `swan' [f i] 4; #Lith. gul~bis (Z№em.) `swan' [m io] 2
Latvian: gu°lbis `swan' [f i]
Old Prussian: gulbis (EV) `swan'
Indo-European reconstruction: *KulP-i-
Certainty: -
Other cognates: OIr. gulban `beak, sting' [m]; W gylfin `bird's bill, beak, snout, sharp-pointed nose' [m]; W gylf `bird's bill, beak, nose, mouth, sharp-pointed instrument' [m]
Notes: {1} There is a chance that gu?b `goby' is cognate with Lat. gЎbius, Gk. kwbiТj `goby, gudgeon', cf. Sln. guґba `barbel'.
Proto-Slavic form: *gъna°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `chase, persecute'
Page in Trubačev: VII 196-197
Old Church Slavic: gъnati `chase, persecute' [verb], ženǫ [1sg]
Russian: gnat' `chase, drive, persecute' [verb]
Czech: hnaґti `chase, drive, compel' [verb], ženu [1sg]
Polish: gnacґ `chase, drive' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gna?ti `chase, persecute' [verb], že?nЊm [1sg]
Slovene: gnaґti `chase, persecute' [verb], žeґnem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gun-
Lithuanian: gin~ti `chase, drive' [verb]
Latvian: dzi°t `chase, drive, persecute' [verb]
Old Prussian: guntwei `chase, drive' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhn-
Page in Pokorny: 491
Other cognates: Skt. haґnti `strike, slay' [verb]; Gk. qe…nw `kill' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `bend'
Page in Trubačev: VII 188-189
Church Slavic: gъ(b)nuti (RuCS) `bend' [verb]
Russian: gnut' `bend' [verb], gnu [1sg], gneЁt [3sg]
Old Russian:: gъ(b)nuti `bend' [verb]
Czech: hnouti `move' [verb]
Slovak: hnuґt' `move' [verb]
Polish: gia§cґ `bend' [verb], gnę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: ga°nuti `move' [verb]
Slovene: gЌniґti `move' [verb], gaґnem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *gub-
Lithuanian: gu°bti `bend, curve (intr.)' [verb], gum~ba [3sg]
Latvian: gubt `bend, curve (intr.)' [verb], gubst [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghubh-
Page in Pokorny: 450
Other cognates: OE geґap `crooked, sly' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrbъ; gъrba
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `hump'
Page in Trubačev: VII 199-201
Church Slavic: grobъ (Bon.) `back, hump' [m o]; #CS grobь (Pog.) `back, hump' [m o]
Russian: gorb `hump, (dial.) back' [m o]
Czech: hrb `hump, mound, lump' [m o]
Slovak: hrb `hump, mound, lump' [m o]
Polish: garb `hump' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?b `back' [m o]; #SCr. gr?ba `hump' [f ѓ]
Slovene: gr?b `hump, back, wrinkle' [m o]; #Sln. grґba `hump, back, wrinkle' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: graўb `back' [m o]; #Bulg. gaўґrba `hump' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: garbis [grabis] (EV) `hill' {1}
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 387
COMM: In my opinion, it is preferable to separate *gъrbъ from -> *grǫbъ, *grubъ `coarse, rude'. Of course, the roots may have influenced one another. We may reconstruct *grbh-, if we wish to stick to Indo-European terms, perhaps an enlarged variant of a root meaning `bend' (cf. Mažiulis PKEZ№ IV: 324-326).
Notes: {1} The emendation is justified by many place-names, e.g. Gailgarben or Geylegarben `Weissenberg'.
Proto-Slavic form: *gъ°rdlo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `throat'
Page in Trubačev: VII 204-205
Church Slavic: grъlo (RuCS) `throat' [n o]; #CS gъrlo (RuCS) `throat' [n o]
Russian: goґrlo `throat' [n o]
Old Russian:: grъlo `throat' [n o]; #ORu. gъrlo `throat' [n o]
Czech: hrdlo `throat' [n o]
Slovak: hrdlo `throat' [n o]
Polish: gardљo `throat' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?lo `throat' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. gr?lo (Vrgada) `throat' [n o]
Slovene: grґlo• `throat' [n o]
Bulgarian: gaўґrlo `throat' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *guґrЂtlo
Lithuanian: gurkly~s `crop' [m io] 3; #Lith. gu°rklis (dial.) `crop' [m io] 1
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєrH3-tloґm
Page in Pokorny: 474
COMM: The comparison with the obscure Greek form #Gk. bŽraqron `gorge' may not be justified.
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrkati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `coo'
Page in Trubačev: VII 102
Church Slavic: gъrkati (RuCS) `coo' [verb]
Russian: goґrkat' (dial.) `coo' [verb]
Old Russian:: gъrkati `coo' [verb]
Czech: hrkati `crack, creak' [verb]
Slovak: hrkat' `rumble, rattle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: grkati `coo, caw' [verb]
Slovene: grґkati `coo, screech' [verb], grґkam [1sg], grґčem [1sg]
Other cognates: Lat. graculus `daw, jackdaw' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrnidlo
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `furnace'
Page in Trubačev: VII 210
Old Church Slavic: grъnilъ `smelting furnace, hearth' [m o]
Church Slavic: grъnilo (RuCS) `furnace, hearth' [n o]; #CS gъrnilo (RuCS) `furnace, hearth' [n o]
Russian: gorniґlo `furnace, hearth, crucible' [n o]
Old Russian:: grъnilo `furnace, hearth' [n o]; #ORu. gъrnilo `furnace, hearth' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 493
COMM: Derivative in *-idlo. See -> *gъrnъ, *gъrno.
Other cognates: Lat. fornѓx `oven' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrnъ; gъrno
GRAM: m. o; n. o
PSLMEAN: `furnace, cauldron'
Page in Trubačev: VII 210-211
Church Slavic: grъno (RuCS) `cauldron, pot, oven' [n o]; #CS gъrno (RuCS) `cauldron, pot, oven' [n o]
Russian: gorn `blacksmith's hearth' [n o], goґrna [Gens]; #Ru. gornoґ `blacksmith's hearth, clay-oven' [n o]
Old Russian:: grъnъ `cauldron, pot, oven' [m o]; #ORu. gъrnъ `cauldron, pot, oven' [m o]; #ORu. gornъ `cauldron, pot, oven' [m o]
Ukrainian: hornoґ `furnace' [n o]
Slovak: grno `blacksmith's bellows' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: grno `heat, embers' [n o]
Bulgarian: gaўrneґ `pot' [n nt]
Indo-European reconstruction: *gєhr-no-
Page in Pokorny: 493
Other cognates: Skt. ghrёn•aґ- `heat' [m]; Lat. fornѓx `oven' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrtati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rake together'
Page in Trubačev: VII 214
Russian: gortaґt' (dial.) `rake together' [verb]
Ukrainian: hortaґty `turn over (pages)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: gr?tati `rake together, heap up' [verb], gr?cґЊm [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *gъrtnǫti [ЖЕРТНУТЬ - сгребать] [совершённый вид того же глагола]
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rake together'
Page in Trubačev: VII 214-215
Russian: gortaґt' (dial.) `rake together' [verb]
Czech: hrnouti `rake together, (h. se) rush' [verb]
Slovak: hrnuґt' `rake together, (h. se) rush' [verb]
Polish: garna§cґ `clasp, gather, rake (g. się) rush' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: garnusґ `grasp, squeeze' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: grґnuti `rake together, swarm, rush' [verb], gr?nЊm [1sg]; C№ak. grnu?ti (Vrgada) `rake together, swarm, rush' [verb], gr?neš [2sg]
Slovene: grґniti `rake together, gather, swarm' [verb], gr?nem [1sg]
Macedonian: grne `gather, amass, clasp' [verb]

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