Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*E)


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Всего на E (Е) – 35 слов.

Proto-Slavic form: *edinakъ; edьnakъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `similar, identical'
Page in Trubačev: VI 9-10
Old Church Slavic: jedinako (Ril.) `at the same time' [adv]; #OCS jedьnako (Supr.) `at the same time' [adv]
Russian: odinaґkij (obs.) `identical' [adj o] {1}; #Ru. odnaґko `however' [adv]
Czech: jedinakyґ `only' [adj o]; #Cz. jednakyґ `identical' [adj o]
Slovak: jednakyґ `identical' [adj o]
Polish: jedynak `only' [adj o]
Old Polish: jedzinak `only' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: jedi°nѓk `identical, similar' [adj o]; #SCr. je?dnѓk, similar `identical' [adj o]; #SCr. enaґk `identical, similar' [adj o]
Slovene: ednaґk `of the same kind, identical' [adj o]; #Sln. enaґk `identical' [adj o]
Bulgarian: ediґn `one' [num. o]; #Bulg. edinaґk `solitary man or wolf' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1edh-HiH-n-eh2-ko-
IE meaning: one
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 284, 286
COMM: A derivation of the numeral `one' (-> *edi°nъ).
Notes: {1} Cf. odinoґkij `solitary'.
Proto-Slavic form: *edi°nъ; edьnъ
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `one'
Page in Trubačev: VI 11-13
Old Church Slavic: jedinъ `one' [num o]; #OCS jedьnъ `one' [num o] {1}
Russian: odiґn `one' [num o], odnogoґ [Gens], odnaґ [Nomsf]
Czech: jeden `one' [num o]
Polish: jeden `one' [num o]; #Pl. jedyny `only' [num o]
Old Polish: jedziny `only' [num o]
Slovincian: ja†~deўn `one' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: je°dan `one' [num o], je?dna [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. jedaІ~n (Vrgada) `one' [num o], jedna? [Nomsf], jedno? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. jeda~n (Orbanicґi) `one, some, a certain, a' [num o], jena? [Nomsf], jeno? [Nomsn]
Slovene: ediґn `only, lonesome' [num o]; #Sln. jediґn `only, lonesome' [num o]; #Sln. eґdЌn `one' [num o]; #Sln. jeґdЌn `one' [num o]; #Sln. e°n `one' [num o]
Bulgarian: ediґn `one' [num. o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1edh-HiH-no-
IE meaning: one
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 284, 286
COMM: In view of Ru. odiґn, Gsg. odnogoґ etc., the form *jedьnь must be due to analogy. The vowel of the second syllable behaves similarly to a so-called "tense jer": in strong postion we find i (sometimes e), in weak position the vowel is lost. This behaviour might be linked to the j of *jьnъ. Though the j, which before words beginning with a front vowel had arisen as an automatic Hiatustilger, is absent in *jedinъ/jedьnъ, it is conceivable that it conformed to the pattern of *jьnъ. The problem with this hypothesis is that forms with *jn- < *jьn appear to be lacking. Andersen's reconstruction *edeino- next to *edino- (1996: 116) is, in my opinion, an unsatisfactory explanation for the alternation mentioned above. The origin of the element *jed- < *(h1)edh- is unclear. Pokorny's reconstruction *ed- is in conflict with Winter's law.
Notes: {1} The form with ь is less common than jedinъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *ed(ъ)va°; ledva
GRAM: adv./conj.
PSLMEAN: `hardly, only just'
Page in Trubačev: VI 16
Old Church Slavic: jedъva `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]; #OCS (j)edva (Supr.) `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]
Russian: jedvaґ `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]; #Ru. odvaґ (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]; #Ru. leґdva `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]; #Ru. leґdveґ (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]
Old Russian:: odъva `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]; #ORu. odva `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]
Czech: jedva `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Cz. ledva (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]
Slovak: ledva `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Slk. ledvo (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv]
Polish: ledwo `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Pl. ledwie `hardly, only just' [adv]
Old Polish: jedwo `hardly, only just' [adv]; #OPl. jedwa `hardly, only just' [adv]
Upper Sorbian: lĕdma (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv/conj]
Serbo-Croatian: je°dva `hardly, only just' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. jedva? (Vrgada) `hardly, only just' [adv]
Slovene: je°dva `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Sln. je°dvaj `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Sln. odvaj `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Sln. odvo `hardly, only just' [adv]
Bulgarian: edvaґ(m) `hardly, only just' [adv]; #Bulg. odva(j) (dial.) `hardly, only just' [adv]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *edvaHs
Lithuanian: vo~s `hardly' [adv] {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1edh-ueh2-s
Page in Pokorny: ?
Notes: {1} There is an isolated form odъva. {2} Lith. adva (a.o. Bretke, Sirvydas) is considered a borrowing from BeloRussian:. I have not been able to find a form with o- in the latter language but we do have ORu./Ru. (dial.) odva. The dialect form advo~s is probably a blend of vo~s and a Slavic adverb odva .
Proto-Slavic form: *e?rxъkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: -
Slovene: re•?šЌk `sow thistle (sanchus asper)' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *erЂks•-
Lithuanian: erške†ty~s `thorn-bush' [m jo] 3b {1}, e~r(k)šk§is, e~rkšis `thorn-bush' [m jo]
Latvian: e~r(k)šk§is `thorn-bush' [m jo]; #Latv. e~rkšis `thorn-bush' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *HerHks-
COMM: The š of Sln. re•?šЌk may have originated in a form *erš-ьcь < *erx-iko- (cf. Andersen 1996: 140). Bezlaj has proposed to link the Slovene: word to SCr. re°keš `eryngo' (Dubrovnik), with metathesis (1977: 17). The etymological connection with Skt. r•ks•aґra- is attractive, notwithstanding the fact that the Baltic forms seem to require a laryngeal.
Other cognates: Skt. r•ks•ara- `thorn' [m]
Notes: {1} There are many variants, e.g. erške~tis, erške†~tis, (Z№em.) eґrške~tis (cf. Derksen 1996: 51, 149).
Proto-Slavic form: *e?senь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `autumn'
Page in Trubačev: VI 28-29
Church Slavic: esenь (Const.) `autumn' [Accf i]
Russian: oґsen' `autumn' [f i]; #Ru. jeґsen' (Rjaz.) `autumn' [f i]
Ukrainian: oґsin' `autumn' [f i]
Slovak: jesen№ `autumn' [f i]
Polish: jesienґ `autumn' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: je?sЊn `autumn' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. je?sЊn (Vrgada) `autumn' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. je?sЊn (Novi) `autumn' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. je?sen (Orbanicґi) `autumn' [nd]
Slovene: jesęґn `autumn' [f i]
Bulgarian: jeґsen `autumn' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *es-eni-
Old Prussian: assanis `autumn'
IE meaning: summer, autumn
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 340
COMM: If the root is indeed PIE *h1s `to be', which would lead to a reconstruction *h1os-en-, the e- of the Slavic forms as opposed to the *o- elsewhere (Old PRussian: being inconclusive) may be an instance of ablaut or a result of "Rozwadowski's change".
Other cognates: Gk. Сpиra, СpŽra (Lak.) `late summer, early autumn' [f]; Go. asans `harvest time, summer' [f]; OHG ar(a)n `harvest' [m]; Fi. kes„ `summer' [m]
Notes: The e- of the Slavic forms as opposed to the *o- elsewhere (Old PRussian: being unclear) may be an instance of ablaut or a result of "Rozwadowski's change", but it must be said that the etymology is unclear. The Greek forms may reflect *osaraЇ, which would point to an r/n-stem.
Proto-Slavic form: *e?dlь; edla°
GRAM: f. i; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `spruce, fir'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 14-15
Russian: el' `spruce, fir' [f i], eґli [Gens] {1}
Czech: jedle `fir' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: jedl `spruce, fir' [f i]
Slovak: jedl'a `fir' [f jѓ]
Polish: jodљa `fir' [f ѓ] {2}
Old Polish: jedl `spruce, fir' [f i]; #OPl. jedla [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: jeґla `fir' [f ѓ]; #SCr. je?la `fir' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. je?la (Vrgada) `tree-trunk' [f ѓ]
Slovene: je§?l `spruce, fir' [f i], jeli? [Gens]; #Sln. je§?la `spruce, fir' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jelaґ `fir' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *edli-
Lithuanian: e~gle† `spruce, fir' [f Њ] 2
Latvian: egle `spruce, fir' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: addle (EV) `spruce, fir' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1edh-l-i
IE meaning: spruce, fir
Page in Pokorny: 289-290
COMM: Connecting the name of the `spruce' or `fir-tree' with Lith. a~data `needle' and adyґti `to darn', as advocated by Fraenkel ( Fraenkel I: 117-118) and Pokorny, is semantically attractive but does not make much sense in relation to Lat. ebulum (cf. Andersen 1996: 119).
Other cognates: Lat. ebulum `dwarf-elder, danewort (sambucus ebulus)' [n], ebulus `dwarf-elder, danewort (sambucus ebulus)' [f]; Gaul. odocos `dwarf-elder, danewort (sambucus ebulus)'; OHG attuh, attah `dwarf-elder, danewort (sambucus ebulus)'
Notes: {1} Alongside eЁlka. A different reflex of the sequence *dl is attested in the dialect form eЁgla. {2} In dialects we find such forms as jegla and jagla.
Proto-Slavic form: *e?№dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `poison'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 45-47
Old Church Slavic: jadъ `poison' [m o]
Russian: jad `poison' [m o]
Ukrainian: jid `poison' [m o]
Czech: jed `poison, (dial.) malice' [m o]
Slovak: jed `poison, (coll.) malice, anger' [m o]
Polish: jad `poison, something harmful or contagious, anger, malice' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: je№d `poison' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: i?jed `gall, poison, anger' [m o]; #SCr. je?d `gall, poison, anger' [m o]; #SCr. ja?d `grief, sorrow' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. i?d (Vrgada) `gall, poison, anger' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?d (Vrgada) `grief, sorrow' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?t (Orbanicґi) `anger' [m o], ja?da [Gens]
Slovene: ja^d `poison, anger' [m o]
Bulgarian: jad `poison, anger' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1ed-o-
Page in Pokorny: 288
COMM: I prefer this etymology to the one deriving *e№?dъ from *h2eid- `swell'. As to the semantics, we may compare the euphemisms MoHG Gift `poison' (from geben) and MoFr. poison < *pЎtion(em) (Vasmer s.v. jad).
Other cognates: OIc. aґt `food' [n]; OHG. ѓz `food' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *e?zero; e?zerъ
GRAM: n. o; m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `lake'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 33-34
Old Church Slavic: jezero `lake' [n o]; #OCS jezerъ (Zogr., Ass.) `lake' [Accm o]
Russian: oґzero `lake' [n o]
Czech: jezero `lake' [n o]
Slovak: jazero `lake' [n o]; #Slk. jezґer (E. dial.) `lake' [m o]
Polish: jezioro `lake' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: je№zer `lake' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: je?zero `lake' [n o], jeze°ra [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. je?zero (Vrgada) `lake' [n o], jezeraІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. je?zero?? (Novi) `lake' [n o], je?zera [Nomp]; #SCr. je?zЊr `lake' [m o]
Slovene: je§?zero• `lake' [n o]; #Sln. je§?zer `lake' [m o]; #Sln. jezer `lake' [f i]
Bulgarian: eґzero `lake' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *eґzґero
Lithuanian: e~јeras `lake' [m o] 3b
Latvian: e§ze§rs `lake' [m o]; #Latv. e§zars `lake' [m o]
Old Prussian: assaran `lake' [n]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1egґh-(e)r-o-
IE meaning: lake
Certainty: -
COMM: In view of "Rozwadowski's change", the reconstruction of the anlaut offers a number of alternatives (*h2e-, *h3e- , *Ho-), but not if the etymon under discussion belongs to *e№zъ `balk, weir', which in my opinion is the case. A cognate outside Balto-Slavic is Arm. ezr `bank, border, limit' < *h1(e)gґh- (-> *e№zъ for the semantic apects of the etymology). Note that the short initial vowel of *je?zero requires the reconstruction of an aspirated velar anyhow (Winter's law). The connection with the Greek mythological river A'cљrwn is dubious.
Other cognates: Arm. ezr `edge, border, bank' [r]
Proto-Slavic form: *elenь; elenъ
GRAM: m. jo; m. o
PSLMEAN: `deer'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 20
Old Church Slavic: jelenь (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `deer' [m jo]
Russian: oleґn' `deer, stag-beetle' [m jo]; #Ru. eleґn' (dial.) `deer, stag-beetle' [m jo]
Ukrainian: oґlen' `deer' [m jo]; #Ukr. jeґlen' (dial.) `deer' [m jo]
Czech: jelen `deer, stag-beetle' [m o]
Slovak: jelen№ `deer, stag-beetle' [m jo]
Polish: jelenґ `deer' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: je°len `deer, stag-beetle' [m o]; #SCr. je?len (C№ak.) `deer, stag-beetle' [m o]
Slovene: jeґlen `deer, stag-beetle' [m o], jele§ґna [Gens]
Bulgarian: jeleґn `deer' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *elenios
Lithuanian: elenis (Bretk.) `deer' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1el-h1en-i
IE meaning: deer
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 303-304
Other cognates: Gk. њneloj (Hsch.) `young of the deer, fawn' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} If a metathesized form of њlenoj < *h1elh1eno-.
Proto-Slavic form: *elъkъ; jьlъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `bitter, rancid'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 22
Russian: eЁlkij `bitter, rancid' [adj o] {1}
Belorussian: eЁlkij `bitter, rancid' [adj o]
Ukrainian: ylkyґj `rancid' [adj o]
Polish: jeљkij (E. dial.) `rancid' [adj o]; #Pl. iљkij (E. dial.) `rancid' [adj o]
Slovene: jeґrЌk `sharp, astingent' [adj o]; #Sln. јeґrЌk `sharp, astingent' [adj o]
Lithuanian: alu°s `beer' [m u]
Latvian: alus `beer' [m u]
Old Prussian: alu `mead' {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2el-uko-
IE meaning: bitter
Page in Pokorny: 33-34
COMM: The sometimes advocated connection with ўlЪdoimon (Hes.) `sharp, pungent' and Lat. alіmen `alum' must be qualified as dubious.
Other cognates: Gk. ўlЪdoimon `sharp, pungent' [n]; Lat. alіmen `alum' [n]; OIc. o§l `beer, ale' [n]; OE ealu(±) `beer, ale' [n]
Notes: {1} Cf. also eЁl(o)‰' (Psk.) `bile' [f i]. {2} These Baltic words are probably borrowings from Germanic.
Proto-Slavic form: *elьcь [елец (рыба) ; плотва]
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `dace'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 22-23
Russian: eleґc `dace' [m jo], el'caґ [Gens]
Ukrainian: jaleґc' `bleak' [m jo]
Czech: jelec `dace, chub' [m jo]
Slovak: jalec `dace, chub' [m jo]
Polish: jelec `dace' [m jo]
Kashubian: iёel `a fish' [m jo??]
Lower Sorbian: jalc `dace' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґlac `dace' [m jo]; #SCr. jal (dial.) `ide' [m o??]
Indo-European reconstruction: *eliko-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 302-304
COMM: As Truba‰eЁv observes (VI: 305), the semantics of Pokorny's root *el- are capacious and complex. In my opinion, there is little evidence for a root *el- `light-coloured'. It is tempting to seek a connection between *jelьcь and OHG alunt `ide'. Pokorny identifies what is presumedly the root of the latter word with the first element of *albho- `white' and links it to *el-. Since the fish-names under discussion refer to shining, whitish species, this is semantically unproblematic. Nevertheless, it seems quite possible that the root *al/el (Slavic *el as a result of Rozwadowski's change?) originates from a substratum language.
Proto-Slavic form: *emela; emelo; jьmela; jьmelo
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. o
PSLMEAN: `mistletoe'
Page in Truba‰ev: VI 26-27
Russian: omeґla `mistletoe' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: omela `lure (for birds)' [f ѓ]; #ORu. imela `lure (for birds)' [f ѓ]
Czech: jmeliґ `mistletoe' [n io]; #Cz. meliґ (dial.) `mistletoe' [n io]; #Cz. omela (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Cz. omelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]
Old Czech:: jmeleґ `mistletoe' [n io]
Slovak: jemelo (dial.), hemelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]; #Slk. imelo, jmelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]
Polish: jemioљa `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Pl. jamioљa (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Pl. imioљa (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: jemioљa `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #OPl. jemioљ `mistletoe' [m o]; #OPl. jemioљo `mistletoe' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: jemjel `mistletoe' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: jemjoљ, hemjoљ `mistletoe' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: i°mela `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #SCr. me°la `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #SCr. o°mela (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ѓ]
Slovene: ome§ґla `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Sln. ime§?la `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Sln. me§?la `mistletoe' [f ѓ]; #Sln. melje§? `mistletoe' [n jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *emel-
Lithuanian: a~malas, e~malas `mistletoe' [m o] 3b
Latvian: amuols; #Latv. e§muols (BW); #Latv. amuls; #Latv. ѓmals; #Latv. ѓmuls `mistletoe, clover' [m o] {1}
Old Prussian: emelno (EV) `mistletoe'
Indo-European reconstruction: *emel-o-
IE meaning: mistletoe
Certainty: -
COMM: This plant name is probably a borrowing from a non-Indo-European substratum language. The Slavic forms with *jьm- may be due to popular etymology (the mistletoe's sap is used to produce bird-lime), cf. OCS imati `to take'. An etymological connection with PIE *h1m- `to take' is doubtful, as is the connection with *H3eHm- `raw' .
Notes: {1} The forms with ѓ- may show the influence of a^buo~ls `apple, clover'.
Proto-Slavic form: *eme«ь; emeјь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `ploughshare, plough'
Page in Truba‰ev: -
Church Slavic: leme«ь (Bes.) `plough' [m jo]
Russian: omeґ« `ploughshare' [m jo]; #Ru. omeґј `ploughshare' [m jo]; #Ru. oґmeј `ploughshare' [m jo]
Polish: jemiesz (dial.) `ploughshare' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: je°me« (dial.) `plough' [m jo]; #SCr. je°mlje« (dial.) `plough' [m jo]
Bulgarian: eґme« `ploughshare' [m jo]; #Bulg. eґmeј `ploughshare' [m jo]; #Bulg. emeґј `ploughshare' [m jo]; #Bulg. iґmeј `ploughshare' [m jo]
Macedonian: eґme« (dial.) `plough' [m jo]
Page in Pokorny: 674
COMM: In order to explain the variation between initial l- and initial j-/0- Popowska-Taborska (1984) has proposed a change l'- > j-. This seems unlikely.
Proto-Slavic form: *emexъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `ploughshare'
Page in Truba‰ev: -
Russian: oґmex (dial.) `ploughshare' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 674
COMM: See -> *jeme«ь.
Proto-Slavic form: *ere§bica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `partridge'
Page in Truba‰ev: I 73
Slovak: jarabica `partridge' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: jere°bica (dial.) `partridge' [f jѓ]; #SCr. jare°bica (dial.) `partridge' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. jarebi?ca (Vrgada) `partridge' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. orebi?ca (Novi) `partridge' [f jѓ]
Slovene: jerebiґca `partridge, (sneјna j. or j. bjelica) ptarmigan, (rde‰a j. or gozdna j.) hazel-grouse' [f jѓ]; #Sln. jarebiґca `partridge' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: eґrebica `partridge' [f jѓ]; #Bulg. eґrembica `partridge' [f jѓ]; #Bulg. jaґrebica `partridge' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *erimЂb-; erumЂb-
Lithuanian: jerube†~ `hazel-grouse' [f Њ] 3b; #Lith. jerumbe†~ (dial.) `hazel-grouse' [f Њ] 3b
Latvian: ierube (BW) `partridge' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ermb-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 334
COMM: See *jere§bь.
Other cognates: OIc. jarpi `hazel-grouse' [m], jarpr `brown' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *erębina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `rowan-tree'
Page in Trubačev: I 73
BeloRussian: jarabiґna (dial.) `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]
Czech: jar№abina (dial.) `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jerabina `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]
Polish: jarzębina `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]; #Pl. jerzębina (dial.) `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]; #Pl. orzębina (dial.) `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: jerjabina (dial.) `rowan-tree' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jerebiґna `rowanberry' [f ѓ] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *erimb-
Lithuanian: jerube†~, jerumbe†~ (dial.) `hazel-grouse' [f Њ] 3b
Latvian: ierube (BW) `partridge' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ermb-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 334
COMM: See *jerębь.
Other cognates: OIc. jarpi `hazel-grouse' [m], jarpr `brown' [adj]
Notes: {1} Cf. jerebiґka, rebiґka `rowan-tree'.
Proto-Slavic form: *erębь; erębъ; erębъkъ
Page in Trubačev: I 73-76
Church Slavic: jarębь (RuCS) `partridge' [m. jo??]
Old Russian:: erjabь, orjabь `partridge' [m. jo??]
Czech: jer№aґb `rowan-tree; #Cz. crane, (arch.) `partridge' [m o]; #Cz. jer№aґbek `hazel-grouse' [m o]
Slovak: jerab `rowan-tree' [m o]
Polish: jarza§b (arch., dial.) `rowan-tree (dial.), hazel-grouse (OPl.)' [m o]; #Pl. jarza§bek, jerza§bek (dial.) `hazel-grouse' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: jerjab `hazel-grouse' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?rЊb (dial.) `partridge' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. o?reb (Vrgada) `partridge' [m o]
Slovene: jerę?b `partridge' [m o]; #Sln. jarę?b `partridge' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *erimb-
Lithuanian: jerube†~, jerumbe†~ (dial.) `hazel-grouse' [f Њ] 3b
Latvian: ierube (BW) `partridge' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ermb-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 334
COMM: Rather than reconstructing *(j)arębъ etc. ( TrubačeЁv I: 73), I assume that *ja- arose secondarily from *je- (cf. Andersen 1996: 136 ff.). We seem to be dealing with a root *(e)r(m)b- (with a variant *(e)ru(m)b-) of undoubtedly non-Indo-European origin.
Other cognates: OIc. jarpi `hazel-grouse' [m]; OIc. jarpr `brown' [adj] {1}
Proto-Slavic form: *ernь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: -
Old Russian:: renь `hatred, malice, spite' [f i]
Lithuanian: er~nis `wolverine' [m io] 2
COMM: Young (2001: 163-164) links Lith. er~nis `wolverine' to ORu. renь `hatred, malice, spite' and derives these words from Pokorny's root *er- `sich in Bewegung setzen, erregen (auch seelisch, „rgern, reizen' (IEW 326-327). LIV (238, 303) distinguishes between *h1er- `wohin gelangen, geraten' and *h3er- (299) `sich in (Fort-)bewegung setzen'. Formally *ertь may only belong to the former root, which is semantically less attractive, but it should be noted that the distinction between the roots is not always clear.
Proto-Slavic form: *ertь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `strife'
Page in Trubačev: -
Old Church Slavic: retь (Zogr.2, Supr.) `strife, contest' [f i]
Old Russian:: retь `diligence, strife, contest' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1er-ti-
COMM: If the anlaut of OCS retь does indeed originate from *er- (cf. -> *ernь), we would expect rĕtь in view of the regular development of *oRC- in South Slavic, cf. ratь `war, battle' (-> *ortь). Nevertheless, the etymology advocated here seems the best option (cf. Toporov 1981: 154).
Proto-Slavic form: *ese
GRAM: interj.
Page in Trubačev: VI 8
Old Church Slavic: ese `behold!' [interj]; #OCS jese `behold!' [interj]
Russian: voseґ (dial.), voґse (dial.), vos' (dial.) `look!' [interj]
Old Russian:: ese, ose `look!' [interj]
Ukrainian: oseґ `look!' [interj]; #Ukr. eseґ (dial.) `here!' [interj]
Slovene: esej `that one' [m], esa [Nomsf], eso [Nomsn]
Bulgarian: eseґ `there!' [interj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1e-se
IE meaning: look, behold
COMM: This interjection is based on the PIE particle *(h1)e, cf. Gk. ™kei~noj.
Proto-Slavic form: *esera
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `fishbone, awn'
Page in Trubačev: VI 29-30
Polish: jesiory (OPl., dial.) `fishbone' [Nompf ѓ]; #Pl. osiory (NE. dial.) `awn, beard (on ears of grain), hulls; #Pl. fishbone, fish scales' [Nompf ѓ]
Slovincian: ji°eёzo_raў `fishbone' [f ѓ]
Polabian: jeseraІi `awn, beard (on ears of grain)' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *esґ-er-aЂ
Lithuanian: ešery~s `perch (perca fluvialis), fin' [f ѓ] 3b; #Lith. ašery~s (dial.) `perch (perca fluvialis), fin' [f ѓ] 3b
Latvian: asaris `perch (perca fluvialis)' [m jo]; #Latv. aseris `perch (perca fluvialis)' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2ekґ-er-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 18
COMM: It seems obvious that this Balto-Slavic etymon is cognate with Germanic *ah-s-/*ah-iz- `ear', cf. Go. ahs n., OIc. ax n., OHG ahir, ehir n., and with such forms as OHG ahil `AЁhrenspitze', MoE (arch.) ail `beard on wheat and barley' (Kluge s.v. AЁhre). A nice parallel for the meaning `perch' is OIc. ǫgr `bass' < *agura- < h2ekґ-. Since the root is probably *h2ekґ- `sharp', the forms with *e- must be considered instances of Rozwadowski's change. Note that we find a- in the Latvian forms but also in Lith. ašaka° `fishbone' and aš(t)ru°s `sharp'.
Notes: It seems obvious that this Balto-Slavic etymon is cognate with Germanic *ah-s-/*ah-iz- `ear', cf. Go. ahs n., OIc. ax n., OHG ahir, ehir n., and with such forms as OHG ahil `AЁhrenspitze', MoE (arch.) ail `beard on wheat and barley' (Kluge s.v. AЁhre). A nice parallel for the meaning `perch' is OIc. ǫgr `bass' < *agura- < h2ekґ-. Since the root is probably *h2ekґ- `sharp', the forms with *e- must be considered instances of Rozwadowski's change. Note that we find a- in the Latvian forms but also in Lith. ašaka° `fishbone' and aš(t)ru°s `sharp'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ese°trъ; ese°tra
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `sturgeon'
Page in Trubačev: VI 30-31
Russian: oseЁtr `sturgeon' [m o], osetraґ [Gens]; #Ru. oseteЁr (dial.) `sturgeon' [m o]
Old Russian:: jesetrъ `sturgeon' [m o]; #ORu. osetrъ `sturgeon' [m o]
Czech: jeseter `sturgeon' [m o]
Slovak: jeseter `sturgeon' [m o]
Polish: jesiotr `sturgeon' [m o]
Old Polish: jesiotr `sturgeon' [m o]; #OPl. jasiotr `sturgeon' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: jesetr (arch.), jasotr (arch.) `sturgeon' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: jesotr `sturgeon' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: je°setra `sturgeon' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jesЊtЌr `sturgeon' [m o]
Bulgarian: eseґtra `sturgeon' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: erške~tas `sturgeon' [m o]; #Lith. erške†ґtras (dial.) `sturgeon' [m o] 1 {1}
Old Prussian: esketres `sturgeon'
Page in Pokorny: 18
COMM: It seems highly plausible that *jese°tra is cognate with *jesera `awn, fishbone', Lith. ešery~s `perch' and that both etyma belong to PIE *h2kґ- `sharp', cf. Lat. acipЊnser `sturgeon' < *h2ekґu-. The Baltic forms are not without problems, however. Forms like erške~tas and erške†ґtras were probably influenced by erške†ґtis `thorn' (though it must be admitted that a development erške~tas < eške~tras is plausible in itself, cf. Toporov II: 89), but it is clear that the original form contained a k , cf. OPr. esketres, which is absent in Lith. ešery~s. This may be the familiar intrusive velar which in Baltic frequently arose before s or z. In that case we would have to depart from a Baltic protoform *eksґetras .
Notes: {1} OLith. ešketras `whale' (Bretkіnas) is probably a PRussian:ism.
Proto-Slavic form: *esetь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `rack for drying grain'
Page in Trubačev: -
Russian: oseґt' `granary, rack for drying grain' [f i]
BeloRussian: (v)oґsec' (W.), aseґc' (W.) `granary, drying shed' [f i]; #Bel. oseЁtka (dial.) `granary', aseЁtka (dial.) `spot in granary for drying sheafs' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: oґsit' (dial.) `granary' [f i]
Polish: jesiecґ (dial.) `grain sieve' [f i]; #Pl. osiecґ (E. dial.) `granary' [f i]; #Pl. jesioґtka (dial.) `grain sieve' [f ѓ]; #Pl. osioґtka (W dial.) `granary' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *esґ-et-i-
Lithuanian: ake†ґčios `harrow' [Nompf ѓ] 1; #Lith. eke†ґčios (dial.) `harrow' [Nompf ѓ] 1 {1}
Latvian: ece^(k)šas `harrow' [Nompf ѓ]
Old Prussian: aketes `harrow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2okґ-et-i-
IE meaning: harrow
Page in Pokorny: 18
COMM: This is another case where we find Balto-Slavic evidence for *e- corresponding to *a- or *o- in other branches of Indo-European (Rozwadowski's change). Toporov regards the k of the Baltic forms as evidence for a western technological borrowing (I: 67). Since the Baltic and Germanic forms mean exactly the same, while the Slavic forms are semantically more remote, this is a serious option.
Other cognates: Gk. Сx…na (Hes.) `an agricultural implement with iron teeth, drawn by oxen' [f]; Lat. occa `harrow' [f]; OHG egida `harrow' [f]; OE eg(e)±e `harrow' [f]; OW ocet `harrow' [f]; Fi. „eЁs `harrow'
Notes: {1} The Standard Lithuanian form with a- may stem from the territory where the development e- > a- occurred. In any case, the attestations of the form with e- (see the LKZ№ , s.v.) indicate that there are Lithuanian forms completely matching Latv. ece^šas.
Proto-Slavic form: *esmь
GRAM: 1sg.
PSLMEAN: `am'
Page in Trubačev: VI 32
Old Church Slavic: jesmь `am' [1sg]
Czech: jsem `am' [1sg]
Old Polish: jesґm `am' [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: je°sam `am' [1sg]; #SCr. sam `am' [1sg]
Slovene: sЌm `am' [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *esmi
Lithuanian: esmi (OLith.) `am' [1sg]
Old Prussian: asmai `am' [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1es-mi
IE meaning: am
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 340
Other cognates: Skt. aґsmi `am' [1sg]; Gk. e„m… `am' [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *estь
GRAM: 3sg.
PSLMEAN: `is'
Page in Trubačev: VI 32
Old Church Slavic: jestъ `is' [3sg]
Russian: est' `is' [3sg]
Czech: jest `is' [3sg]; #Cz. je `is' [3sg]
Polish: jest `is' [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: je?st `is' [3sg]; #SCr. je `is' [3sg]
Slovene: je° `is' [3sg]
Bulgarian: e `is' [3sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *esti
Lithuanian: e~sti `is' [3sg]
Old Prussian: ast `is'; #OPr. est `is'
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1es-ti
IE meaning: is
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 340
Other cognates: Skt. aґsti `is' [3sg]; Gk. ™st… `is' [3sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *ešče
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `still, yet'
Page in Trubačev: VI 32-33
Old Church Slavic: ješte `still, yet' [adv]
Russian: eščeЁ `still, yet' [adv]; #Ru. ošče (dial.) `still, yet' [adv] {1}
Czech: ještĕ `still, yet' [adv]
Old Czech:: ješče `still, yet' [adv]
Slovak: ešte `still, yet' [adv]
Polish: jeszcze `still, yet' [adv]; #Pl. oszczo (dial.) `still, yet' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: jo?št(e) `still, yet' [adv]; #SCr. ješče (dial.) `still, yet' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. jošcґe? (Vrgada) `still, yet' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. jo?š (Orbanicґi) `still, yet' [adv]
Slovene: še° `still, yet' [adv]; #Sln. šče° `still, yet' [adv]; #Sln. jošče `still, yet' [adv]; #Sln. još `still, yet' [adv]; #Sln. ešče `still, yet' [adv]; #Sln. iґšče `still, yet' [adv]
Bulgarian: ešte `still, yet' [adv]; #Bulg. ošte `still, yet' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1eske(h1)
Other cognates: Skt. aґchѓ `to' [prep., pvb.]; Arm. c` `to, till' [prep.] {2}
Notes: {1} In Russian: dialects forms with e- occur alongside forms with o-. This variation is already found in Old Russian::. {2} Forms such as SCr. jo?šte, Bulg. (dial.) joґšte and Sln. (dial.) išče result from the accretion of *i `and'. The *o-variants in this word are attested in a remarkably large area. The alternative etymologies contain a deictic element *edh- or *et- (see ESSJa s.v.).
Proto-Slavic form: *eterъ
GRAM: prn.
Page in Trubačev: VIII 187
Old Church Slavic: eterъ `some, someone' [prn o]
Church Slavic: (j)eterъ (RuCS) `some, someone' [prn o]
Upper Sorbian: wot(e)ry `another' [prn o]
Lower Sorbian: woґtery, woґtary, woґtory `some' [prn o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *io-tero-
IE meaning: someone
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 283
COMM: It cannot be decided whether this pronoun continues PIE *io-tero- or *h1e-etero-, cf. Skt. yataraґ- `which of the two' vs. Av. atѓra- `this one of the two'. The Sorbian forms may have been influenced by *vъtorъ `second'.
Other cognates: Skt. yataraґ- `which of the two' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *eti°; eba°ti; ĕba°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `copulate'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 188
Russian: etiґ `copulate' [verb], ebuґ [1sg.], ebeЁt [3sg]; #Ru. ebaґt' `copulate' [verb], ebuґ [1sg.], ebeЁt [3sg]
Ukrainian: jibaґty `copulate' [verb]
Czech: jebati `copulate, curse, beat' [verb]
Slovak: jebatґ `copulate' [verb]
Polish: jebacґ `copulate, scold, beat' [verb]
Slovincian: jaІbac `destroy, tear up, spoil' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: jebacґ `deceive' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: jebasґ `beat, push, deceive' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: je°bati `copulate' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. jeba?ti (Vrgada) `copulate' [verb]
Slovene: jeґbati `copulate' [verb], je?bam [1sg]
Bulgarian: jebaґ `copulate' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3iebh-e/o-
IE meaning: copulate
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 298
Other cognates: Skt. yaґbhati `copulate' [3sg]; Gk. o‡fw, o„fљw `copulate' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *eto
GRAM: ptcl.
Page in Trubačev: VI 8
Russian: e†ґto `here (is), this is' [ptcl]
Serbo-Croatian: e?to `here (is)' [ptcl]
Bulgarian: eґto `here (is)' [ptcl]
COMM: A combination of the particle *h1e and the neuter pronoun *to.
Proto-Slavic form: *evi°nъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `granary, drying shed'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 187-188
Russian: oviґn `drying shed' [m o]
Old Russian:: ovinъ `drying shed' [m o]
BeloRussian: aviґn `drying shed' [m o]
Ukrainian: oviґn (dial.) `small granary' [m o]
COMM: Unlike -> *evьja, this etymon is not generally considered a borrowing from Baltic.
Proto-Slavic form: *evьja; evьn§a
GRAM: f. iѓ; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `granary, drying shed'
Page in Trubačev: -
Russian: eґvnja (W. dial.) `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Ru. eЁvnja (Psk.) `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Ru. evnjaґ (dial.) `drying shed without a ceiling' [f jѓ]
BeloRussian: eЁuўnja `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Bel. eґuўnja `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Bel. jauўja (dial.) `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ] {1}
Ukrainian: jevja `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Ukr. jeґvnja `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]
Polish: jawia `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ] {2}; #Pl. jewnia (arch.) `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]; #Pl. jownia (arch.) `granary, drying shed' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *iouiaH
Lithuanian: jaґuja `granary, drying shed, threshing shed' [f ѓ] 1 {3}
Latvian: jau~ja `threshing floor' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: jauge `drying shed, barn for braking flax' {4}
Indo-European reconstruction: *ieu-iH-eh2
IE meaning: granary
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 512
COMM: It is evident that *evьja is a borrowing from Baltic. The Baltic word is a derivative of the word for `grain', Lith. javai~, which lacks a Slavic counterpart. The resyllabification of *iauё-iѓ to *iau-iёѓ may account for the metatonical acute tone of both the Lithuanian and the Latvian form, if we assume that the original form was *iauё-i°ѓ. The East Slavic word *ovinъ apparently underwent the e- > o- shift (I do not share Andersen's objections to TrubačeЁv's Proto-Slavic reconstruction *evinъ, theoretical though it is).
Other cognates: MoHG jauge (dial.) `barn'
Notes: {1} The form without -n- has been recorded from 1540 onwards in many different shapes, e.g. ev'ja, jav'ja, evga and javga. According to Anikin (2005: 143), only the form jauўja is known in the living language. The other forms are limited to areas that were inhabited by Lithuanians.{2} Since 1554 many variants have been recorded, e.g. jawia, jawgia, jewia, jowia. {3} There are many variants, viz. jaґuje†, jaґujis, jaґujas, jaґujus. {4} The oldest source (1604) has the spelling jawyge (Toporov II: 21).
Proto-Slavic form: *eževica; eževika
GRAM: f. jѓ; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 35
Russian: eževiґka `blackberry' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: jeґževica `meadow grass, quill, blackberry' [f jѓ]
Slovene: ježeviґca `prickly husk' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ezґ-
Page in Pokorny: 292
COMM: See -> *ežь.
Proto-Slavic form: *ežica; ežika
GRAM: f. jѓ; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: VI 35-36
Russian: ožiґka `rush' [f ѓ]
Czech: ježice `female hedgehog' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: je°žica `sea-hedgehog, she-hedgehog, husk' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ježika `Jew's myrtle' [f ѓ]
Slovene: ježiґca `prickly husk' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ezґ-
Page in Pokorny: 292
COMM: See -> *ežь.
Proto-Slavic form: *ežina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `blackberry'
Page in Trubačev: VI 35
Russian: ožiґna (S dial.) `blackberry' [f ѓ]
Slovak: ožina (dial.) `blackberry' [f ѓ]
Polish: jez†yna `blackberry' [f ѓ]; #Pl. oz†yna (dial.) `blackberry' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: jez†yny `strawberries' [Nompf ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: je°žina (dial.) `edible marine mollusc' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ezґ-
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1egґh-iH-neh2
Page in Pokorny: 292
COMM: See -> *ežь.
Proto-Slavic form: *ežь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `hedgehog'
Page in Trubačev: VI 36
Russian: eЁž `hedgehog' [m jo], ežaґ [Gens]; #Ru. ož (dial.) `hedgehog' [m jo]
Old Russian:: ežь `hedgehog' [m jo]; #ORu. ožь `hedgehog' [m jo]
Ukrainian: již (dial.) `hedgehog' [m jo]; #Ukr. ož (dial.) `hedgehog' [m jo]
Czech: jež (dial.) `hedgehog' [m jo]
Slovak: jež `hedgehog' [m jo]
Polish: jez† `hedgehog' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: jĕž `hedgehog' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: je?ž `hedgehog' [m jo], jeґža [Gens]; #SCr. je?ž `hedgehog' [m jo] je?ža [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. je?ž (Vrgada) `sea-urchin, kind of plant' [m jo], je?ža [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ie?š (Orbanicґi) `hedgehog, sea-urchin', ie?ža [Gens]
Slovene: jęґž `hedgehog, jimsonweed (datura stramonium), prickly husk' [m jo]
Bulgarian: ež `hedgehog' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ezґios
Lithuanian: ežy~s `hedgehog' [m io] 4 {1}
Latvian: ezis `hedgehog' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1egґh-io-
IE meaning: hedgehog
Page in Pokorny: 292
COMM: In Greek, where ™^Гk•~noj `hedgehog, sea-urchin' looks like a derivative of њcij `viper', there seems to be a connection between `hedgehog' and `snake'. In Balto-Slavic, the words for `hedgehog' and `snake' do not match formally (-> ǫґžь).
Other cognates: Gk. ™^Гk•~noj `hedgehog, sea-urchin' [m]; OHG igil `hedgehog' [m]; OHG –gil `hedgehog' [m]; OE igel `hedgehog' [m]; OE –gel `hedgehog' [m]; Arm. ozni `hedgehog' [m]
Notes: {1} Variants are e~žis 2, e†žy~s 4.

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