Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*D)


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Всего на D (Д) – 163 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *da
GRAM: conj.
Page in Trubačev: IV 180
Old Church Slavic: da `(in order) that/to' [conj]
Serbo-Croatian: da? `(in order) that/to, if' [conj]
Slovene: da° `(in order) to, because, though' [conj]
Bulgarian: da `(in order) to, that' [conj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *do-h1 (dЎ?)
Page in Pokorny: 181
Other cognates: OE tЎ `to' [prep], OIr. do `to' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *dadja
GRAM: f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: -
Old Church Slavic: dažda (Hilf.) `distribution' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dodh3-ieh2
Page in Pokorny: 223
COMM: According to Pokorny (IEW: 224), OCS dažda is analogical after *ĕdja (the substantive jažda is not attested in OCS). The jѓ-stem is based on the reduplicated root *dad- < *dodh3-, which shows the effects of Winter's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *dadjьbogъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: IV 182-183
Old Russian:: Dažьbogъ [proper name]
Old Polish: dadzibog [proper name]
Page in Pokorny: 223+107(?)
COMM: Compound of the imperative *dadjь (-> *da°ti) and -> *bo?gъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *da?nь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `tribute, tax'
Page in Trubačev: IV 194-195
Old Church Slavic: danь `tax, tribute' [f i]
Russian: dan' `tribute, debt' [f i]
Czech: dan№ `tax, duty' [f i]
Slovak: dan№ `tax, duty' [f i]
Polish: danґ `tax, tribute, duty' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: dan (13th-16th c.) `tribute' [f i]
Slovene: da?n `tribute, tax' [f i], dani? [Gens]; #Sln. da?nj `tribute, tax' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *doЂnis
Lithuanian: duo~nis `tribute' [m i(o)] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh3-n-
IE meaning: give
Page in Pokorny: 223
Other cognates: Skt. dѓґna- `donation, gift' [m]; Lat. dЎnum `gift' [n]
Notes: {1} Probably a transformation of the borrowing doni°s `tribute, gift' (Skardžius 1931: 65, 67; Anikin 1994: 191).
Proto-Slavic form: *da?rъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `gift'
Page in Trubačev: IV 191-192
Old Church Slavic: darъ `gift' [m o/u], dara [Gens], daru [Gens]
Russian: dar `gift' [m o]
Czech: dar `gift' [m o]
Slovak: dar `gift' [m o]
Polish: dar `gift' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: da?r `gift' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. daІ?r (Vrgada) `gift' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. da?r (Orbanicґi) `gift, present' [m o]
Slovene: da?r `gift' [m o/u], da?ra [Gens], daru? [Gens]
Bulgarian: dar `gift' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh3-ro-
IE meaning: give
Page in Pokorny: 223
Other cognates: Gk. dw~ron `gift' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *dajati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `give'
Page in Trubačev: IV 197
Old Church Slavic: dajati `give, allow' [verb], dajǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: dajati (RuCS) `give, allow' [verb]
Old Russian:: dajati `give, allow' [verb]
Czech: dajati (arch.) `give' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: daja?t (dial.) `give' [verb]
Slovene: dajaґti `give' [verb], daґjem [1sg], daje°m [1sg], daґjam [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh3-
IE meaning: give
Page in Pokorny: 223
Other cognates: Gk. d…dwmi `give' [verb]; Skt. daґdѓti `give' [verb]; Lat. dѓre `give' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dale°kъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `far, distant'
Page in Trubačev: IV 184-185
Old Church Slavic: daleče `far, long' [adv]
Church Slavic: dalekъ `far, distant' [adj o]
Russian: daleЁkij `far, distant' [adj o]; #Ru. daleЁk `far, distant' [adj o], dalekaґ [Nomsf], dalekoґ [Nomsn], daleЁko [Nomsn]
Czech: dalekyґ `far, distant' [adj o]
Slovak: dalekyґ `far, distant' [adj o]
Polish: daleki `far, distant' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: da°lek `far, distant' [adj o]
Slovene: daґlek `far, distant' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Derivative with the suffix *-okъ, cf. vysokъ. For the root, see -> *dalь, *dal§a.
Proto-Slavic form: *dalь; dal§a
GRAM: f. i; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `distance'
Page in Trubačev: IV 186-187
Old Church Slavic: dalja `distance' [f jѓ]
Russian: dal' `distance' [f i]
Czech: daґl `distance' [f i]; #Cz. daґle `distance' [f jѓ]
Polish: dal `distance' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: da?lj `distance' [f/m i]; #SCr. daґlja `distance' [f jѓ]
Slovene: daґlja `distance' [f jѓ]
Back: 1 20
Proto-Slavic form: *datelь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `giver, donor'
Page in Trubačev: IV 193-194
Old Church Slavic: datel§ь `giver, donor' [m jo]
Russian: daґtel' (dial.) `giver, donor' [m jo]
Czech: datel (Jungmann) `giver, donor' [m jo?]
Serbo-Croatian: da?telj (arch.) `giver, donor' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh3-
IE meaning: giver
Page in Pokorny: 223
Proto-Slavic form: *da°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `give'
Page in Trubačev: IV 194-195
Old Church Slavic: dati `give' [verb], damь [1sg], dasi [2sg], dastъ [3sg], damъ [1pl], daste [2pl], dadętъ [3pl]
Russian: dat' `give' [verb], dam [1sg], daš' [2sg], dast [3sg], dadiґm [1pl], dadiґte [2pl], daduґt [3pl]
Czech: daґti `give' [verb]
Old Czech:: daґti `give' [verb], daґm [1sg], daґš [2sg], daґdie [3pl]
Slovak: daґti (OSlk.) `give' [verb]; #Slk. dat' `give' [verb]
Polish: dacґ `give' [verb], dam [1sg], dadza§ [3pl]
Serbo-Croatian: da?ti `give' [verb], da?m [1sg], daґmo [1pl; #SCr. C№ak. da?ti (Vrgada) `give' [verb], daІ~š [2sg], daІ?de?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. da?t (Orbanicґi) `give' [verb], da~n [1sg], dѓmo? [1pl]
Slovene: daґti `give' [verb], daґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: dam `give' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *doЂtei; doЂd-mi [1sg]
Lithuanian: duґoti `give' [verb]
Latvian: duo^t `give' [verb]
Old Prussian: dѓt `give' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh3-; didh3-
IE meaning: give
Page in Pokorny: 223
COMM: In the reduplicated present the first element became acute as a result of Winter's law.
Other cognates: Gk. d…dwmi `give' [verb]; Skt. daґdѓti `give' [verb]; Lat. dѓre `give' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *davĕ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `recently'
Page in Trubačev: IV 198
Russian: daґveča (coll., arch., dial.) `recently' [adv]; #Ru. dave (dial.) `recently, yesterday' [adv]
Old Russian:: davĕ `yesterday' [adv]
Lower Sorbian: dawґe (dial.) `before, recently, long ago' [adv]
Polabian: dovaў `recently, just' [adv]
Slovene: daґve• `this morning, recently' [adv]; #Sln. daґvi `this morning' [adv]
Page in Pokorny: 219
COMM: The long vowel of this adverb is striking. We may be dealing with a lengthened grade vowel that originated in an monosyllabic form.
Other cognates: Skt. daґv–ya- `further, more distant' [adj]; Gk. d»n `a long time, far' [adv]; Gk. (Dor.) dŽn `a long time, far' [adv]; Gk. (Dor.) doŽn `a long time, far' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *davьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `ancient, past'
Page in Trubačev: IV 200
Church Slavic: davьno `long ago' [adv]
Russian: daґvnij `ancient, past' [adj jo]
Czech: daґvnyґ `ancient, past' [adj o]; #Cz. daґvniґ (arch.) `ancient, past' [adj jo]
Polish: dawny `ancient, past' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: daґvan `ancient, past' [adj o]; #SCr. da?vn(j)– `ancient, past' [adj (j)o]
Slovene: daґvЌn `ancient, past' [adj o]; #Sln. daґvnji `from this morning, ancient, past' [adj jo]
Page in Pokorny: 219
COMM: Adjective derived from -> *davĕ.
Other cognates: Skt. daґv–ya- `further, more distant' [adj]; Gk. d»n `a long time, far' [adv]; Gk. (Dor.) dŽn `a long time, far' [adv]; Gk. (Dor.) doŽn `a long time, far' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *dѓva°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `give'
Page in Trubačev: IV 197
Old Church Slavic: -davati `give' [verb]
Russian: davaґt' `give' [verb], dajuґ [1sg]
Czech: daґvati `give' [verb]
Slovak: daґvat' `give' [verb]
Polish: dawacґ `give' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: daґvati `give' [verb], da?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. daґvati (Vuk: SW) `give' [verb], daґjЊm [1sg]; #SCr. daґvati `give' [verb], da?vѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. daІЇva?ti `give' [verb], daІ~ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. dѓva?t (Orbanicґi) `give' [verb], dѓje?n [1sg]
Slovene: daґvati `give' [verb], daґvam [1sg]
Bulgarian: daґvam `give' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *doЂuёaЂ-
Latvian: da~va^t `give (iter.)' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 223
COMM: The secondary je-present dajǫ is built on the aorist stem. The long non-acute root vowel of the imperfective iteratives in -dѓvati can be traced to a perfect form *dh3-Њu (Kortlandt 1989: 111).
Other cognates: Gk. d…dwmi `give' [verb]; Skt. daґdѓti `give' [verb]; Lat. dѓre `give' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dѓvi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `suffocate'
Page in Trubačev: IV 198-199
Old Church Slavic: daviti `suffocate' [verb], davljǫ [1sg]
Russian: daviґt' `press (upon), suffocate, crush' [verb], davljuґ [1sg], daґvit [3sg]
Czech: daґviti `suffocate, strangle, throw up' [verb]
Slovak: daґvit' `suffocate, strangle, throw up' [verb]
Polish: dawicґ (obs., dial.) `suffocate, strangle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: daґviti `suffocate, strangle' [verb], da?v–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. daІ?vi?ti (Vrgada) `suffocate, strangle' [verb], daІ~v–š [2sg]
Slovene: daґviti `suffocate, strangle' [verb], daґvim [1sg]
Bulgarian: daґvja `drown, suffocate, strangle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhЎh2u-
Page in Pokorny: 235
Other cognates: Gk. ZeЭj qaЪlioj `strangler?' [m]; Go. afdaui±s `tormented' [ppp]
Proto-Slavic form: *debelъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `fat'
Page in Trubačev: IV 201-202
Church Slavic: debelyj (RuCS) `fat' [adj o]
Russian: debeґlyj `plump, corpulent' [adj o]; #Ru. debeЁlyj (dial.) `healthy, strong, plump, corpulent' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: de°beo `fat' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. de?bЊ (Vrgada) `fat' [adj o], debela°° [Nomsf]
Slovene: deґbeљ `fat, big, strong' [adj o], debęґla [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: debeґl `fat, strong' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *deb-
Latvian: depsis `small, fat boy'
Old Prussian: deb–kan `big' [Accs]; #OPr. debica (Gr.) `big' [adj]
Certainty: -
COMM: Formally, the Balto-Slavic and the Germanic forms do not match, considering that in the case of PIE *b the Balto-Slavic evidence would violate Winter's law. It is by no means necessary, however, to assume that this etymon is of Indo-European origin.
Other cognates: OIc. dapr `sad' [adj]; Nw. daper `sad, with young' [adj]; Nw. (dial.) dabb(e) `small, fat fellow' [m]; OHG tapfar `firm, heavy, thick-set' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *debelьstvo
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `fatness'(?)
Page in Trubačev: IV 203
Old Church Slavic: debelьstvo `rudeness' [n o] {1}
Certainty: -
Notes: {1} According to the SJS (I: 472), the scribe may have translated pacЪthj `fatness' instead of tracЪthj `rudeness'.
Proto-Slavic form: *de?sętь
GRAM: num. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ten'
Page in Trubačev: IV 216-217
Old Church Slavic: desętь `ten' [num i]
Russian: deґsjat' `ten' [num i], desjatiґ [Gens]
Czech: deset `ten' [num]
Slovak: desat' `ten' [num]
Polish: dziesięcґ `ten' [num i]
Slovincian: Ѕi°eёsinc `ten' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: de?sЊt `ten' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. de?set (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `ten' [num]
Slovene: desę?t `ten' [num]
Bulgarian: deґset `ten' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *desґimt(is)
Lithuanian: de~šimt `ten' [num]; #Lith. dešimti°s `ten' [m i] 3b
Latvian: desmit `ten' [num]
Old Prussian: dessempts (I) `ten' [num]; #OPr. dessimpts (I) `ten' [num]; #OPr. dessimton (III) `ten' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dekґm-t-
Page in Pokorny: 191
Other cognates: Skt. daґsґa `ten' [num]; Gk. dљka `ten'; Lat. decem `ten' [num]; Go. taiґhun `ten' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *de?snъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `right'
Page in Trubačev: IV 218-219
Old Church Slavic: desnъ `right' [adj o]
Church Slavic: desnyj (RuCS) `right' [adj o]
Old Russian:: desnъ `right' [adj o] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: de°sn– `right' [adj o]; #SCr. de?san `right' [adj o], de?sna [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. desni? (Vrgada) `right' [adj o]
Slovene: dęґsЌn `right' [adj o]
Bulgarian: deґsen `right' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *desґ(i)nos
Lithuanian: de~šinas `right' [adj o] 3b
Indo-European reconstruction: *dekґs-(i)no-
Page in Pokorny: 190
Other cognates: Skt. daґks•ina- `right, southern' [adj]; Av. dašina- `right' [adj]; Gk. dexiterТj `right' [adj]; Lat. dexter `right' [adj]; Go. taiґhswa `right' [adj]; OIr. dess `right, just, south' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (c) according to Zaliznjak (1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *de?vętь
GRAM: num. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `nine'
Page in Trubačev: IV 222-223
Old Church Slavic: devętь `nine' [num i]
Russian: deґvjat' `nine' [num i], devjatiґ [Gens]
Czech: devĕt `nine' [num]
Slovak: dev„t' `nine' [num]
Polish: dziewięcґ `nine' [num i]
Slovincian: Ѕi°eёvjinc `nine' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: de?vЊt `nine' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. de?vet (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `nine' [num]
Slovene: devę?t `nine' [num]
Bulgarian: deґvet `nine' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *deuёin
Lithuanian: devyni° `nine' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1neun
IE meaning: nine
Page in Pokorny: 318
COMM: For Balto-Slavic one would expect *douёin, with *eu > *ou before a vowel. The e vocalism may have been reintroduced on the basis of the ordinal *deuno- prior to the development *eu > *iou before consonant (Hamp 1976, Kortlandt 1979: 57). The ordinal was later reshaped into *deuёino-. In view of OPr. new–nts `nine', it is possible that the numeral still had initial *n- at the end of the Balto-Slavic period, but German influence cannot be excluded.
Other cognates: Skt. naґva `nine' [num]; Gk. ™nnљa `nine' [num]; Lat. novem `nine' [num]; Go. niun `nine' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *de?rvo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `tree, wood'
Page in Trubačev: IV 211-213
Old Church Slavic: drĕvo `tree, wood' [n s/o], drĕvese [Gens], drĕva [Gens]
Russian: deґrevo `tree, wood' [n o]
Czech: dr№evo `tree, wood' [n o]
Slovak: drevo `tree, wood' [n o]
Polish: drzewo `tree, wood' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: drjewo `wood' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: dri?jevo `tree, wood' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. dri?vo (Vrgada) `tree, wood' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. drie?vo (Vrgada) `wood, lumber, tree' [n o]
Slovene: dre•vo•? `tree, plough' [n s], drevę?sa [Gens]
Bulgarian: dereґvo (obs., dial.) `tree, wood' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *derЂuom
Lithuanian: derva° `chip of kindling wood, log from which tar is produced, resin, tar' [f ѓ] 3/4
Latvian: dar^va `tar, pitch' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *derHu-o-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 214
Other cognates: Skt. dѓru `wood' [n]; Gk. dТru `tree-trunk, wood, spear' [n]; Go. triu `wood, tree' [n]; OIc. tyr(v)i `coniferous wood' [n?]; OE teoru `tar'
Proto-Slavic form: *degъtь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `tar'
Page in Trubačev: IV 204-205
Russian: deЁgot' `tar' [m jo]
Ukrainian: diґhot' `tar' [m jo]; #Ukr. deґhot' `tar' [m jo]
Czech: dehet `tar' [m o]
Slovak: decht `tar' [m o]
Polish: dziegiecґ `tar' [m jo]
Slovene: dЊgЌt `tar' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *degut(i)os
Lithuanian: degu°tas `tar' [m o] 2
Latvian: dęguts `tar' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhegєh-
COMM: In view of the presumed connection between *žegti `burn' and Lith. de°gti `id.', *degъtь is sometimes regarded as a borrowing from Baltic. I find it more likely that it is a relic of the original root *deg- < dhegєh- (cf. Sљawski SP III: 34-35), cf. Sln. dęґgniti `radiate', OCz. dehna `devil'.
Proto-Slavic form: *delto°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `chisel'
Page in Trubačev: IV 205
Serbo-Croatian: dlije°to `chisel' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. l–to? (Vrgada) `chisel' [n o], li~taІ? [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. lЊto? (Novi) `chisel' [n o], leґta [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. dlieto? (Orbanicґi) `chisel' [n o], dlie~ta [Nomp]
Slovene: dle•ґto• `chisel' [n o] {1}
Bulgarian: dletoґ `chisel' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 246
COMM: Variant with e-vocalism of -> *dolto°. The ESSJa adduces Cz. dletko (Kott) `edge of a plane' to show that *delbto° is not limited to South Slavic. It seems plausible that the e-grade is analogical after the verb, but it must be admitted that *delbti is hardly attested. The only form mentoned in the ESSJa (IV: 205) is C№ak. dlisti.
Other cognates: OE delfan `dig' [verb]
Notes: {1} Pleteršnik actually has dleґto•, which is probably a misprint.
Proto-Slavic form: *deґrnъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `cornel, dogwood'
Page in Trubačev: IV 208-209
Russian: dereЁn (dial.) `cornel' [m o]
Ukrainian: dereґn (dial.) `cornel' [m o], derenuґ [Gens]
Czech: dr№iґn `cornel' [m o]
Old Czech:: dr№ien `cornel' [m o]
Slovak: drien№ `cornel' [m jo]
Polish: drzoґn (dial.) `cornel' [m o]
Old Polish: drzon `cornel, dogwood, barberry(??)' [m o]
Slovincian: dr№o†ґuёn `blackthorn' [m o], dr№o†ґuёnu† [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: drĕn `dogwood' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: dri?jen `cornel, dogwood' [m o], drije°na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. dre~n (Novi) `cornel' [m o], drЊna? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. drie~n (Orbanicґi) `dogwood, cornel' [m o], dre?na [Gens]
Slovene: dre•°n `cornel' [m o], dre•ґna [Gens]
Bulgarian: drjan `cornel' [m o]; #Bulg. dren `cornel' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhergh-no-
COMM: AP (b) points to an original neuter.
Other cognates: Gk. tљrcnoj `young shoot, branch' [n]; OHG tirn-pauma `cornel' [m]; OHG dirn-baum `cornel' [m]; OIr. draigen `thorn' [m]; MW draen `thorn(s), prickle(s)' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *derti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `tear'
Page in Trubačev: IV 209
Czech: dr№iґti `rub, flay' [verb], dr№u [1sg]
Slovak: driet' (sa) `rub off, toil' [verb]
Polish: drzecґ `tear' [verb], drę [1sg]
Slovincian: dr№e†ґc `tear' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: drĕcґ `tear' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: drije°ti `tear, pull out' [verb], de?rЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drie~t `tear up, fleece' [verb], de?re [3sg]
Slovene: dre•ґti `tear, pull out' [verb], deґrem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *der(Ђ)tei
Lithuanian: deґrti (Z№em.) `tear, peel', deru° [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *der(H)-
Page in Pokorny: 206
Other cognates: Skt. daґrti `scatter, split' [3sgaorinj]; Gk. dљrw `flay' [verb]; Go. distaiґran `tear apart' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *desętъ
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `tenth'
Page in Trubačev: IV 215-216
Old Church Slavic: desętъ `tenth' [num o]
Russian: desjaґtyj `tenth' [num o]
Czech: desaґtyґ `tenth' [num o]
Slovak: desiaty `tenth' [num o]
Polish: dziesia§ty `tenth' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: de°sЊt– `tenth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. dese~t– (Vrgada) `tenth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. desie~ti (Vrgada) `tenth, the tenth month, October' [num o]
Slovene: desęґti `tenth' [num o]
Bulgarian: deseґti `tenth' [num o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *desґim(t)os
Lithuanian: dešim~tas `tenth' [num o] 4
Old Prussian: dess–mts `tenth' [num o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dekґmHo-; dekґmto-
IE meaning: tenth
Page in Pokorny: 191
Other cognates: Gk. dљkatoj `tenth' [num]; Lat. decimus [num]; Go. taiґhunda `tenth' [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *desiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `find, encounter'
Page in Trubačev: IV 217-218
Old Church Slavic: desiti `find, encounter' [verb], dešǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: desiti (RuCS) `find, encounter' [verb]; #CS dĕsiti (RuCS) `find, encounter' [verb]
Old Czech:: podĕsiti `catch up with, get hold of' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: de°siti (Vuk) `encounter' [verb], de?s–m [1sg]; #SCr. de?siti `find, encounter' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dekґ-
Page in Pokorny: 189
Other cognates: Skt. dasґasyaґti `honour, serve' [verb]; Gk. dљkomai (Ion., Aeol.) `accept' [verb]; Lat. decet `it suits, becomes' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *devętъ
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `ninth'
Page in Trubačev: IV 222
Old Church Slavic: devętъ `ninth' [num o]
Russian: devjaґtyj `ninth' [num o]
Czech: devaґtyґ `ninth' [num o]
Slovak: deviaty `ninth' [num o]
Polish: dziewia§ty `ninth' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: de°vЊt– `ninth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. deve~t– (Vrgada) `ninth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. devie~ti (Orbanicґi) `ninth' [num o]
Slovene: devęґti `ninth' [num]
Bulgarian: deveґti `ninth' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *deuin(t)os
Lithuanian: devin~tas `ninth' [num o]
Latvian: devi^t(ai)s `ninth' [num o]
Old Prussian: new–nts `ninth' [num o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1n(e)un-o-
IE meaning: ninth
Page in Pokorny: 318
COMM: See -> *de?vętь. The introduction of *-to- may date from the Balto-Slavic period.
Other cognates: Gk. њnatoj `ninth' [num]; Lat. nЎnus `ninth' [num]; Go. niunda [num]
Proto-Slavic form: *dę°ga; dęgъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `strap'
Page in Trubačev: V 24-25
Church Slavic: djagъ (RuCS) `strap' [m o]
Russian: djaґga (dial.) `(W, NW dial.) strap, leather belt, (Psk.) strength, height' [f ѓ]; #Ru. djag (dial.) `height' [m o]
Old Russian:: djagъ `strap' [m o]
Ukrainian: d'ag (dial.) `strip of bast' [m o]
Slovak: d'ah `road, direction' [m o]
Slovene: dęґga `strap, hame-strap' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *dęglъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `healthy, strong'
Page in Trubačev: V 25
Russian: djaґglyj (dial.) `healthy, strong' [adj o]
Latvian: dęn~kts `strong, healthy, important' [adj o]
COMM: See -> *dę°ga.
Other cognates: OIr. daingen `firm, fast, solid' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dęglь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `angelica'
Page in Trubačev: V 25
Russian: djaґgil' `angelica' [m jo]; #Ru. djagiґl' (dial.) `Heracleum, Valeriana nitida' [m jo]
Czech: dĕhel `angelica' [m o]
Polish: dzięgel `angelica' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: dzґehel `angelica' [m jo]
Proto-Slavic form: *dęЇsno°; dęЇsna°
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `gum'
Page in Trubačev: V 26-27
Russian: desnaґ `gum' [f ѓ]; #Ru. deslaґ (Psk.) `gum' [f ѓ]
Czech: daґsen№ `gum' [f i/jѓ]
Old Czech:: daґsno `gum' [n o]; #OCz. daґs(e)n№ `gum' [f i]
Slovak: d'asno `gum' [n o]
Polish: dzia§sљa `gum' [Nompn o]
Serbo-Croatian: de?sni `gums' [Nompf i]
Slovene: dleґsna `gum' [f ѓ]; #Sln. dlaґsna `gum' [f ѓ]; #Sln. leґsna `gums' [Nompn o]
COMM: It is very plausible that *dęЇsno°/a° `gums' contains *h3dent- `tooth', cf. OPr. dantimax `id.'.
Proto-Slavic form: *dętelъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `woodpecker'
Page in Trubačev: V 27-28
Russian: djaґtel `woodpecker' [m o], djaґtela [Gens]
Czech: datel `woodpecker' [m o], datla [Gens]
Slovak: d'atel' `woodpecker' [m jo], d'atl'a [Gens]
Polish: dzięcioљ `woodpecker' [m o], dzięcioљa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: dje°tao `woodpecker' [m o], dje°tla [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. de?telj (Orbanicґi) `woodpecker' [m jo], de?telja [Gens]
Slovene: dęґtЌљ `woodpecker' [m o], dęґtla [Gens]; #Sln. dęґtelj `woodpecker' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dh(e)lbh-tel-
COMM: The word for `woodpecker' can be derived from *dhlbh- `dig' (in Slavic `hollow, chisel', cf. -> *dьlbti) if we assume that *dętelъ < *dentelъ or *dьntelъ reflects *deltelъ or *dьltelъ, cf. *žę°dlo < *gєlH-dhlo-.
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕ°dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: IV 227
Old Church Slavic: dĕdъ `forefather' [m o]
Russian: ded `grandfather' [m o]
Czech: dĕd `grandfather, forefather, old man' [m o]
Polish: dziad `grandfather, forefather, old man' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: dje?d `grandfather' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. di?d (Vrgada) `grandfather' [m o]
Slovene: de•°d `grandfather, old man' [m o], de•ґda [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *deЂd-
Lithuanian: de†~de† `uncle' [m Њ]; #Lith. de†~dis `uncle' [m io]
Latvian: dę°ds `old man' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dheh1dh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 235
Other cognates: Gk. t»qh `grandmother' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕlati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `do'
Page in Trubačev: IV 231-232
Old Church Slavic: dĕlati `do, work' [verb], dĕlajǫ [1sg]
Russian: deґlat' `do' [verb], deґlaju [1sg]
Czech: dĕlati `do, work' [verb]
Polish: dziaљacґ `act, be active, operate' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dje?lati `do' [verb], dje?lѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. di?lati `do' [verb], di?laІЇš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. de?lat `do, make, work' [verb], de?lan [1sg]
Slovene: de•ґlati `do, work' [verb], de•?lam [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *deЂl-
Lithuanian: de†lioti `put down, away' [verb]
Old Prussian: d–lants `worker'
Page in Pokorny: 235
COMM: Derivative of -> *dĕ°lo.
Other cognates: Skt. daґdhѓti `put, place, make' [verb]; Gk. t…qhmi `to put down, to ground, to create' [verb]; Lat. fЊ-c– `to make' [1sgpfa]; OHG tuon `to do' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕliti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `divide'
Page in Trubačev: IV 233-234
Old Church Slavic: dĕlitъ (Supr.) `divides' [3sg]
Russian: deliґt' `divide' [verb], deljuґ [1sg], deґlit [3sg] {1}
Czech: dĕliti `divide' [verb]
Slovak: deliti `divide' [verb]
Polish: dzielicґ `divide' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dije°liti `divide' [verb], di?jelj–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. d–li?ti (Vrgada) `divide' [verb], di~l–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. dieli?t (Orbanicґi) `divide' [verb], die~lin [1sg]
Slovene: de•liґti `divide' [verb], de•liґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: deljaґ `divide, share' [verb], de•liґm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *doil- (dail-?)
Lithuanian: dailyґti `divide' [verb], dai~lo [3ps]
COMM: Slavic *dĕl- has Germanic counterparts reflecting *dhoil- or *dhail-. The aspirated stop precludes a connection with Gk. da…omai `distribute' < *deh2-i- unless we assume that the Germanic forms are borrowings from Slavic, which is not particularly plausible. Note that the accentuation of *dĕґlъ (b) would be in conflict with a reconstruction *deh2i-l-.
Other cognates: Go. dailjan `divide' [verb]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 140).
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕ°lo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `work, deed'
Page in Trubačev: V 5-8
Old Church Slavic: dĕlo `work, matter' [n s/o], dĕlese [Gens], dĕla [Gens]
Russian: deґlo `business, matter, thing' [n o]
Czech: diґlo `work' [n o]
Slovak: dielo `work' [n o]
Polish: dzieљo `work, deed' [n o]; #Pl. dziaљo `cannon' [n o]
Old Polish: dziaљo `work, deed' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: dzґĕљo `work' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: dje?lo `deed, act' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. di?lo (Vrgada) `deed, act' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. de?lo (Novi) `deed, act' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. de?lo (Orbanicґi) `wok, job' [n o], de?la [Nomp]
Slovene: de•ґlo• `work, act, deed' [verb]
Bulgarian: deґlo `work, act, deed' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dheh1-l-
Page in Pokorny: 235
COMM: Derivative with an l-suffix of *dheh1- `put, make'.
Other cognates: Skt. daґdhѓti `put, place, make' [verb]; Gk. t…qhmi `to put down, to ground, to create' [verb]; Lat. fЊc– `made' [1sgpfa]; OHG tuon `to do' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕґlъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `part'
Page in Trubačev: IV 233-234
Church Slavic: dĕlъ (RuCS) `part' [m o]
Russian: del (dial.) `division, section' [m o]
Ukrainian: dil `part, section' [m o]
Czech: diґl (dial.) `division, section' [m o]
Slovak: diel `part, section' [m o]
Polish: dziaљ `part, section' [m o]
Slovincian: Ѕe†ґl `part, section' [m o], Ѕe†ґla [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: di?jel `part, mountain' [m o], di?jela [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. di~(l) (Vrgada) `part, mountain' [m o], d–la? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. deґl (Novi) `part, mountain' [m o], dЊla? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. die?l (Orbanicґi) `part, share' [m o], die?la [Gens]; #SCr. Kajk. di~el (Bednja) `part, mountain' [m o], diela? [Gens]
Slovene: djal `part, fate' [m o]
COMM: See -> *dĕliti.
Other cognates: Go. dails `part' [m]; OHG teil `part' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕl§a; dĕl§ьma; dĕl§a; dьl§a
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `because of'
Page in Trubačev: IV 234-235
Old Church Slavic: dĕl§a `because of' [postp]; #OCS dĕl§ьma `because of' [postp]
Russian: dlja `for' [prep]
Ukrainian: diljaґ (dial.) `for, because of, therefore' [prep]
Old Czech:: dle `because of' [prep]
Polish: dla `for' [prep]
Old Polish: dziela (Bogurodzica) `for' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: dijel (arch.) `because of' [prep]
Slovene: de•°lj `because of' [prep]
Lithuanian: de†~l `because of' [prep]
Latvian: dЊl§ `because of' [prep]
Page in Pokorny: 235
Other cognates: This etymon cannot be separated from -> *dĕ°lo , cf. Lat. causѓ `because of'. The form *dĕl§a seems to be a petrified Isg., whilel *dĕlьma is an Idu. The presence of an element *-j- is unexpected.
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕЇra°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `crack, hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 12
Old Russian:: dĕra `opening' [f ѓ]
Czech: diґra `hole' [f ѓ]
Slovak: diera `hole' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: Ѕe†^raў `hole' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: dzґĕra `hole, lair' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dЊr-
Page in Pokorny: 206
COMM: AP (b) confirms the a lengthened grade in the root.
Other cognates: Skt. daґrti `scatter, split' [3sgaorinj]; Gk. dљrw `flay' [verb]; Go. distaiґran `tear apart' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕtę
GRAM: n. nt
PSLMEAN: `child'
Page in Trubačev: V 12-13
Church Slavic: dĕtę `child' [n nt], dĕtęte [Gens]
Russian: ditjaґ `child' [n nt], ditjaґti [Gens]
Czech: diґtĕ `child' [n nt], diґtĕte [Gens]
Slovak: diet'a `child' [n nt], diet'ata [Gens]
Polish: dziecię `child' [n nt], dzięcięcia [Gens]
Slovincian: Ѕe†^ca§ `child' [n nt]
Serbo-Croatian: dije°te `child' [n nt], dje°teta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. d–te? (Vrgada, Novi) `child' [n nt], dite?ta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. d–te? (Orbanicґi) `child' [n nt?]
Slovene: de•ґte `child, infant' [n nt], detęґta [Gens]
Bulgarian: deteґ `child' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 241
COMM: See -> *dĕti II.
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `do, say'
Page in Trubačev: IV 229-230
Old Church Slavic: dĕjati `do, say' [verb], dĕjǫ [1sg]; #OCS dĕti sę `get to, disappear' [verb], deždǫ sę [1sg] {1}; #OCS -dĕti `do, say' [verb], -dĕjǫ [1sg], -deždǫ [1sg], -dĕnǫ [1sg]
Russian: det' `put, place' [verb], deґnu [1sg]; #Ru. deґjat' (dial.) `do, make' [verb], deґju [1sg]
Czech: diґti (obs.) `speak' [verb]
Old Czech:: dieti `do' [verb], dĕju [1sg], dĕjĕš [2sg]; #OCz. dieti `speak, say' [verb], diem [1sg], dieš [2sg] {1}
Polish: dziacґ `weave, knit (arch.), do' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dje?ti `do, say' [verb], dje?dЊm [1sg], dje?nЊm [1sg]; #SCr. dje?sti (Vuk) `do, say' [verb], dje?dЊm [1sg], dje?nЊm [1sg]
Slovene: de•jaґti `do, say' [verb], de•?jem [1sg]; #Sln. de•jaґti `place, put, do, say' [verb], de•?m [1sg]; #Sln. de•jaґti `place, put' [verb], de•ґnem [1sg], dęґnem [1sg]; #Sln. de•ґti `place, put, do, say' [verb], de•?m [1sg]
Lithuanian: de†ґti `lay, put' [verb], de~da [3ps]; #Lith. de†ґti (OLith.) `lay, put' [verb], desti [3ps]
Latvian: de^t `lay (eggs)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dheh1-
Page in Pokorny: 235
Other cognates: Skt. daґdhѓti `put, place, make' [verb]; Gk. t…qhmi `to put down, to ground, to create' [verb]; Lat. fЊ-c– `to make' [1sgpfa]; OHG tuon `to do' [verb]
Notes: {1} The SJS gives dĕti sę, 1sg. deždǫ sę, 2sg. deždeši sę (Hilf., Venc.). The latter text does not belong to the Old Church Slavic: canon. The quoted passages do not show that the present stem dežd- occurs in Hilf. {2} In his Old Czech:: dictionary, Gebauer has dĕti, dĕju `do' and dĕti, dĕju `speak, say'. In his Czech: historical grammar (III.2: 228), however, he says that deju `I speak' is not attested and claims that the attested 1sg. diem is an innovation.
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕti II
GRAM: Nompf.
PSLMEAN: `children'
Page in Trubačev: V 14
Old Church Slavic: dĕti `children' [Nompf]
Russian: deґti `children' [Nomp]
Czech: dĕti `children' [Nomp]
Slovak: deti `children' [Nomp]
Polish: dzieci `children' [Nomp]
Slovincian: Ѕi°eёc„ `children' [Nomp]
Bulgarian: deґti (dial.) `children' [Nomp]
Page in Pokorny: 241
COMM: A derivative of the root *dheh1-, cf. Latv. dę^ls `son', de^t `suck'. The singular *dĕtь is hardly attested. The common singular of the word for `child' is -> *dĕtę, wehere the suffix *-t- was enlarged with the suffix *-ę < *-ent-, which is frequent in designations of young living creatures.
Other cognates: Lat. fЊtus `birth, foetus, offspring' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕ°va
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `maiden, girl'
Page in Trubačev: V 17-18
Old Church Slavic: dĕva `virgin, maiden' [f ѓ]
Russian: deґva (obs.) `girl, maiden, (D.) The Virgin, Virgo' [f ѓ]
Czech: dĕva `girl, maiden' [f ѓ]; #Cz. diґva (dial.) `girl, maiden' [f ѓ]
Slovak: deva `girl' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: djeґva `girl, maiden' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. Di?va (Mari?ja) (Vrgada) `The Virgin (Mary)' [f ѓ] {1}
Slovene: de•ґva `maiden, virgin' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: deґva `maiden, virgin' [f ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 241
Other cognates: Gk. qh~luj `feminine' [adj]; Lat. fЊcundus `fertile' [adj]
Notes: {1} The noun djeґva seems to be a hypercoristic of dje°vЎjka (RJA II 449-450) and cannot be regarded as a direct continuation of *dĕ°va. The RJA has also dje?v (18th c.) [f i] and dje?va `virgo', which do not belong to the living language. The status of the accentuation of these words is unclear to me.
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕ°verь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a (c)
PSLMEAN: `husband's brother'
Page in Trubačev: V 19
Russian: deґver' `husband's brother' [m jo], dever'jaґ [Nomp] {1}
Old Czech:: dever№ `husband's brother' [m jo]
Old Polish: dziewierz `husband's brother' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: dje?vЊr `husband's brother, best man' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. di?ver (Vrgada) `husband's brother, best man' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. de?ver (Orbanicґi) `marriage witness' [m o]
Slovene: de•vę?r `husband's brother' [m jo], de•ve?rja [Gens]; #Sln. de•ґver `husband's brother, best man' [m o], de•ґvera [Gens]
Bulgarian: deґver `husband's brother, best man' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *daґЂiuer-
Lithuanian: diґeveris `husband's brother' [m i] 1; #Lith. dieveri°s `husband's brother' [m i] 3a
Latvian: die~veris `husband's brother' [m io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *deh2i-uer-
IE meaning: husband's brother
Certainty: +
COMM: In case-forms with original stress on the suffix one expects root stress as a result of Hirt's law. This accounts for the many indications for root stress in both Baltic and Slavic.
Other cognates: Skt. devaґr- `husband's brother' [m]; Gk. da?»r `husband's brother' [m]
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 138).
Proto-Slavic form: *dĕvi°ca
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `maiden, girl'
Page in Trubačev: V 19-20
Old Church Slavic: dĕvica `virgin, maiden, girl' [f jѓ]
Russian: deviґca (obs.) `unmarried woman, girl' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: dĕvice `girl, maiden' [f jѓ]
Polish: dziewica `virgin, maiden' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: dje°vica `girl, maiden, virgin' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. Divi?ca (Vrgada) `The Holy Virgin' [f jѓ]
Slovene: de•viґca `maiden, virgin' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: deviґca `maiden, virgin, girl' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhh1
Page in Pokorny: 241
Notes: Gk. qh~luj `feminine' [adj]; Lat. fЊcundus `fertile' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *deЇ№ža°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: V 23-24
Russian: dežaґ `vat' [f jѓ]; #Ru. deґža `vat' [f jѓ]
Czech: diґž `kneading trough' [f i/jѓ]; #Cz. diґže `kneading trough' [f i/jѓ]
Old Czech:: diežĕ `kneading trough' [f jѓ]
Slovak: dieža `kneading trough' [f jѓ]
Polish: dziez†a `kneading trough, earthen pot, crock' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: dzґĕža `kneading trough' [f jѓ]
Lower Sorbian: zґĕža `kneading trough' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. diґža `milk-pail' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. di?žva `milk-pail' [f jѓ]
Slovene: dęґža `milk-pail, bee-hive' [f jѓ]
COMM: A jѓ-stem from the root *dĕz- < *dhoigґh- `knead (clay)'.
Other cognates: Gr. toi~coj `wall, side' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *di?vo
GRAM: n. s
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `miracle'
Page in Trubačev: V 33-34
Old Church Slavic: divesa (Ps. Sin.) `miracles' [Accpn s]
Russian: diґvo `miracle' [n o]; #Ru. diґvo (dial.) `miracle, astonishment' [n o]; #Ru. divesaґ (dial.) `miracles' [Nompn s]
Slovak: divo `monster' [n o]
Old Polish: dziwo `miracle' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: di?vo `miracle' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhHi-uo-
Proto-Slavic form: *dikъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `wild'
Page in Trubačev: V 29-30
Church Slavic: dikyi (RuCS) `wild, rude' [adj o]
Russian: diґkij `wild' [adj o], dikaґ [Nomsf], diґko [Nomsn]
Old Russian:: dikyi `wild' [adj o]
Slovak: dikyґ (Kott) `wild' [adj o]
Polish: dziki `wild' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: dzґiki `wild' [adj o]
Lithuanian: dy~kas `empty, idle, for free, vacant' [adj o] 4
Latvian: d–ks `empty, idle, inactive' [adj o] {1}
COMM: Perhaps cognate with Skt. dayi `fly (of birds, chariots, horses, gods)'. In view of the evidence for circumflex long i, the East Baltic forms, may be borrowings from Slavic, but the semantic difference (for which cf. Du. woest `desolate' -> `uncultivated, rough, wild') is conspicuous. Note that East Latv. di°eks2, if correctly interpreted, may reflect *deik-.
Notes: {1} Both di^ks2 and di°ks2 are attested. In principle this combination points to di°ks. In East Latvian, there are also forms reflecting di°eks2.
Proto-Slavic form: *dira; dir§a
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `crack, hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 30-31
Old Church Slavic: dira `crack' [f ѓ]; #OCS dirja `crack' [f ѓ]
Russian: diraґ (dial.) `hole' [f ѓ]; #Ru. dirjaґ (dial.) `hole' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: di°ra (Herc.) `hole' [f ѓ]; #SCr. di?ra (Herc.) `hole' [f ѓ]; #SCr. di?ra (Dubr.) `hole' [f ѓ]; #SCr. di?ra (Elez., RJA) `rags' [f ѓ]; #SCr. di?ra `rags' [f ѓ]; #SCr. di?ra (RSA) `hole, crack' [f ѓ]; #SCr. diґra (RSA) `hole, crack' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dr-
Page in Pokorny: 206
Other cognates: Skt. daґrti `scatter, split' [3sgaorinj]; Gk. dљrw `flay' [verb]; Go. distaiґran `tear apart' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *diriti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `look for'
Page in Trubačev: V 31
Bulgarian: diґrja `look for, seek, strive for' [verb]
Lithuanian: dyre†ґti (coll.) `look out (for), watch (for), stare, gape, be in hiding' [verb]
COMM: According to the ESSJa, the Slavic and Baltic verbs are possibly cognate with -> *dьrati `tear'. In that case the i would have to originate from the iterative. The connection with Germanic, as advocated by Stang (1972: ??), is not unattractive, however. One might reconstruct *dei(H)r- or *deih2-r-, cf. Skt. dayi `shine, radiate'.
Other cognates: Nw. (dial.) tira `look, shine, beam' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *divъ I
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `astonishment, miracle'
Page in Trubačev: V 35
Old Church Slavic: divъ (Cloz.) `astonishment, amazement' [m o]
Russian: div (dial.) `miracle, astonishment' [m o]
Czech: div `miracle' [m o]
Slovak: div `miracle' [m o]
Polish: dziw `miracle' [m o]
COMM: An analysis *dhHi-uo- seems possible, cf. Skt. dh–ґ- `observation, vision, thought' [f].
Proto-Slavic form: *divъ II; divь
GRAM: adj. o; adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `wild'
Page in Trubačev: V 35-36
Old Church Slavic: divii `wild' [adj jo]
Czech: divyґ `wild, furious' [adj o]; #Cz. diviґ (dial.) `wild, furious' [adj jo]
Old Polish: dziwy `wild' [adj o]
Slovincian: Ѕ„wiЁґ `wild' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: dzґiwi `wild' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: di°vlj– `wild' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. divl§– (Vrgada) `cruel, brutal' [adj jo]
Slovene: diґvji `wild' [adj jo]
Bulgarian: div `wild, rough' [adj o]
COMM: See -> *dikъ. The Russian: adjectives diґvyj (dial.) `surprising' and diґvoj (dial.) `miraculous, surprising', which the ESSJa mentions under this lemma, are obviously cognate with *divьnъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *divьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `amazing'
Page in Trubačev: V 36-37
Old Church Slavic: divьnъ `amazing, wonderful' [adj o]
Russian: diґvnyj `amazing, wonderful' [adj o]
Czech: divnyґ `strange, queer' [adj o]
Slovak: divnyґ `strange, queer' [adj o]
Polish: dziwny `strange, queer' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: di?van `wonderful, splendid' [adj o]
Slovene: diґvЌn `amazing, wonderful, miraculous' [adj o]
Bulgarian: diґven `amazing, wonderful' [adj o]
COMM: Adjectival derivative in *-ьnъ (-> *divъI).
Other cognates: Skt. dh–ґ- `observation, vision, thought' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *d–vi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suprise, astonish'
Old Church Slavic: diviti sę `be surprised, wonder, marvel' [verb], divljǫ sę [1sg], diviґši sę [3sg]
Russian: diviґt'sja `be surprised, wonder, marvel' [verb], divljuґs' [1sg], diviґtsja [3sg]; #Ru. diviґt' (dial.) `be surprised, wonder, marvel, look (at), gaze' [verb]
Czech: diviti se `be surprised, be astounded' [verb]
Slovak: divit' sa `be surprised, be astounded' [verb]
Polish: dziwicґ `surprise, astonish' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: diґviti se `marvel at, admire' [verb], di?v–m se [1sg]
Bulgarian: divjaґ `surprise, astonish' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *do
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `to, until'
Page in Trubačev: V 37-38
Old Church Slavic: do `to, until' [prep]
Russian: do `to, until' [prep]
Czech: do `to, until' [prep]
Slovak: do `to, until' [prep]
Polish: do `to, until' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: do? `to, until' [prep]
Slovene: do° `to, until' [prep]
Bulgarian: do `to, until' [prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *do
Page in Pokorny: 181
Other cognates: Gk. њndon `within' [adv], OLat. endo- `in' [prevrb]; OIr. do `to' [prep]
Proto-Slavic form: *doba
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `time'
Page in Trubačev: V 38-39
Church Slavic: doba `use, advantage' [f ѓ]
Russian: doґba (dial.) `time, measure' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: dobaґ `twenty-four hours' [f ѓ]
Czech: doba `time' [f ѓ]
Polish: doba `twenty-four hours, time' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: do?ba `time' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. do?ba (Vrgada) `time' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. doba? (Orbanicґi) `time, season, point of time' [f ѓ], do?bo [Accs]
Slovene: doґba `time, period' [f ѓ]; #Sln. dǫ?b `time' [f i]
Bulgarian: doґba `time' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dobaЂ
Lithuanian: daba° `nature, habit, character' [f ѓ]; #Lith. dabar~ `now' [adv]
Latvian: daba `manner, habit, character' [f ѓ]
COMM: The root is best reconstructed as *dhabh-, with "European a", cf. Lat. faber `craftsman, artisan'.
Other cognates: Go. gadaban `happen, be suitable' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dobl§ь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `strong'
Page in Trubačev: V 40
Old Church Slavic: dobl'ь `strong' [adj jo]
Church Slavic: doblii (RuCS) `strong' [adj jo]
Russian: doґblij `valiant' [adj jo]
Slovene: dǫґbЌlj `capable, able' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dob-
Latvian: dabl§š `strong, luxuriant' [adj jo]; #Latv. da°bls2 `luxuriant' [adj o]
Certainty: -
COMM: See -> *debelъ.
Other cognates: OIc. dapr `sad' [adj]; Nw. daper `sad, with young' [adj]; Nw. (dial.) dabb(e) `small, fat fellow' [m]; OHG tapfar `firm, heavy, thick-set' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dobrъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `good'
Page in Trubačev: V 45-46
Old Church Slavic: dobrъ `good, beautiful' [adj o]
Russian: doґbryj `good' [adj o]
Czech: dobryґ `good' [adj o]
Slovak: dobryґ `good' [adj o]
Polish: dobry `good' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: do?bar `good' [adj o], do°bra [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. do?bar (Vrgada) `good' [adj o], dobra? [Nomsf], dobro? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. do?bar (Vrgada) `good, kind, tasty' [adj o], dobra? [Nomsf], dobro? [Nomsn]
Slovene: dǫґbЌr `good' [adj o], doґbra [Gens]
Bulgarian: dobaўґr `good' [adj o]
COMM: Adjective in *-ro- of *dhabh- (-> *doba). The relationship between *doba `time' and *dobrъ `good' is parallel to *godъ `right time' vs. PGmc. gЎda `suitable, good'.
Other cognates: Go. gadaban `happen, be suitable'
Proto-Slavic form: *do?ma
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `at home'
Page in Trubačev: V 66
Old Church Slavic: doma `at home' [adv]
Russian: doґma `at home' [adv]
Czech: doma `at home' [adv]
Slovak: doma `at home' [adv]
Polish: doma (dial.) `at home' [adv]
Old Polish: doma `at home' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: do?ma `at home, home' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. do?ma (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `at home, home' [adv]
Slovene: doma? `at home' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dom-Ўu
Page in Pokorny: 198
COMM: The petrified case-form *doma cannot reflect a Lsg. *dom-Ўu, which would have yielded *domu. A possible reconstruction is an Isg. *dom-oh1 (cf. -> *vьčera), but we would not expect to find the old Isg. ending of the o-stems in an u-stem.
Proto-Slavic form: *do?mъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `house'
Page in Trubačev: V 72-73
Old Church Slavic: domъ `house' [m u]
Russian: dom `house' [m o] {1}
Ukrainian: dim `house' [m o], doґmu [Gens]
Czech: du•m `house' [m o], domu [Gens]
Slovak: dom `house' [m o]
Polish: dom `house' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: dom `house' [m o], domu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: do?m `house' [m o], do?ma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. do?m (Vrgada) `house' [m o], do?ma [Gens]
Slovene: do•?m `house, home' [m o/u], do•?ma [Gens], domu? [Gens], do•?mu [Gens]
Bulgarian: dom `house, home' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dom-u-s
IE meaning: house
Page in Pokorny: 198
Other cognates: Lat. domus `house' [f], domіs [Gens]
Notes: {1} Vestiges of an old u-stem are the alternative Gsg. and Lsg. in -u, e.g. na domuґ `at home'.
Proto-Slavic form: *do?rgъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dear'
Page in Trubačev: V 77
Old Church Slavic: dragъ `dear' [adj o]
Russian: dorogoґj `dear' [adj o]
Czech: drahyґ `dear' [adj o]
Slovak: drahyґ `dear' [adj o]
Polish: drogi `dear' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dra?g `dear' [adj o], draґga [Nomsf], draґgo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. draІ?g (Vrgada) `dear' [adj o], draІЇga? [Nomsf], draІ?go [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. dra?h (Orbanicґi) `dear, nice, expensive' [adj o], drѓga? [Nomsf], dra~ga [Nomsf], dra?go [Nomsn]
Slovene: dra?g `expensive, dear' [adj o], draґga [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: drag `expensive, dear' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dorgos
Latvian: dѓ°rgs `dear' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *dojidlica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `nurse, nursing animal'
Page in Trubačev: V 52-53
Old Church Slavic: doilicь (Ps. Sin.) `suckling (ewes)' [Genpf jѓ]
Church Slavic: doilica (RuCS) `nurse, milch cow' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: do°jilica `nurse, nursing mother' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhoih1-dhl- (dhoh1i-dhl-?)
Page in Pokorny: 241
Other cognates: Skt. dhaґyati `suck' [verb]; Go. daddjan `breast-feed' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dojidlo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: V 52-53
Russian: doґjlo (Dal') `quantity of milk produced by one head of cattle in a twenty-four-hour period, worthless milk' [n o]
Czech: dojidlo (Kott) `milking machine' [n o]
Slovene: dojiґlo• `breast-feeding, milking' [n o]
Bulgarian: doґjlo `milking' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 241
COMM: Deverbative noun in *-dlo. See à *doji°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *doji°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `give milk, milk'
Page in Trubačev: V 53-54
Old Church Slavic: doiti `breast-feed, nurse' [verb], dojǫ [1sg]
Russian: doiґt' `milk' [verb], dojuґ [1sg], doiґt [3sg]; #Ru. doiґt' (dial.) `give milk (cow), suckle (calf)' [verb]
Czech: dojiti `milk' [verb]
Slovak: dojit' `milk, give milk' [verb]
Polish: doicґ `milk, (arch., dial.) give milk' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: do°jiti `breast-feed, suckle, give milk' [verb], do°j–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. doji?ti (Vrgada) `breast-feed, suckle, give milk' [verb], doji~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. doji?t (Orbanicґi) `suckle, breast-feed' [verb], doji~ [3sg]
Slovene: dojiґti `breast-feed, give milk, milk' [verb], dojiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: dojaґ `breast-feed, give milk, milk' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 241
COMM: The straightfoward analysis *dhoiH1-eie meets with several difficulties. In the first place, one would rather expect *dhoH1i-eie in view of forms such as Latv. de^t `suck', where we are dealing with an unextended root. This reconstruction would yield *dajati, however. Skt. daґyati `suckle', has been analyzed as *dhh1-eie (see LIV: 142), where the same analysis is applied to OSw. d–a), but this reconstruction cannot account the Slavic form. Klingenschmitt (1982: 148) has suggested for both Slavic *doji°ti and Go. daddjan that the formation is built on the present stem, i.e.
*dh(h1)eґie gave rise to *dhoiёeґiёe.
Other cognates: Skt. dhaґyati `suck' [verb]; Go. daddjan `breast-feed' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *do°lnь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `palm of the hand'
Page in Trubačev: V 63-64
Old Church Slavic: dlanь `palm of the hand' [f i]
Russian: ladoґn' `palm of the hand' [f i]; #Ru. doloґn' (dial.) `palm of the hand' [f i]
Czech: dlan№ `palm of the hand' [f i]
Slovak: dlan№ `palm of the hand' [f i]
Polish: dљonґ `palm of the hand' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: dla?n `palm of the hand' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. dlaІ~n (Vrgada) `palm of the hand' [m o], dla?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. dlaґn (Vrgada) `palm of the hand' [m o], dla?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. dla?n (Orbanicґi) `palm (of the hand)' [f i], dla?ni [Gens]
Slovene: dla°n `palm of the hand' [f i], dlani? [Gens]
Bulgarian: dlan `palm of the hand' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dolЂn-; delЂn-
Lithuanian: deґlna `palm of the hand' [f ѓ]; #Lith. deґlnas `palm of the hand' [m o]
Latvian: dęl~na `palm of the hand' [f ѓ]
COMM: We are apparently dealing with a Balto-Slavic root *delЂ-, the origin of which is unclear. Pokorny suggests that there is a connection with Lith. di°lti `rub off, wear out' (`flatten' -> `flat of the hand'), which seems far-fetched.
Proto-Slavic form: *dolto°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `chisel'
Page in Trubačev: V 60-61
Russian: dolotoґ `chisel' [n o]
Czech: dlaґto `chisel' [n o]
Slovak: dlaґto `chisel' [n o]
Polish: dљuto `chisel' [n o]
Bulgarian: dlatoґ `chisel' [n o]; #Bulg. dletoґ `chisel' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dolbtoґ
Old Prussian: dalptan `punch, instrument for punching holes'
Page in Pokorny: 246
COMM: Nomen instrumenti from a root meaning `hollow, chisel' (-> *dьlbiti, *dьlti).
Other cognates: OE delfan `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dolъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `dale, valley'
Page in Trubačev: V 64-65
Old Church Slavic: dolu `below' [adv]; #OCS dolĕ (Supr.) `below' [adv]
Russian: dol `(poet.) dale, vale, (dial.) pit, ditch, grave, bottom, earth' [m o], doґla [Gens]
Ukrainian: dil `valley, bootom, earthen floor' [m o], doґlu [Gens]
Czech: duІl (Jungmann) `valley, pit, shaft' [m o], dolu [Gens]
Old Czech:: dolov `down' [adv]
Polish: doґљ `pit, hole, grave' [m o], doљu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: do? `valley, dale' [m o], do?la [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. duo?l `(small) valley, field in a (small) valley' [m o]
Slovene: do•?љ `valley' [m o]
Bulgarian: dol `narrow gully, ravine' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhol-u-
Other cognates: OHG dalr `valley' [m]; OHG tal `valley' [n]; W dol `valley' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *do°l§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `share, fate'
Page in Trubačev: V 62-63
Church Slavic: dolja (RuCS) `part, fate' [f jѓ]
Russian: doґlja `part, share, fate, (bot., anat.) lobe' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: dolja `part, fate' [f jѓ]
BeloRussian: doґlja `share, fate' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: doґlja `fate, destiny' [f jѓ] {1}
Old Czech:: s doliґ `succesfully'
Polish: dola `fate, destiny, (coll.) share' [f jѓ] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *doljaЂ {1}
Lithuanian: dalia° `fate, destiny' [f jѓ] 4
Latvian: dal§a `part, share' [f jѓ]
COMM: According to Banґkowski (2000: 282), this etymon spread from BeloRussian:, where it originated from a Lithuanian substratum, to Ukrainian, Russian: and Polish. The secondary meaning `fate' is assumed to have arisen in BeloRussian:. Though this is not an implausible scenario, it should be noticed that TrubačeЁv mentions late 14th century attestations of dolja in Old Russian:: / Russian: Church Slavic:, in the meaning `fate' as well as in the meaning `part'. Furthermore, there is an Old Czech:: attestation from around 1400.
Notes: {1} The earliest attestations date from the 17th century (Banґkowski 2000: 282).
Proto-Slavic form: *domovъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `house-'
Page in Trubačev: V 71
Russian: domoґvyj `house-' [adj o]; #Ru. domovoґj `house-' [adj o]; #Ru. domovoґj (arch., dial.) `house-spirit' [adj o]
Czech: domovyґ (obs.) `house-' [adj o]; #Cz. domov `homeland' [m o]
Slovak: domovyґ `house-' [adj o]; #Slk. domov `homeland' [m o]
Polish: domowy `house-' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: doґmov `house-' [adj o]
Bulgarian: domoviґ `house-' [adj o]
IE meaning: house
Page in Pokorny: 198
COMM: Denominative adjective with full grade of the suffix.
Other cognates: Lat. domus `house' [f], domіs [Gens]
Proto-Slavic form: *do°rga
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `road, way'
Page in Trubačev: V 74-75
Russian: doroґga `road, way' [f ѓ]
Czech: draґha `road, way, waste land, (dial.) track' [f ѓ]
Slovak: draha `road, way, furrow' [f ѓ]
Polish: droga `road, way' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: droґha `road, way' [f ѓ]; #USrb. droha `road, way' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: dra?ga `ravine, rapid stream, (arch.) road, way' [f ѓ]
Slovene: draґga `ditch, gully, ravine' [f ѓ]
COMM: Possibly cognate with -> *dьrgati < *drHgh-. As for the semantics, cf. OIc. dragan `pull' (*dhrogh-) vs. Nw. drag `draught, stream', drog (dial.) `short sleigh, track (of an animal), valley'.
Other cognates: OIc. dragan `pull' [verb]; Nw. drag `draught, stream' [m?]; Nw. (dial.) drog `short sleigh, track (of an animal), valley' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dositi
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `find, encounter'
Page in Trubačev: V 82
Church Slavic: dositi (RuCS) `find, encounter' [verb]
Old Russian:: dositi `find, encounter' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dokґ-
Page in Pokorny: 189
COMM: Variant with o-grade of -> *desiti.
Other cognates: Skt. dasґasyaґti `honour, serve' [verb]; Gk. (Ion., Aeol.) dљkomai `accept' [verb]; Lat. decet `it suits, becomes' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dovьlĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suffice'
Page in Trubačev: V 89
Old Church Slavic: dovьlĕti `suffice' [verb], dovьljǫ [1sg], dovьlĕjǫ [1sg]
Russian: dovleґt' `suffice' [verb]
Ukrainian: dovliґty `suffice' [verb]
Slovene: dovle•ґti `suffice' [verb], dovliґm [1sg]
COMM: Compound of -> *do and *vьlĕti (-> *velĕti).
Proto-Slavic form: *dǫЇga°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `arc, arch'
Page in Trubačev: V 98-99
Church Slavic: dǫga `rainbow' [f ѓ]
Russian: dugaґ `arc, arch' [f ѓ], duguґ [Accs]
Czech: duha `arc, arch, stave, lag, rainbow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: duґha `rainbow, stave, lag' [f ѓ]
Polish: dęga (dial.) `scratch, rainbow, stave, lag' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: dęga `scratch, arc, arch' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: duґga `rainbow' [f ѓ], duґgu [Accs]; #SCr. du?ga `stave, lag' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. du?ga (Vrgada) `stave, lag' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. do?ga (Orbanicґi) `stave (of a barrel)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: dǫґga `stave, lag, rainbow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: daўgaґ `arc, arch, rainbow' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dangaЂ
Lithuanian: danga° `cover' [f ѓ]; #Lith. daґnga (dial.) `Deckel des Backtroges' [f ѓ]; #Lith. dangu°s `sky, heaven' [m u] 4
Latvian: dan~ga `corner' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *dǫ?bъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `oak'
Page in Trubačev: V 95-97
Old Church Slavic: dǫbъ `oak, tree' [m o]
Russian: dub `oak' [m o]
Czech: dub `oak' [m o]
Slovak: dub `oak' [m o]
Polish: da§b `oak' [m o], dębu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: du?b `oak, (reg.) tree' [m o], du?ba [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. du?p (Orbanicґi) `tree, oak' [m o], du?ba [Gens]
Slovene: dǫ?b `oak' [m o]
Bulgarian: daўb `oak' [m o]
COMM: Etymology unclear.
Proto-Slavic form: *dǫ°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `blow'
Page in Trubačev: V 99-100
Old Church Slavic: dъmy (Supr.) `blowing' [m pprsa]; #OCS dъmĕše sę (Supr.) `swelled' [3sgimpf]
Russian: dut' `blow' [verb], duґju [1sg] {1}
Old Russian:: duti `blow' [verb], dъmu [1sg]
Czech: douti `blow' [verb], dmu [1sg]
Polish: da§cґ `blow' [verb], dmę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: du?ti `blow, inflate' [verb], dmЊm [1sg], du?jЊm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *domЂtei; dumЂtei
Lithuanian: du°mti `blow' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dh(o)mH-
Page in Pokorny: 247
Other cognates: Skt. dhaґmati `blow' [verb]
Notes: {1} This verb may theoretically belong to *duti, but the Old Russian:: evidence renders this unlikely.
Proto-Slavic form: *drabъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: V 100-101
Upper Sorbian: draby `clothes, dress, rags' [Nompm o]
Lithuanian: drabu°žis `clothes, clothing' [m io] 2; #Lith. drobu°žis `clothes, clothing' [m io] 2; #Lith. dra~banas `rags' [m o] 3b; #Lith. dra~panas `clothes, clothing' [m o] 1
Proto-Slavic form: *draskati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scratch'
Page in Trubačev: V 102-103
Bulgarian: draґskam `scratch, scribble' [verb]
COMM: It is likely that this verb must be analyzed as *drap-sk- (-> *drѓpa°ti).
Proto-Slavic form: *drѓpa°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scratch'
Page in Trubačev: V 101-102
Russian: draґpat' `clear out' [verb], draґpaju [1sg]; #Ru. draґpat' (dial.) `scratch, tear' [verb]; #Ru. drjaґpat' (dial.) `scratch, tear' [verb]; #Ru. drjaґbat' (dial.) `scratch, tear' [verb]
Ukrainian: draґpaty `scratch, tear' [verb]; #Ukr. drjaґpaty `scratch, tear' [verb]
Czech: draґpati `scratch, tear' [verb]
Slovak: driapat' `scratch, tear' [verb]
Polish: drapacґ `scratch' [verb]
Slovincian: dra†~paўc `scratch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: draґpati `scratch' [verb], dra?pѓm [1sg]
Slovene: draґpati `scratch' [verb], draґpam [1sg], draґpljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: draґpam `tear' [verb]
Other cognates: Gk. drљpw `pluck' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *drѓži°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b?
PSLMEAN: `incite, provoke'
Page in Trubačev: V 104-105
Old Church Slavic: razdražiti `incite (against), provoke' [verb], razdražǫ [1sg]
Russian: draґžit' (dial.) `tease' [verb], draґžu [1sg], draґžit [3sg]; #Ru. dražiґt' (dial.) `tease' [verb], dražuґ [1sg], dražiґt [3sg] {1}
Old Czech:: draґžiti `tease, annoy, incite' [verb]
Slovak: draґžit' (dial.) `irritate' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: draґžiti `annoy, provoke' [verb], dra?žim [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. draІЇži?ti (Vrgada) `annoy, provoke' [verb], draІ~žiš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drЎži?t (Hvar) `annoy, provoke' [verb], droґžin [1sg]
Slovene: draґžiti `annoy, provoke, incite' [verb], draґžim [1sg]
COMM: LIV reconstructs *dhroh2gh-eie-, connecting dražiti with Gk. qraЇssw, tarŽssw `stir up'. In view of the accentuation of the verb, this is problematic.
Notes: {1} In the Pskov region, where both draґžit' and dražiґt' are attested, a variant dorožit' seems to have been recorded as well. I am inclined to regard this as a hypercorrection.
Proto-Slavic form: *drebĕzgъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: V 105-106
Russian: dreґbezg `sound of breaking glass, falling metal objects etc.' [m o]; #Ru. dreґbezgi `splinters, remnants' [Nompm o]
Lithuanian: drebe†~(z)nos `remnants' [Nompf ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrebh-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
Proto-Slavic form: *drebъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: V 106
Bulgarian: dreb `combings of wool or linen, small man' [m o]
Lithuanian: drebe†~(z)nos `remnants' [Nompf ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrebh-o-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
Other cognates: OE draef `waste, mull' [n]; MoDu. draf `swill' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *drebьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: V 106
Bulgarian: dreґben `small, fine' [adj o]
Macedonian: dreben `small, fine' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrebh-ino-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
Proto-Slavic form: *drevje; drevĕ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `earlier, before'
Page in Trubačev: V 106-107
Old Church Slavic: drevlje `before, earlier, once' [adv]
Russian: drevĕ `from the earliest times, long ago' [adv]; #Ru. drĕve `from the earliest times, long ago' [adv]; #Ru. drevlje `once, before' [adv]; #Ru. drĕvlje `once, before' [adv]
Czech: dr№iґv(e) `before, earlier' [adv]
Old Czech:: dr№eґv(e) `before, earlier' [adv]; #OCz. dr№iev(e) `before, earlier' [adv]
Slovak: driev `before, earlier' [adv]
Polish: drzewiej (obs.) `once, before, earlier' [adv]
Old Polish: drzewie `once, before, earlier' [adv]
Slovene: dre•?vi `tonight' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *drevьnь; drevьnъ
GRAM: adj. jo; adj. o
PSLMEAN: `ancient'
Page in Trubačev: V 107
Old Church Slavic: drevl§ьn§ь `ancient' [adj jo]
Russian: dreґvnij `ancient, very old' [adj o]
Czech: dr№evnyґ (Jungmann) `earlier, ancient' [adj o]; #Cz. dr№evniґ (Jungmann) `earlier, ancient' [adj o]; #Cz. dr№iґvnyґ (Jungmann)`earlier, ancient' [adj o]
Old Czech:: dr№evniґ `earlier, ancient' [adj o]; #OCz. dr№ĕvniґ `earlier, ancient' [adj o]
Slovak: drevnyґ `earlier, ancient' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dre?van `ancient, very old' [m o]
Slovene: dreґven `ancient, old, antique' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *drĕЇma°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `doze, slumber'
Page in Trubačev: V 108-109
Old Church Slavic: {1}
Church Slavic: drĕmati `doze, slumber' [verb]
Russian: dremaґt' `doze, slumber' [verb], dremljuґ [1sg], dreґmljet [3sg]
Czech: dr№iґmati `doze, slumber' [verb]
Slovak: driemat' `doze, slumber' [verb]
Polish: drzemacґ `doze, slumber' [verb]
Slovincian: dr№i°eёmaўc `doze, slumber' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: drije°mati `doze, slumber' [verb], dri?jemѓm [1sg], dri?jemljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. dr–ma?ti (Vrgada) `doze, slumber' [verb], dri~ml§eš [2sg]
Slovene: dre•ґmati `doze, slumber' [verb], dre•ґmam [1sg], dre•ґmljem [3sg]
Bulgarian: dreґmja `doze, slumber' [verb]
COMM: It has been suggested that the Slavic root *drĕm- is a contamination of *dreh1-, cf. Skt. ni-drѓyѓґt (Br) 3sg. opt. `may sleep, slumber', and *drem¬-, cf. Lat. dorm–re `sleep'. A reconstruction *dreh1m is in conflict with the accentual evidence, however. It is therefore more likely that *drĕmati has a secondary lengthened grade vowel, which is not uncommon in intensives (cf. Klingenschmitt 1989: 81).
Other cognates: Skt. ni-drѓyѓґt (Br) `sleep, slumber' [3sopa]; Lat. dorm–re `sleep'
Notes: {1} In OCS, we only find drĕmanie (Ps. Sin.) Asg. `slumber'.
Proto-Slavic form: *driskati; dristati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `suffer from diarrhoea'
Page in Trubačev: V 116
Ukrainian: drystaґty `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Czech: dr№iґstati (Jungmann) `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Polish: drzystacґ (dial.) `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Slovincian: dr№a†~staўc `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: driґskati `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]; #SCr. dri?skati `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]; #SCr. driґcґkati (Vuk) `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Slovene: driґskati `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]; #Sln. driґstati `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Bulgarian: driґskam `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
COMM: To be reconstructed as*dhreid-sk-, with early loss of *d.
Other cognates: OIc. driґta `shit' [verb]; OE dr–tan `shit' [verb]; OIc. tr–zan `shit' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *droba° II; drobi°na II; dreba°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `sediment, brewer's yeast, dregs, entrails'
Page in Trubačev: V 105, 117, 118-119
Russian: drobaґ (dial.) `sediment, brewer's yeast, dregs' [f ѓ]; #Ru. drobiґna (dial.) `sediment, brewer's yeast, dregs' [f ѓ]; #Ru. drebaґ (dial.) `sediment, brewer's yeast, dregs' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: droґba (RSA) `entrails' [f ѓ]; #SCr. dro°bina (Vuk) `entrails, tripe' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: drabna° (dial.) `sleet, dough, mud' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: drabenes `sediment of malt after brewing process' [f Њ]
COMM: Unlike the ESSJa, I have separated *droba° II `sediment, dregs, entrails' from *droba° I `crumb, small fry, small livestock', etc. It can be argued that the meanings `dregs' and `crumbs' may be covered by the designation `remnants', but for the root of droba° I the notion `small, fine' seems essential, while droba° II is about thick, weak masses. We may reconstruct a European root *dhrabh-.
Other cognates: OIc. draf `lees, yeast' [n]; Nw. drav `sediment of malt after brewing process' [n]; OHG trebir `pig's swill' [Nompm]; MoDu. draf `pig's swill' [m]; MoIr. draoib `mud, mire' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *droba° I; drobi°na I
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `crumb, small fry, small livestock'
Page in Trubačev: V 117, 118-119
Russian: drobiґna (S. dial.) `small livestock' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: drobynaґ `poultry, small fry, small change' [f ѓ]
Czech: droba `type of sandstone' [f ѓ]; #Cz. drobina (Jungmann: Slk., Kott) `crumb, little piece' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: dru°obaў `small fry' [f ѓ]; #Slnc. dru°objinaў `small fry, crumb' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: drobina `trifles, nonsense' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: droґba (RSA) `bread crumbled into milk' [f ѓ]
COMM: Derivatives of -> *drobiti, cf. -> *drobъ I, *drobь, *drobĕzga.
Proto-Slavic form: *drobĕzgъ; drobĕzga
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `crumbs, small fry'
Page in Trubačev: V 118
Russian: drobezgaґ `small fry' [f ѓ]; #Ru. drobizgaґ `small fry' [f ѓ]
Czech: drobesk `crumbs' [m o]
Old Czech:: drobĕz `crumbs' [f i]
Slovak: drobizg `small fry' [m o]
Polish: drobiazg `small fry' [m o]
Lithuanian: drebe†~(z)nos `remnants' [Nompf ѓ]
Latvian: drapsnas `crumbs, remnants' [Nompf ѓ]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
COMM: See -> *drobi°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *drobi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `crumble, crush'
Page in Trubačev: V 119
Old Church Slavic: drobĕi (Supr.) `crushing' [pprsa]
Church Slavic: drobiti `crumble, chop, break' [verb]
Russian: drobiґt' `crush' [verb], drobljuґ [1sg], drobiґt [3sg]
Czech: drobiti `crumble, chop, crush' [verb]
Slovak: drobit' `crumble, chop, crush' [verb]
Polish: drobicґ `crumble' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dro°biti `crush, crumble' [verb], dro?b–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drobi?ti (Vrgada) `crush, crumble' [verb], drobi~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drobi?t (Vrgada) `pulverize, crush' [verb], drobi~n [1sg]
Slovene: drobiґti `crumble, mince' [verb], drobiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: drobjaґ `crumble' [verb]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
COMM: LIV (153) reconstructs *dhreb- on the basis of Germanic forms such as OIc. drepa `beat, kill', OHG treffan `hit'. Since this proto-form is in conflict with Winter's law, I reconstruct *dhrobh-eie- for Slavic. The discrepancy between Slavic may have something to do with the fact that the etymon is of non-Indo-European origin or Kluge's law may have played a role.
Other cognates: Go. gadraban `cut out' [verb] {1}
Notes: {1} Unless this is a mistake for gagraban.
Proto-Slavic form: *drobъ I
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: V 119-120
Ukrainian: drib `little piece, small livestock' [m o]
Czech: drob (dial.) `hay-dust' [m o]
Old Czech:: drob `little piece, crumb' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: drob `hay-dust, sawdust' [m o]
Slovene: dro•?b `little pieces, crumbs' [m o]
COMM: A derivative of -> *drobiti, cf. -> *droba° I, *drobь, *drobĕzga.
Proto-Slavic form: *drobъ II
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: V 119-120
Russian: drob (dial.) `dregs' [m o]
Old Russian:: drobъ `dregs' [m o]
Czech: drob `entrails' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: drob `entrails, tripe' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: dro?b `entrails, pulp (of fruit), sediment, dregs' [m o], dro?ba [Gens]
Slovene: dro•?b `entrails' [m o]
Bulgarian: drob `entrails' [m o]
COMM: See -> *droba°.
Proto-Slavic form: *drobь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: V 121
Russian: drob' `fraction, small shot' [f i]
Polish: droґb `poultry, small items' [m jo], drobiu [Gens]
Slovene: dro•?b `small piece, particle, chaff, hay-dust, entrails' [m o]; #Sln. dro•?b `chaff, hay-dust' [f i], drobi? [Gens]
Bulgarian: drob `fraction' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrobh-i-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
Proto-Slavic form: *drobьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `small, fine'
Page in Trubačev: V 122
Old Church Slavic: drobenъ (Supr.) `fine' [adj o]
Russian: droґbnyj (dial.) `small' [adj o]
Czech: drobnyґ `small, fine, fragile' [adj o]
Polish: drobny `small, tiny' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dro?ban `small, fine, fragile' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. dro?ban (Vrgada) `small, fine, fragile' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. dro?ban (Orbanicґi) `tiny, fine' [adj o]
Slovene: droґbЌn `small, tiny' [adj o]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 272
Other cognates: OIc. drafna `dissolve into small parts' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dročiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `stimulate, irritate'
Page in Trubačev: V 122-123
Russian: dročiґt' `stroke, caress, feed, tease, irritate' [verb]; #Ru. droґčit' `stroke, caress, tease, irritate' [verb]; #Ru. dročiґt'sja `be obstinate, go mad (said of cattle, for instance)' [verb]
Polish: droczycґ `tease' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dro?čiti `sting' [verb]
Bulgarian: droґča `loaf, amuse oneself, booze' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *drok-
Latvian: draci^t `scold' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *d(h)rok-
COMM: It is difficult to link this Balto-Slavic etymon to fors with an Indo-European etymology. The Russian: reflexive dročiґt'sja may also be compared with Latv. draka^tie^s `rage, dance'
Proto-Slavic form: *droga
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `bar, pole'
Page in Trubačev: V 123-124
Russian: drogaґ `wooden bar or metal strip uniting the front and the rear axis of a cart, centre pole' [f ѓ]; #Ru. drogaґ (dial.) `pole' [f ѓ]; #Ru. droґga (dial.) `cart for transporting wood' [f ѓ]
COMM: Apparently a variant of -> *drǫґgъ. A comparison with Gk. trљcw `run' and OIc. draga `pull' does not bring much.
Proto-Slavic form: *drokъ; droka
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: V 124
Russian: drok (dial.) `broom (Genista), oregano' [m o]; #Ru. drok (dial.) `time when cattle are restless, agitated' [m o]; #Ru. droґka (dial.) `indulgence, over-indulgence' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: drik `Dyer's Broom, gadfly' [m o], droґku [Gens]; #Ukr. dru?o?k (dial.) `warm period in May or June, when cattle are plagued by gadflies and run from one side to another' [m o], droґku [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *drok-
Lithuanian: dra~kas `noise, agitation, quarrel' [m o]
Latvian: draks `fight' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *drozdъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c (/b?)
PSLMEAN: `thrush'
Page in Trubačev: V 126-127
Russian: drozd `thrush, (čeЁrnyj d.) blackbird' [m o], drozdaґ [Gens] {1}
Ukrainian: drizd `thrush' [m o], drozdaґ [Gens]
Czech: drozd `thrush' [m o]
Slovak: drozd `thrush' [m o]
Polish: drozd `thrush' [m o]
Slovincian: dro†ґuёzd `thrush' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: dro?zd `thrush' [m o]; #SCr. dro?zak `thrush' [m o], dro?zga [Gens]; #SCr. dro?zak `thrush' [m o], dro?zga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. dro?zak `thrush' [m o], dro?zga [Accs]
Slovene: drǫ?zd `thrush' [m o]; #Sln. drǫ?zg `thrush, (črni d.) blackbird' [m o]
Bulgarian: drozd `thrush, (coll.) blackbird' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *trozdoґs
Lithuanian: stra~zdas `thrush, (juodasis s.) blackbird, (dial.) starling' [m o] 4
Latvian: strazds `thrush, (melnais s.) blackbird, (mѓjas s.) starling' [m o]
Old Prussian: tresde `thrush'
Indo-European reconstruction: *trozd-o-
COMM: In order to explain why *drozdъ was not, or rather only partly affected by the generalization of accentual mobilty in masculine o-stems, Illič-Svityč (1963: 45) reconstructs an u -stem, referring to OIc. ±rǫstr < *-uz. I am inclined to consider the possibility that owing to the cluster -zd-, which prevented the Balto-Slavic retraction called Ebeling's law, *drozdъ belonged to a marginal oxytone type that in principle merged with AP (b). In that case it is no longer necessary to posit a u-stem. It must be said, by the way, that the evidence for AP (c) seems to outweigh the evidence for (c).
Other cognates: Lat. turdus `thrush' [m]; OIr. truit `thrush' [f] {2}; OIc. ±rǫstr `thrush' [m]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 137). {2} OIr. also truid, druid.
Proto-Slavic form: *droždža; droždžьje
GRAM: f. jѓ; n. io
PSLMEAN: `yeast, dregs'
Page in Trubačev: V 129-130
Old Church Slavic: droždьję (Ps. Sin.) `dregs' [Nompf iѓ]
Russian: droґžži `yeast, leaven' [n io]
Czech: droždiґ `yeast, leaven' [n io]
Slovak: droždie `yeast, leaven' [n io]
Polish: droz†dz†e `yeast, leaven' [Nompf jѓ]
Old Polish: droz†dz†a `sediment, dregs' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: dro°žda `sediment' [f ѓ]
Slovene: drožję? `yeast, leaven' [f jѓ]; #Sln. drožę? `yeast, leaven' [f jѓ]; #Sln. droždžę? `yeast, leaven' [f jѓ]; #Sln. droži? `yeast, leaven' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dro(z)gi(Ђ)aЂ
Lithuanian: dra~ge†s (Bretk.) `dregs' [Nompf Њ]
Latvian: dradži `sediment (of melted fat)' [Nompm jo]
Old Prussian: dragios `dregs'
COMM: Cognate with OIc. dregg `dregs, yeast' < *dragjЎ and, in spite of the differing velar, probably also with Lat. fracЊs. Since the word is possibly non-Indo-European, we might just as well reconstruct *dhragh-i-, with *a.
Other cognates: Lat. fracЊs `fragments of olive pulp left after pressing' [f]; OIc. dregg `dregs, yeast' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *drǫґgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bar, pole'
Page in Trubačev: V 129-130
Old Church Slavic: drǫgy (Euch.) `sticks' [Inspm o]
Czech: drouh (obs., dial.) `bar, club' [m o]
Slovak: druґh (dial.) `bar, club' [m o]
Polish: dra§g `bar' [m o], dra§ga [Gens]
Slovincian: dro†ґu§g `bar, pole' [m o], dro†ґu§ga [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: dru?g `rail' [m o]
Slovene: drǫ?g `bar, latticed side of a cart' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *drongos
Lithuanian: dran~gas `pole (used as a lever)' [m o]; #Lith. draґnga `pole (used as a lever), edge (of a cart)' [f ѓ]
COMM: On the basis of the Balto-Slavic and Germanic evidence, we may reconstruct *dhrongh-. The limited distribution of the etymon and the fact that we find variants without a nasal or with root-final *k leads us to consider non-Indo-European origin.
Other cognates: OIc. drangr `detached pillar of rock' [m]; OIc. drengr `heavy stick, pillar' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *drǫґkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bar, pole'
Page in Trubačev: V 130-131
Russian: druk `pole, stake, club, beam' [m o]; #Ru. drjuk `pole, stake, club' [m o]
Ukrainian: drjuk `club' [m o]
Czech: drouk `iron bar, rod' [m o]
Slovak: druґk `stake, pole' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: druk `fairly thick stake' [m o]
Slovene: drǫ?k `pestle' [m o]
COMM: See -> *drǫґgъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dru?gъ I
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `companion, friend'
Page in Trubačev: V 131-132
Old Church Slavic: drugъ `friend' [m o]
Russian: drug `friend' [m o]
Czech: druh `friend' [m o]
Slovak: druh `friend' [m o]
Old Polish: drug `companion, comrade' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: dru?g `friend' [m o]
Slovene: dru?g `companion, best man' [m o]
Lithuanian: drau~gas `friend' [m o] 4
Latvian: dra°ugs `friend' [m o] 4
COMM: Only Balto-Slavic and Germanic, cf. also Go. driugan `be up in arms'. I consider the connection with *dhreugh- `deceive' dubious.
Other cognates: Go. gadrauґhts `warrior' [m]; OIc. droґttinn `prince, lord' [m]; OHG truht–n `lord' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *dru?gъ II
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `other'
Page in Trubačev: V 131-132
Old Church Slavic: drugъ `other' [adj o]
Russian: drugoґj `other' [adj o]
Czech: druhyґ `second, other' [adj o]
Slovak: druhyґ `second, other' [adj o]
Polish: drugi `second, other' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dru?g `second, other' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. dru?g– (Vrgada) `second, other' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. dru?gi (Orbanicґi) `other, second' [adj o]
Slovene: dru?g `other' [adj o]
Bulgarian: drug `other' [adj o]
COMM: Etymologically identical with -> *dru?g I.
Proto-Slavic form: *druži°na
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: V 134-135
Old Church Slavic: družina `society, party' [f ѓ]
Russian: družiґna `(prince's) armed force, militia unit, squad' [f ѓ]
Czech: družina `squad, detachment' [f ѓ]
Polish: druz†yna `team, crew' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: dru°žina `society, friends, detachment, servants' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. druži?na (Vrgada) `society, friends, detachment, servants' [f ѓ]
Slovene: družiґna `servants, family' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: družiґna `troop' [f ѓ]
COMM: Derivative in *-ina of -> *dru?g I.
Other cognates: OIc. droґtt `followers' [f]; OHG truht `multitude, host' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *drъgati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `tremble, shake'
Page in Trubačev: V 144
Russian: droґgat' (Voron.) `shake' [verb]
Czech: drhati (rare) `tremble, shiver' [verb]
Slovak: drgat' `shake' [verb]
Polish: drgacґ `tremble, shiver' [verb]
Slovene: drґgati `tremble' [verb], dr?gam [1sg]
COMM: There are Baltic forms pointing to a Balto-Slavic root *drug- `tremble' (-> *drъžь). Alongside *drъgati we find forms with a secondarily lengthened root vowel. e.g. ORu., RuCS drygatisja `tremble', Ru. dial. dryґgat', drygaґt' `tremble, shake, writhe'.
Proto-Slavic form: *drъ?vo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `tree, (pl.) wood'
Page in Trubačev: V 141-142
Old Church Slavic: drъva (Supr.) `wood' [Nompn o]
Russian: drovaґ `wood' [Nompn o]
Czech: drvo (dial.) `tree, wood' [n o], drva `wood' [Nomp]
Slovak: drvo `tree' [n o]
Polish: drwa `wood, firewood' [Nompn o]
Serbo-Croatian: dr?vo `tree' [n o], drve?ta [Nomp], dr°va `wood' [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. drvo? (Orbanicґi) `wood, firewood' [n o], drva? `wood' [Nomp]
Slovene: drґvo• `log, baton' [n o], drґva `firewood' [Nomp]
Bulgarian: daўrvoґ `tree' [n o]; #Bulg. daўrvaґ `wood' [Nompn o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dru(H)-o-
Page in Pokorny: 214
Other cognates: Gk. dru~j `tree, oak' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *drъžati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `tremble, shiver'
Page in Trubačev: V 144
Russian: drožaґt' `tremble, shiver' [verb], drožuґ [1sg], drožiґt [3sg]
Old Russian:: drožati `tremble, shiver' [verb]
Old Czech:: držĕti `tremble, shiver' [verb]; #OCz. dr№ežeti `tremble, shiver' [verb]
Polish: drz†ecґ `tremble, shiver' [verb]
COMM: Stative verb in *-ĕti.
Proto-Slavic form: *drъžь
GRAM: m. jo?
PSLMEAN: `shivering, tremor'
Page in Trubačev: V 144
Russian: drož' `shivering, tremor' [f i]; #Ru. drošč (Psk.) `shivering, tremor' [m. jo??]
Polish: dreszcz `shivering, tremor, shudder' [m jo]; #Pl. dreszcz (dial.) `shivering, tremor, shudder' [f i] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *drugios
Lithuanian: drugy~s `fever, malaria, butterfly, moth' [m io] 4
Latvian: drudzis `fever, ague' [m io]; #Latv. drudzi `moths' [Nompm io]
COMM: BSl. *drug- may in principle reflect *drugh- or *dhrugh-, but to my knowledge there are no cognates outside Balto-Slavic.
Notes: {1} In the 18th century, we find forms such as dresz, dresґ, drez and dresґcґ (Sљawski SEJP I: 163). According to Banґkowski (2000: 297), may be based on a plural dreszcze from *drez†ca < *drьž-ьca.
Proto-Slavic form: *drьkolь; drьkolьje
GRAM: m. i; n. io
PSLMEAN: `stick, club'
Page in Trubačev: V 139-140
Old Church Slavic: drьkolь `stick, club' [m i]; #OCS drъkolь `stick, club' [m i]
Russian: drekol' (dial.) `pole' [m jo?]; #Ru. drekoґl'e `staves' [n io]
Czech: drkoliґ (Jungmann) `wooden rattle, club' [n io] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: drkol (arch.) `truncheon, baton' [m o]
Slovene: drґkoљ `truncheon, baton' [m o]; #Sln. drґkЌlj `truncheon, baton' [m jo]
Page in Pokorny: 214
COMM: In all likelihood a compound of drъ `wood' (-> *de?rvo) and *kol- `stab' (-> *kolti). Unlike the ESSJa, I have reconstructed *drьkolь, *drьkolьje because the evidence points to ь. I agree, however, that the form originally may have had *ъ (cf. Vaillant 1928).
Notes: {1} MoCz. drkolna, OCz. dr№kolna, strkolna.
Proto-Slavic form: *du?xъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `breath, spirit'
Page in Trubačev: V 153-154
Old Church Slavic: duxъ `breath, spirit' [m o]
Russian: dux `spirit, breath, smell' [m o]
Czech: duch `spirit' [m o]
Slovak: duch `spirit' [m o]
Polish: duch `spirit, breath' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: du?h `spirit, breath, smell' [m o], du?ha [Gens]; #SCr. du?h (Vuk) `spirit, breath, smell' [m o], du°ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. du?h (Vrgada) `spirit' [m o], du?ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. du?h (Novi) `spirit' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. du?h (Orbanicґi) `ghost' [m o]
Slovene: du?h `spirit, breath, smell' [m o]
Bulgarian: dux `spirit' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dous•os
Lithuanian: dau~sos `air, breath' [Nompf ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 268
COMM: The root shape *dhous- is peculiar to Balto-Slavic. Elsewhere in and Indo-European - and in Balto-Slavic as well - we find full grades of the type *dhue/ous- (cf. -> *dvoxati ).
Other cognates: Go. dius `wild animal' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *dunǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `blow'
Page in Trubačev: V 137
Old Church Slavic: dunǫti `blow' [verb], dunǫ [1sg]
Russian: duґnut' `blow' [verb]
Old Czech:: dunuґti `blow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: duґnuti `blow' [verb]
Slovene: duґniti `strike, swoop down on' [verb], du?nem [1sg]
Page in Pokorny: 261
COMM: Perfective in -nǫti, cf. -> *duti.
Other cognates: Skt. dhіnoґti `shake' [verb]; OIc. dyґja `blow' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dupa; dupę
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. nt
PSLMEAN: `hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 157-158
Russian: duґpa (dial.) `buttocks' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: duґpa `arse' [f ѓ]
Czech: doupa (arch.) `hollow, burrow' [f ѓ]; #Cz. doupĕ `hollow, burrow' [n nt]; #Cz. dupa (dial.) `hind quarters' [f ѓ]
Slovak: duґpa `hollow, burrow' [f ѓ]; #Slk. duґp„ `burrow, den' [n nt]; #Slk. dupa (dial.) `hind quarters' [f ѓ]
Polish: dupa `arse, vagina' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: du?pe `arse' [n nt]
Slovene: duґpa `hole, burrow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: duґpe `arse' [n nt]
Lithuanian: dauba° `ravine, hole, burrow' [adj] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhoup-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 267
COMM: The Slavic root *dup- has a variant *dъb- (-> *dъno).
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dupina
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 158
Old Church Slavic: dupinǫ (Supr.) `opening' [Accsf ѓ]
Church Slavic: dupina (RuCS) `hole, grove, ditch' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: dupina `hole, grove, ditch' [f ѓ]
Slovene: dupiґna `hole, hollow, cavity' [f ѓ]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 267
COMM: Derivative of -> *dupa.
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *duplo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `hole, hollow, cavity'
Page in Trubačev: V 159
Russian: duploґ `hollow (of a tree), cavity' [n o]
Polish: dziupљo (19th c.) `hole, cavity, burrow (of a weasel)' [n o]; #Pl. dupљo (dial.) `hole, cavity, burrow (of a weasel)' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: duґplo `hole, hollow, cavity' [n o]
Slovene: duґplo• `hole, hollow (of a tree), cavity' [n o]
Bulgarian: duґplo `hole, cavity' [n o]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 267
COMM: Derivative of -> *dupa.
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *duplь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `hollow'
Page in Trubačev: V 160
Church Slavic: duplii (RuCS) `hollow, light' [adj jo]
Bulgarian: duґpli (arch., dial.) `hollow' [adj jo]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 267
COMM: Derivative of -> *duplo°.
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dupl§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `hollow'
Page in Trubačev: V 159
Russian: dupljaґ (dial.) `hollow (of a tree)' [f jѓ]; #Ru. duґplja (dial.) `hollow (of a tree)' [f jѓ]
Polish: dziupla `hollow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: duґplja `hollow (of a tree), orifice, hole, den, cave' [f jѓ]
Slovene: du?plja `hollow (of a tree), cave' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhoup-
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 267
COMM: Derivative of -> *dupa.
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dura
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 160
BeloRussian: dzjuraґ `hole' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: djuґra `hole' [f ѓ]
Czech: d'oura (Jungmann) `hole' [f ѓ]; #Cz. d'uґra (E. Mor. dial.) `hole' [f ѓ]; #Cz. džura (Sil.) `hole' [f ѓ]
Polish: dziura `hole' [f ѓ]; #Pl. dura (dial.) `hole' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: dura `hole' [f ѓ]; #OPl. dzioґra `hole' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: Ѕu†^raў `hole' [f ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 206
COMM: West Slavic cognate of *dyra (the Ukr. and Bel. forms are borrowings from Polish). According to Sљawski (SEJP I: 208-209), there is evidence for a Polish form dzioґra. This form may derive from OPl. dracґ, 1sg. dziorę, or may continue an older noun *dora from the same root, which was then influenced by the Polish verb (similarly Baudouin de Courtenay apud Berneker 1899: 150 fn.).
Proto-Slavic form: *durъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: V 162
Slovene: duґr `shy, wild' [adj o]
Old Prussian: dіrai `shy' [adj Nompm]
COMM: Perhaps to be analyzed as *dhou-ro-, cf. Skt. dhѓґvati, Gk. qљw `run'. There is no connection with Gk. qou~roj `rushing, impetuous, furious' (pace Trautmann 1910: 325, Vasmer s.v. durnoґj and others), which derives from *dhrh3-.
Proto-Slavic form: *durь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `stupidity, madness'
Page in Trubačev: V 162-163
Russian: dur' `stupidity' [f i]; #Ru. dur' (dial.) `pus, fumes causing faintness, faintness' [f i]; #Ru. dur (dial.) `stupidity, madness' [f i]
Ukrainian: dur' `stupidity, wild behaviour' [f i]; #Ukr. dur (dial.) `henbane' [m o]
Polish: dur `typhus, mental derangement (from fever)' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *durьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `stupid, crazy'
Page in Trubačev: V 162-163
Russian: durnoґj `bad, evil, nasty, stupid' [adj o]
Czech: durnyґ (Kott) `stupid, crazy' [adj o]
Slovak: durnyґ `scary, rude' [adj o]
Polish: durny (E. dial.) `crazy' [adj o]
Slovincian: deўrniЁ `crazy' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: du?ran `hot-tempered, malicious' [adj o]
COMM: Adjective in *-ьnъ, cf. -> -> *durъ
Proto-Slavic form: *duti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `blow'
Page in Trubačev: V 166
Russian: {1}
Czech: douti `blow' [verb], duji [1sg]
Slovak: dut' `blow' [verb], duji [1sg]
Slovene: duґti `blow' [verb], duґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: duґja se `be angry, grumble' [verb]
Lithuanian: duja° `(Z№em.) drizzle, mist, (Dzіk.) loose, ashy earth' [f ѓ] 4
Page in Pokorny: 261
Other cognates: Skt. dhіnoґti `shake' [verb]; OIc. dyґja `blow' [verb]
Notes: {1} Ru. duґt', 1sg. duґju may also belong here, but cf. ORu. duti, 1sg. dъmǫ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dužь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `strong'
Page in Trubačev: V 167-168
Russian: djuґžij `sturdy, hefty, robust, healthy' [adj jo]; #Ru. duґžij (dial.) `strong, healthy' [adj jo]
Old Russian:: djuґžij `strong' [adj jo]
BeloRussian: duґžy `strong, vigorous' [adj jo]
Ukrainian: duґžyj `strong, healthy' [adj jo]
Czech: dužiґ (rare) `firm, strong' [adj jo]
Slovak: duґži `strong, big, healthy' [adj jo]
Polish: duz†y `big, (16th-18th c., dial.) strong' [adj jo]; #Pl. duz†o `much, many, (16th-18th c.) very' [adv] {1}
Lithuanian: dau~g `much, many' [adv]; #Lith. daugi (OLith.) `much, many' [adv] ; #Lith. dau~gia (dial.) `much, many' [adv]
Latvian: dau~dz(i) `much, many' [adv]
COMM: If the Polish forms are "Ruthenianisms", there is no objection against positing a root containing a nasal, cf. dęga, dęglъ(jь)i, nedǫgъ. On the other hand, the parallellism between Pl. duz†o and Lith. dau~gia is suggestive. Possibly, the roots *dǫg- and *dug- were confused (cf. Shevelov 1964: 321-322, ESSJa 25: 126). The latter root may reflect *dhough-, cf. Go. daug `is useful'.
Notes: {1} According to Banґkowski (II: 312), duz†y `strong' and duz†o (duz†e) `very', which are attested since the 16th century, originate from Ukrainian. Duz†y `big' is recorded sporadically from 1600 onwards and more frequently since the 18th century, while duz†o `much, many' occurs only since the 18th century.
Proto-Slavic form: *dіri°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: V 161
Russian: duriґt' `be naughty, be obstinate' [verb], durjuґ [1sg], duriґt [3sg]; #Ru. duriґt' (dial.) `go crazy, do smth. forbidden or unnecessary, deceive' [verb]
Czech: dur№iґt sa (dial.) `be angry' [verb]
Slovak: durit' (dial.) `chase, hurry' [verb]; #Slk. durit' sa (dial.) `be angry' [verb]
Polish: durzycґ `deceive, fool' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: duґriti se `be angry, fill with disgust, be disgusted' [verb], du?r–m se [1sg]; #SCr. du?riti se (RSA) `be angry, fill with disgust, be disgusted' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. dіri?t (Orbanicґi) `sulk, pout' [verb], dіri~ [3sg]
Slovene: duґriti `make hateful, despise' [verb], duriґm [1sg]
COMM: Derivative of -> *durъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dіša°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `soul'
Page in Trubačev: V 153-154
Old Church Slavic: duša `breath, soul' [f jѓ]
Russian: dušaґ `soul, spirit' [f jѓ], duґšu [Accs]
Czech: duše `soul, spirit' [f jѓ]
Slovak: duša `soul, spirit' [f jѓ]
Polish: dusza `soul, spirit' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: duґša `soul, spirit' [f jѓ], du?šu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. dіša? (Vrgada) `soul, spirit' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. dіša? (Novi) `soul, spirit' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. dіša? (Orbanicґi) `soul, spirit' [f jѓ], du?šo [Accs]
Slovene: duґša `soul' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: dušaґ `soul, character, breath' [f jѓ], duґši [Nomp], dušiґ [Nomp]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dous•iёaЂ
Lithuanian: dau~sios `air' [Nompf ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhous-i-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 268
Other cognates: Go. dius `wild animal' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *dіxa°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `breathe, blow'
Page in Trubačev: V 151
Old Church Slavic: duxati `breathe' [verb], dušǫ [1sg]
Czech: douchati (Kott) `blow' [verb]; #Cz. duchati (dial.) `breathe' [verb]
Slovak: duґchat' `blow' [verb]
Polish: duchacґ (dial.) `blow' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: duґhati `blow' [verb], du?hѓm [1sg], du?šЊm [1sg]
Slovene: duґhati `smell, breathe' [verb], du?ham [1sg]
Bulgarian: duxam `blow' [verb]
Lithuanian: dve†~sti `breathe, blow' [verb]; #Lith. dіse†ґti `breathe heavily' [verb]
Latvian: dve°st `breathe heavily' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 268
COMM: Denominative verb based on -> *du?xъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dvo°rъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `court, courtyard'
Page in Trubačev: V 169-170
Old Church Slavic: dvorъ `court, courtyard' [m o]
Russian: dvor `court, courtyard' [m o], dvoraґ [Gens]; #Ru. dvo^r (dial.) `court, courtyard' [m o], dvoraґ [Gens]
Czech: dvuІr `court, courtyard' [m o], dvora [Gens], dvoru [Gens]
Slovak: dvor `court, courtyard' [m o]
Polish: dwoґr `court, courtyard' [m o], dworu [Gens]
Slovincian: dvo†ґr `court, courtyard' [m o], dvu°oёru† [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: dwoґr `court, courtyard' [m o], dwora [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: dvo?r `court, courtyard' [m o], dvoґra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. dvo~r (Vrgada) `court, courtyard' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. dvo~r (Novi) `court, courtyard' [m o], dvora? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. duo~r (Orbanicґi) `stable('s complex)' [m o], dvora? [Gens]
Slovene: dvo°r `court, courtyard' [m o], dvoґra [Gens]
Bulgarian: dvor `court, courtyard' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duёoґrum
Lithuanian: dva~ras `estate' [m o]
Old Prussian: dauris `big gate'
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhuor-
IE meaning: door
Page in Pokorny: 278
Other cognates: Skt. dvѓr- `door' [m]; Av. duuar- `door, court' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *dvoxati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 169
Russian: dvoґxat' (dial.) `breathe heavily, gasp, cough loudly' [verb]
Lithuanian: dve†~sti `breathe, blow' [verb]; #Lith. dіse†ґti `breathe heavily' [verb]
Latvian: dve°st `breathe heavily' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhuos-
Page in Pokorny: 268
COMM: The x is analogical after formations to which the ruki rule applied. See -> *duxъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dvьrь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `door'
Page in Trubačev: V 171-172
Old Church Slavic: dvьrь `door' [f i]; #OCS dvьri `door' [Nompf i]
Russian: dver' `door' [f i]
Czech: dver№e `door' [Nompf i]; #Cz. dveґr№e `door' [Nompf i]
Old Czech:: dr№vi `door' [Nompf i]
Polish: drzwi `door' [Nompf i]
Upper Sorbian: dwĕrja `door' [Nompf i]
Serbo-Croatian: dvari (16th/17th c.) `gate' [Nompf i]; #SCr. dve?ri `doors of the altar' [Nompf i]
Slovene: duґri `door, gate' [Nompf i]; #Sln. dvęґri `door, gate' [Nompl i]; #Sln. davri (16th c.) `door, gate' [Nompl i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dvir-; dur-
Lithuanian: du°rys `door' [Nompf i] 2; #Lith. du°res (dial.) `door' [Nompf i]
Latvian: du°rvis `door' [Nompf i]; #Latv. duris `door' [Nompf i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhur-
IE meaning: door
Page in Pokorny: 278
Other cognates: Skt. dvѓr- `door' [m]; Gk. qЪrai `door' [Nompf]; Lat. forЊs [Nompf] `zweiflµgelige Tµr'; OHG turi 'door' [Nompf]
Proto-Slavic form: *dy°mъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `smoke'
Page in Trubačev: V 203
Old Church Slavic: dymъ `smoke' [m o]
Russian: dym `smoke' [m o]
Czech: dyґm `smoke, steam' [m o]
Slovak: dym `smoke' [m o]
Polish: dym `smoke, steam' [m o]
Slovincian: diЁґm `smoke' [m o], da†~mu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: di?m `smoke' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. di~m (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `smoke' [m o], di?ma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. diґm (Novi) `smoke' [m o], di?ma [Gens]
Slovene: di°m `smoke' [m o], diґma [Gens]
Bulgarian: dim `smoke' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duґЂmos
Lithuanian: dіґmai `smoke' [Nompm o]
Latvian: du~mi `smoke' [Nompm o]
Old Prussian: dumis (EV) `smoke'
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhuH-moґ-
IE meaning: smoke
Page in Pokorny: 261
COMM: The fixed root stress results from Hirt's law.
Other cognates: Skt. dhіmaґh• `smoke, vapour' [m o]; Gk. qu?mТj `heart, passion, courage' [m]; Lat. fіmus `smoke, vapour' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *dyra; dyr'a
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `hole'
Page in Trubačev: V 205
Russian: dyraґ `hole, gap' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: dyrja `hole' [f ѓ]
Polabian: daraў `hole, prison' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dr(H)-
COMM: In the ESSJa, it is argued that Ru. dyraґ, which occurs alongside diraґ (-> * dira), results from secondary ablaut (starting from *dъr- instead of of *dьr- `tear'. The same is suggested for -> *dura. It seems to me that such a scenario requires that there existed a formally and semantically similar root. In this particular case the root of Lith. du°rti `stab, push' has often been mentioned, but more often than not (e.g. Vasmer s.v. dyraґ, Fraenkel LEW: 113, Sљawski SEJP I: 208) the latter root is considered etymologically identical. This implies that already in Balto-Slavic both *dir- and *dur- functioned as the zero grade of *der- `tear'. Here I would like to adopt a more agnostic attitude, i.e. I prefer to separate forms belonging to the "u" ablaut series provisionally from *der- `tear'. Note that Baltic *duris firmly acute, while in the case of the verb `to tear' there are many indications for an old circumflex.
Proto-Slavic form: *dyxati
PSLMEAN: `breathe'
Page in Trubačev: V 199
Old Church Slavic: dyxati `breathe, blow' [verb]
Russian: dyґchat' (dial.) `rest, breathe' [verb]
Czech: dyґchati `breathe' [verb]
Slovak: dyґchat' `breathe' [verb]
Polish: dychacґ (arch., coll.) `breathe' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: diґhati `breathe, blow' [verb], di?šЊm [1sg], di?hѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. di?hati (Vrgada) `breathe, blow' [verb], di?šeš [2sg] {1}; #SCr. C№ak. di?hat (Orbanicґi) `breathe' [verb], di?šen [1sg]
Slovene: diґhati `breathe, blow' [verb], di?ham [1sg]
Bulgarian: diґšam `breathe' [verb]
Lithuanian: dіsuґoti `breathe, heavily' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 268
Notes: {1} According to Jurišicґ's dictionary, the form in the Vrgada dialect is a "riječ nova".
Proto-Slavic form: *dzĕlo
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `very'
Old Church Slavic: dzĕlo `very' [adv]; #OCS zĕlo `very' [adv]
Russian: zeloґ (arch.) `very' [adv]
Old Czech:: zielo `very' [adv]
Slovene: ze•lo•? `very' [adv]
Lithuanian: gailu°s `sharp, lamentable' [adj u] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *ghoil-o-
Page in Pokorny: 1154
Other cognates: OHG geil `reckless, frolic, strong' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dъ?lgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `debt'
Page in Trubačev: V 179-180
Old Church Slavic: dъlgъ `debt' [m o]
Russian: dolg `debt' [m o]
Czech: dluh `debt' [m o]
Slovak: dlh `debt' [m o]
Polish: dљug `debt' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: du?g `debt' [m o]
Slovene: do?љg `debt' [m o], doљga? [Gens]
Bulgarian: daўlg `debt' [m o]
COMM: Possibly a borrowing from Gothic. Within Germanic the noun is isolated. A plausible cognate is OIr. dligid `be entitled to, deserve'.
Other cognates: Go. dulgs `debt' [m]
Notes: Possibly a borrowing from Gothic. Within Germanic the noun is isolated. A plausible cognate is OIr. dligid `be entitled to, deserve'.
Proto-Slavic form: *dъkti
GRAM: f. r
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `daughter'
Page in Trubačev: V 178-179
Old Church Slavic: dъšti `daughter' [f r], dъštere [Gens]
Russian: doč' `daughter' [f r], doґčeri [Gens]
Old Czech:: dci `daughter' [f r], dcer№e [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: kcґi? `daughter' [f r], kcґe?ri [Gens]; #SCr. šcґi? `daughter' [f r], šcґeґra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. cґe?r (Vrgada) `daughter' [f i], cґe?ri [Gens], cґere~ [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. hcґi? (Novi) `daughter' [f r], hcґe?ri [Gens], hcґereґ [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. hcґi? (Orbanicґi) `daughter' [f r], hcґeri? [Gens], hcґe?ri [Gens]
Slovene: hči? `daughter' [f r], hčę?re [Gens]; #Sln. hčę?r `daughter' [f i], hčeri? [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duktЊ
Lithuanian: dukte†~ `daughter' [f r], dukter~s [Gens]
Old Prussian: duckti `daughter' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhugh2-teґr-
Page in Pokorny: 277
Other cognates: Skt. duhitaґr- `daughter' [f]; Gk. qugŽthr [f] 'daughter' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dъno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bottom'
Page in Trubačev: V 174-175
Old Church Slavic: dъno `bottom' [n o]
Russian: dno `bottom' [n o]
Czech: dno `bottom' [n o]
Polish: dno `bottom' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: dno? `bottom' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. dno? (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `bottom' [n o]
Slovene: dno•° `bottom' [n o]
Bulgarian: daўґno `bottom, floor' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dubno
Lithuanian: du°gnas `bottom' [m o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhubh-no-
Certainty: -
COMM: The Slavic vacillation between root-final *b and *p does not have a Baltic counterpart. In East Baltic, however, the full grade *daub- occurs both with acute and circumflex tone, e.g. Latv. duo^bjš `deep'. The acute variant could be attributed to Winter's law, which would be in accordance with PGm. *deupa- `deep'< *dheub-, but this would leave us without an explanation for the other forms. The many formal problems connected with this root have made it a prime example of a borrowing from a substratum language (cf. Kuiper 1995).
Proto-Slavic form: *d(ъ)va
GRAM: num.
PSLMEAN: `two'
Page in Trubačev: V 185-186
Old Church Slavic: dъva `two' [num], dъvĕ [numf], dъvĕ `two' [numn]
Russian: dva `two' [num], dve [numf], dva [numn]
Czech: dva `two' [num], dvĕ [numf], dvĕ [numn]
Polish: dwa `two' [num], dwie `two' [numf], dwa `two' [numn]
Slovincian: dva~ `two' [num], dvji°eё [numf], dvji°eё [numn]
Serbo-Croatian: dva? `two' [num], dvi?je [numf], dva? `two' [numn]; #SCr. C№ak. dvaІ? (Vrgada) `two' [num], dvi? [numf], dvaІ? [numn]; #SCr. C№ak. dva? (Orbanicґi) `two' [num]
Slovene: dva? `two' [num]
Bulgarian: dva `two' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duoЂ; duoiЂ
Lithuanian: du° `two' [num], dvi° `two' [numf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *duo-h1; duo-ih1
Page in Pokorny: 228
Other cognates: Skt. dvѓґ `two' [num]; Gk. dЪw `two' [num];
Proto-Slavic form: *d(ъ)vogubъ; d(ъ)vogubьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `double, twofold'
Page in Trubačev: V 190
Old Church Slavic: d(ъ)vogubьnъ `double, twofold' [adj o]
Church Slavic: dvogubyj (RuCS) `double, twofold' [adj o]
Old Russian:: dvogubyj `double, twofold' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dvo°gub `double, twofold' [adj o]
Slovene: dvogu°b `double, twofold' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duo-goubos; dui-gubos
Lithuanian: dvi°gubas `double, twofold, bipartite' [adj o]
Old Prussian: dwigubbus `double, twofold' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *d(ъ)vojь
GRAM: num.
Page in Trubačev: V 192
Old Church Slavic: dъvoi `two, double, twofold' [adj jo]
Russian: dvoґe `two, two pairs' [num jo]
Czech: dvojiґ `double, twofold' [adj jo]
Polish: dwoje `two, double, twofold' [num jo]
Serbo-Croatian: dvo?ji `two, double, twofold' [adj jo]
Slovene: dvo•?j `two, double, twofold' [adj jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *duoioґs
Lithuanian: dveji° `two' [num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *duo-ioґ-
Page in Pokorny: 228
Other cognates: Skt. dvayaґ- `double' [adj]; Gk. doio… 'both, two' [adj]; Gk. doiТj `double' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dъxnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `breathe, blow'
Page in Trubačev: V 177
Old Church Slavic: dъxnǫti `breathe, blow' [verb]
Russian: doxnuґt' `breathe, blow' [verb]
Czech: d(e)chnouti `breathe, blow' [verb]; #Cz. tchnouti `breathe, blow' [verb]
Slovak: dochnuґt' `breathe, blow' [verb]
Polish: tchna§cґ `breathe' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: da°hnuti `breathe, blow' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. dahnu?ti (Vrgada) `breathe, blow' [verb]
Slovene: dЌhniґti `breathe, blow' [verb], daґhnem [1sg]; #Sln. daґhniti `breathe, blow' [verb], daґhnem [1sg]
Lithuanian: du°sti `suffocate' [verb]
Latvian: dust `gasp' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhus-
Page in Pokorny: 268
Proto-Slavic form: *dъxъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `breathing, breath'
Page in Trubačev: V 178
Old Church Slavic: dъxъ `breathing, breath, smell' [m o]
Russian: dox (dial.) `rest' [m o]
Czech: dech `breathing, breath' [m o]
Slovak: dech (dial.) `breath' [m o]
Polish: dech `breath' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: da?h `breathing, breath' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. daІ?h (Vrgada) `breathing, breath' [m o], daІ?ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. da?h (Orbanicґi) `breath' [m o], da?ha [Gens]
Slovene: da°h `breathing, breath' [m o]; #Sln. daґh `breathing, breath' [m o] {1}
Bulgarian: daўx `breathing, breath' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dus•os
Lithuanian: du°sas `short breath, asthma' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhus-o-
Page in Pokorny: 268
Other cognates: Go. dius `wild animal' [n]
Notes: {1} Both forms are absent from Pleteršnik's dictionary.
Proto-Slavic form: *dъždžь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `rainstorm, rain'
Page in Trubačev: V 195-197
Old Church Slavic: dъždь `rain, rainstorm' [m jo]
Russian: dožd' `rain' [m jo], doždjaґ `rain' [Gens]
Czech: deґšt' `rain' [m jo]; #Cz. dešt' `rain' [m jo]
Old Czech:: deґšč `rain' [m jo], dšče [Gens]
Slovak: daґžd' `rain' [m jo], dažd'a [Gens]
Polish: deszcz `rain' [m jo]
Old Polish: dez†dz† `rain' [m jo], dz†dz†u [Gens]
Slovincian: de~iёšč `rain' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: dešcґ `rain' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: da?žd (Vuk: SW dial.) `rain' [m o], da°°žda [Gens]; #SCr. da?žd (Dubr.) `rain' [m o], da°žda; #SCr. da?žd (Prčanj) `rain' [m o], dažda? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. da?ž (Vrgada) `rain' [m jo], daža?; #SCr. C№ak. da~š (Orbanicґi) `rain' [m jo], dajža? `rain' [Gens], dažlja? [Gens]
Slovene: dЌ°ž `rain' [m jo], dЌžja° `rain' [Gens]
Bulgarian: daўžd `rain' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dus-diu-(s)
Page in Pokorny: 227+184
COMM: Watkins (1991: 175-176) argues that the basic meaning `rainstorm', attested in OCS, is in agreement with Skt. durdina- < *dus-di-n- explains why the compound contains the element *dus- `bad'. In this way he challenges the view that Trubetzkoy's and Vaillant's etymology cannot be correct because to the farmer rain is beneficial.
Other cognates: Skt. durdina- `rain, shower, rainy weather' [n]; Gk. eЩd…a `fair weather' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьbrь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `valley, ravine'
Page in Trubačev: V 176-177
Old Church Slavic: dьbrь `valley, gorge' [f i]
Russian: deґbri `jungle, thickets, dense forest' [Nompf i]
Old Czech:: debr№ `valley' [f i]
Old Polish: debrz `valley, hollow' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: debri (1302) `hollow, ravine' [Nompf i]
Slovene: debЌr `ravine' [f i]
Latvian: dubra `puddle, marshy spot' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhubh-r-i-
Certainty: -
COMM: I have reconstructed *dьbrь on the strength of the Old Church Slavic: and East Slavic evidence, but is plausible that the original form was *dъbrь (-> *dъno°), cf. OPl. debrz. Secondary forms with *i also occur in Baltic, e.g. Latv. dibęns `bottom' alongside dubęns.
Other cognates: Go. diups `deep' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *dь?nь
GRAM: m. n
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `day'
Page in Trubačev: V 213-214
Old Church Slavic: dьnь `day' [m n/jo], dьne [Gens]
Russian: den' `day' [m jo], dnja [Gens]
Czech: den `day' [m jo], dne [Gens]
Slovak: den№ `day' [m jo], dn№a [Gens]
Polish: dzienґ `day' [m jo], dnia [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: dzґenґ `day' [m jo], dnja [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: da?n `day' [m o], da?na [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. daІ?n (Vrgada) `day' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. da?n (Novi) `day' [m o], daІ?na [Gens], dne?va [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. da?n (Orbanicґi) `day' [m o], da?na [Gens]
Slovene: da?n `day' [m], dnę? [Gens], dnę?va [Gens]
Bulgarian: den `day' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *d(e)in-
Lithuanian: diena° `day' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: di°ena `day' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: deinan `day' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *di-n-
Page in Pokorny: 183
Other cognates: Skt. madhyaґm•-dina- `midday, noon' [m]; Lat. diЊs `day' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьlbiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `hollow, chisel'
Page in Trubačev: V 206
Russian: dolbiґti `hollow, chisel' [verb], dolbljuґ [1sg], dolbiґt [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: duґbiti `hollow, chisel' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhlbh -
Page in Pokorny: 246
COMM: Verb in *-iti containing the zero grade of *dhelbh- `dig'. Like Adams (1999: 738), I consider the etymological relationship with Toch. B ts„lp- `free (from)' doubtful.
Other cognates: OE delfan `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьlgota°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `length'
Page in Trubačev: V 208
Old Church Slavic: dlъgota (Ps. Sin, En., Supr.) `length, duration' [f ѓ]
Russian: dolgotaґ `length' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: dl„gu°oўtaў `length' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: dugo°ta `length' [f ѓ]
Slovene: doљgoґta `length' [f ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 197
COMM: Abstract noun in *-ota, cf. *vysota `height', *širota `width'.
Other cognates: Skt. d–rghaґ- `long'; Gk. doli^ГћГУГ› `long'
Proto-Slavic form: *dь°lgъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `long'
Page in Trubačev: V 208-209
Old Church Slavic: dlьgъ `long' [adj o]
Russian: doґlgij `long' [adj o]
Czech: dlouhyґ `long' [adj o]
Slovak: dlhyґ `long' [adj o]
Polish: dљugi `long' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: du?g `long' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. du?g (Vrgada) `long' [adj o]
Slovene: do?lg `long' [adj o], doґљga [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: daўґlaўg `long' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *diґlЂgos
Lithuanian: i°lgas `long' [adj o]
Latvian: il~gs `long (of time)' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dlh1gh-oґ-
IE meaning: long
Page in Pokorny: 197
Other cognates: Skt. d–rghaґ- `long'; Gk. dolicТj `long'
Proto-Slavic form: *dьliti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `last'
Page in Trubačev: V 210
Old Church Slavic: prodьljǫ (Supr.) `prolong' [1sg]
Russian: dliґt'sja `last' [verb]
Czech: dliґti `last' [verb]
COMM: Verb containing the unextended root *dlh1- `long', cf. -> *dь°lgъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьlti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `hollow, chisel'
Page in Trubačev: V 206
Church Slavic: dъlbsti (RuCS) `hollow, chisel' [verb]; #CS dlъbsti (RuCS) `hollow, chisel' [verb]
Russian: dolbiґti `hollow, chisel' [verb], dolbljuґ [1sg], dolbiґt [3sg]
Old Russian:: dъlbsti `hollow, chisel' [verb]; #ORu. dlъbsti `hollow, chisel' [verb]
Czech: dlbsti (Kott) `hollow, chisel' [verb]
Slovak: dlґbst' (dial.) `hollow, chisel, dig into' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: duґpsti `hollow, chisel' [verb], duґbЊm [1sg]
Slovene: doґљbsti `hollow, chisel' [verb], doґљbem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhlbh-tei
Page in Pokorny: 246
Other cognates: OE delfan `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьly
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `cask'
Page in Trubačev: V 210
Church Slavic: dьly (MBulg.) `clay cask' [f і], dьlъve [Gens] {1}; #CS dьly (RuCS) `cask' [f і]; #CS dъly (RuCS) `cask' [f і]; #CS delva (RuCS) `cask' [f ѓ]; #CS delьvь (RuCS) `cask' [f i]
Bulgarian: deґlva `big jug with handles' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *The closest cognate of this etymon seems to be Lat. dЎlium. OIr. delb f. `form, image' and W delw f. `form, image, idol' [f] are semantically more abstract.
Other cognates: Lat. dЎlium `pot, drinking vessel (of stone)' [n]
Notes: {1} The Nsg. is attested as dlъvi.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьlь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `length'
Page in Trubačev: V 210
Czech: deґl (poet.) `length' [f i]
Old Czech:: deґl `length' [f i]; #OCz. dle `length' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dlh1-
COMM: The unextended root *dlh1- `long' also occurs in Ru. dlinaґ `length'.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьnьsь
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `today'
Page in Trubačev: V 215
Old Church Slavic: dьnьsь `today' [adv]
Russian: dnes' (dial.) `today' [adv]
Czech: dnes `today, nowadays' [adv]
Slovak: dnes `today' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: da°nas `today' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. dana?s (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `today, nowadays' [adv]
Slovene: daґnЌs `today' [adv]; #Sln. dne?s `today' [adv]; #Sln. dЌnЌ°s `today' [adv]
Bulgarian: dnes `today' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Adverb consisting of dьnь `day' and enclitic sь `this'.
Page in Pokorny: 183
Other cognates: Lat. diЊs `day' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `tear, flay'
Page in Trubačev: V 218-219
Old Church Slavic: dьrati `flay' [verb], derǫ [1sg]
Russian: drat' `tear' [verb], deruґ [1sg], dereЁt [3sg]
Czech: draґti `tear' [verb], deru [1sg]
Slovak: drat' `tear' [verb]
Old Polish: dracґ `tear' [verb], dziorę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: draґti `flay' [verb]; #SCr. dera?ti `flay' [verb], de?rЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. dera?ti (Vrgada) `flay' [verb], de?reš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. dera?t (Orbanicґi) `flay' [verb], de?ro [3pl]
Slovene: dę?rati `flay' [verb], de•?rem [1sg]
Bulgarian: deraґ `flay' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *dir-
Lithuanian: di°rti `tear, peel' [verb], di°riu [1sg]; #Lith. dir~ti `tear, peel', deru° [1sg]
Latvian: di°ra^t `flay' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 206
COMM: Verb in *-ati with zero grade of the root *der-.
Other cognates: Skt. daґrti `scatter, split' [3sgaorinj]; Gk. dљrw `flay' [verb]; Go. distaiґran `tear apart' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrba
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: V 219
Russian: derbaґ (dial.) `new ploughed field, of which the hardened top layer has been removed; #Ru. virgin land, fallow land which has been ploughed up anew, overgrown fallow land' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: deґrba `turf' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *drbh-eh2
Other cognates: OIc. torfa `turf' [f]; OE turf `turf' [f]; OHG zurba `turf' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrbati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 219
Ukrainian: deґrbaty `remove turf' [verb]
Czech: drbati `scratch, scrape' [verb]
Slovak: drbat' `shake, pull' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *drbh-
Other cognates: OIc. torfa `turf' [f]; OE turf `turf' [f]; OHG zurba `turf' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrgati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 221
Russian: deЁrgat' `pull, tug' [verb]
Ukrainian: deґrhaty `pull, tug' [verb]
Czech: drhati (rare) `tear, pluck' [verb]
Polish: dziergacґ `stitch, make bobbin lace, comb (flax)' [verb]; #Pl. dzierzgacґ (obs., dial.) `stitch, make bobbin lace, comb (flax)' [verb]
Slovene: drґgati `rub, whet, sweep, strangle' [verb], dr?gam [1sg]; #Sln. drґzati `scrape, scratch, comb (flax), graze' [verb], dr?zam [1sg], dr?žem [1sg]
Lithuanian: di°rginti `irritate' [verb], di°rgina [3ps], di°rgino [3pt]
Indo-European reconstruction: *drHgґh-
Other cognates: OE tiergan `irritate, annoy' [verb]; MoHG zergen (dial.) `tease' [verb]; MoDu. tergen `provoke' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrnǫti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 221
Russian: deЁrnut' `pull, tug' [verb]
Czech: drhnouti `rub, scour, make bobbin lace, comb (flax)' [verb]
Slovak: drhnuґt' `clean, tear, comb (flax)' [verb]
Polish: zadzierzgna§cґ `tie (a knot)' [verb]
Slovincian: Ѕi°eёr№no†uё§c `rub, clean' [verb]
Slovene: drґgniti `rub, whet, scratch' [verb], dr?gnem [1sg]
Lithuanian: di°rginti `irritate, arouse' [verb], di°rgina [3ps], di°rgino [3pt]; #Lith. di°rgti `become irritated, get wet, become bad (weather), be retted, (J.) become weak' [verb], di°rgsta [3ps], di°rgo [3pt]
COMM: See -> *dьrgati.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrpati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 225
Czech: drpati (Kott) `pick, scratch, crumble' [verb]; #Cz. drpač' (Sil.) `tear off' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: drґpati `tear' [verb]
Slovene: drґpati `scratch' [verb], dr?pam [1sg], dr?pljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: daўґrpam `pull, drag' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *d(h)rph
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrvьn§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `field'
Russian: dereґvnja `village, (dial.) field, wasteland, ploughed field' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: dereґvnja `village, field' [f jѓ] {1}
Lithuanian: dirva° `(arable) land, field' [f ѓ] 2/4
Latvian: di°rva2 `(arable) land, field' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dr(H)-u-
COMM: The reconstruction of a zero grade implies that the sequence ere in the Russian: forms originates from the so-called vtoroe polnoglasie.
Other cognates: Skt. drіґvѓ- `spelt' [f]
Notes: {1} The meaning `field' is attested in the Domostroj.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrzati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `dare'
Page in Trubačev: V 227
Old Church Slavic: drьzati `dare' [verb], drьzajǫ [1sg]
Russian: derzaґt' `dare' [verb], derzaґju [1sg]
Old Czech:: drzati `dare' [verb]
Lithuanian: dri§~sti `dare' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrs-
Page in Pokorny: 259
COMM: The z of the Proto-Slavic form must be secondary.
Other cognates: Skt. dhrёs•n•uґ- (RV) `bold, courageous, strong' [adj]; Gk. qrasЪj `bold' [adj]; Go. ga-daursan `venture' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrznǫti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: V 227-228
Old Church Slavic: drьznǫti `dare' [verb]
Russian: derznuґt' `dare' [verb]
Old Czech:: drznuґti `dare' [verb]
Polish: darzna§cґ `dare' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dr?znuti `dare' [verb]
Slovene: drґzniti `dare' [verb], dr?znem [1sg]
Lithuanian: dri§~sti `dare' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrs- {1}
Page in Pokorny: 259
COMM: See -> *dьrzati.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrzъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `daring, bold'
Page in Trubačev: V 228-229
Old Church Slavic: drьzъ `daring, bold' [adj o]
Russian: deґrzyj (dial.) `daring, bold, impudent, rude' [adj o]
Czech: drzyґ `daring, bold, impudent' [adj o]
Slovak: drzyґ `daring, bold, impudent' [adj o]
Slovincian: ЅiЁґrziЁ `daring, bold' [adj o]
Slovene: dr?z `bold, impudent' [adj o]
Lithuanian: dra§su°s `courageous' [adj u] 4 {1}
Latvian: dru°oss `courageous' [adj o]; #Latv. dru°ošs `courageous' [adj o]
Old Prussian: dirsos (GrG) `good' [adj.]; #OPr. dyrsos (GrAF) `good, brave' [adj.]
Indo-European reconstruction: *dhrs-u-
Page in Pokorny: 259
COMM: The z of the Proto-Slavic form must be secondary.
Other cognates: Skt. dhrёs•n•uґ- (RV) `bold, courageous, strong' [adj]; Gk. qrasЪj `bold' [adj]; Go. ga-daursan [verb] 'to venture'
Notes: {1} AP 2 is attested in Daukša's writings.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьrzъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `bold'
Page in Trubačev: V 229
Russian: deґrzkij `impertinent, daring' [adj o]
Old Czech:: drzkyґ `unruly' [adj o]
Slovak: derski (dial.) `dexterous, agile' [adj o]
Polish: dziarski `lively, bold' [adj o]
Old Polish: darzki `daring, bold' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: dr?zak `impertinent, daring' [adj o]
Bulgarian: daўґrzaўk `impertinent, daring' [adj o]
Lithuanian: dra§su°s `courageous' [adj u] 4 {1}
Latvian: dru°oss `courageous' [adj o]; #Latv. dru°ošs `courageous' [adj o]
Old Prussian: dirsos (GrG) `good' [adj.]; #OPr. dyrsos (GrAF) `good, brave' [adj.]
Page in Pokorny: 259
COMM: See -> *dьrzъkъ\.
Notes: {1} AP 2 is attested in Daukša's writings.
Proto-Slavic form: *dьržati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `hold'
Page in Trubačev: V 230
Old Church Slavic: drьžati `hold, possess' [verb] {1}
Russian: deržaґt' `hold, keep' [verb], deržuґ [1sg], deґržit [3sg] {2}
Czech: držeti `hold, keep' [verb]
Slovak: držat' `hold, keep' [verb]
Polish: dzierz†ecґ `hold, possess' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: dr°žati `hold, keep' [verb], dr°ž–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drža?ti (Vrgada) `hold, keep' [verb], drži~s [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. drža?ti, drža~t (Orbanicґi) `hold, hold on, support, keep' [verb], drži~n [1sg]
Slovene: drґžati `hold, keep' [verb], držiґm [1sg] {3}
Bulgarian: daўržaґ `hold, keep' [verb]
IE meaning: d(h)rgh / d(h)rgґh
COMM: The root may be an extension of *dher-, cf. Skt. dhѓraґyati `hold', unless we assume that Gk. drŽssomai `seize, grab' also belongs here.
Other cognates: Av. dražaite `hold, lead' [verb]
Notes: {1} Spellings with ъ are predominant. In the SJS, the lemma is actually drъžati. {2} AP (c) in Old Russian (Zaliznjak 1985: 139). {3} The form držaґti (Pleteršnik I: 182) is a printing error.

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