Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*Č)


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Всего на Č (Ч) – 61 слово.

Proto-Slavic form: *ča°djь; ča°dja [ЧАДЬЕ, ЧАДЬЯ]
GRAM: m. jo; f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `smoke, soot'
Page in Trubačev: IV 9
Slovak: čadza (dial.) `smoke, soot' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ča?‹ `soot' [f i]; #SCr. ča?‹a `fumes, soot' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ča?‹a (Vrgada) `soot' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sa?je (Novi) `soot' [Nompf jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. sa?ji (Orbanicґi) `soot' [Nompf jѓ]
Slovene: čaґj `vapour, haze, abscess' [m jo]
COMM: See -> *čadъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *čadъ [ЧАДЪ]
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a? c?
PSLMEAN: `smoke, fumes'
Page in Trubačev: IV 9-10
Russian: čad `fumes, intoxication' [m o], čaґda [Gens]
Czech: čad `fumes' [m o]
Polish: czad `fumes, soot' [m o]
Slovincian: čaІuёd `smoke, fumes' [m o], ča~du† [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ča?d (RJA: 17th-18th c.) `fumes, soot' [m o]
Slovene: ča?d `smoke, fumes' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)Њd-o-
COMM: The accent paradigm of *čadъ cannot be determined with certainty. Bogatyrev (1995: 29) slightly prefers (a) to (c). Since the etymology is also unclear, there are a number of possible reconstructions, e.g. *k(є)ed-o-, k(є)eh1d(h)-o- or - if AP (a) is secondary - k(є)Њd(h)-o-. See also -> *kѓdi°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *ča°jati [ЧАЯТИ]
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: IV 10-11
Old Church Slavic: čajati `expect, thirst for, hope for' [verb], čajǫ [1sg]
Russian: čaґjat' `expect, hope for' [verb], čaґju [1sg], čaґet [3sg] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: ča?jati `wait' [verb]
Slovene: ča?jati `wait' [verb], ča?jem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kweh1i-e/o-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 636
COMM: Its has been a matter of dispute (see LIV s.v. *kєei- ) whether or not the root contains a laryngeal. Even though Dybo (1968: 205, 234, 236) classifies čajati as (c), it seems to me that the evidence warrants the reconstruction of AP (a), which in my framework implies the former presence of a laryngeal.
Other cognates: Skt. cѓґyati `perceive, observe' [verb]; Gk. t…w `esteem, respect highly' [verb]
Notes: {1} Also AP (a) in Old Russian::, with traces of (c) (Zaliznjak 1985: 133).
Proto-Slavic form: *čakati [ЧАКАТИ]
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wait, await, expect'
Page in Trubačev: IV 13
Old Czech:: čakati `wait, await' [verb]
Slovak: čakat' `wait, await' [verb]
Polish: czakacґ (Sil. dial.) `wait, await' [verb]
Old Polish: czakacґ `wait, await' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: čakacґ `wait, await' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: čakasґ `wait, await' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ča?kati (RJA) `wait, await, expect' [verb]; #SCr. Kajk. čo?kati (Bednja) `wait, await, expect' [verb], ča?okam [1sg]
Slovene: čaґkati `wait, await' [verb], čaґkam [1sg]
Bulgarian: čaґkam `wait, await' [verb]
COMM: It is tempting to assume that *čakati and -> *čajati contain the same basic root (cf. Meillet 1902-1905: 163), but this hypothesis does not explain the variation between *čakati and -> * čekati.
Proto-Slavic form: *čara [ЧАРА]
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `magic, sorcery'
Page in Trubačev: IV 22
Church Slavic: čara (RuCS) `sorcery' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: čara `sorcery' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: čar№a• `magic, sorcery' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: čara `magic, sorcery' [f ѓ]
Slovene: čaґra `magic, sorcery, sorceress' [f ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 641
COMM: See -> *čarъ.
Other cognates: Skt. karoґti `make' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čarodĕjь [ЧАРОДЕЙ]
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `enchanter, sorcerer'
Page in Trubačev: IV 24
Old Church Slavic: čarodĕi `enchanter, magician' [m jo]
Russian: čarodeґj `enchanter, magician' [m jo]
Czech: čarodĕj `enchanter, magician, sorcerer' [m jo]
Polish: czarodziej `enchanter, magician, sorcerer' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: čaro°djej (arch., obs.) `enchanter, magician, sorcerer' [m jo]
Slovene: čarode•°j `sorcerer' [m jo], čarode•ґja [Gens]
Bulgarian: čarodeґj `sorcerer' [m jo]
Page in Pokorny: 641, 235
COMM: kwЊro-dheh1-i-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *čarъ [ЧАРЪ]
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `magic, sorcery'
Page in Trubačev: IV 26
Old Church Slavic: čary (Euch.) `magic, sorcery' [Accpm o]
Russian: čaґry `magic, enchantment' [Nompm o]
Czech: čaґry `magic, sorcery' [Nompm o] {1}
Old Czech:: čaґry `magic, sorcery' [Nompm o] {1}
Slovak: čar (poet.) `charm, enchantment' [m o], čary `magic, sorcery' [Nomp o]
Polish: czar `charm, enchantment' [m o], czary `magic, sorcery' [Nomp o]
Slovene: ča?r `sorcery, magic' [m o]
Bulgarian: čar `charm, magic' [m o]
Lithuanian: kerai~ `sorcery' [Nplm o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwЊr-o-
Page in Pokorny: 641
COMM: Unlike Baltic, Slavic has a lengthened grade vowel in the word for `sorcery'. It is possible that čarъ and čara continue a root noun.
Other cognates: Skt. karoґti `make' [verb]
Notes: {1} The singular čaґr is uncommon. The SSJC№ also mentions čaґr or čar (poet.) `unusual beauty, magical appeal'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ča°sъ [ЧАСЪ]
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `time'
Page in Trubačev: IV 27-30
Old Church Slavic: časъ `time, moment, hour' [m o]
Russian: čas `hour, moment' [m o], čaґsa [Gens], časyґ [Nomp] {1}
Czech: čas `time, weather' [m o]
Slovak: čas `time, weather' [m o]
Polish: czas `time' [m o]
Slovincian: ča†~s `time' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ča?s `moment' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ča?s (Vrgada, Novi) `moment' [m o], ča?sa [Gens]
Slovene: ča°s `time' [m o], čaґsa [Gens]
Bulgarian: čas `hour' [m o]
Old Prussian: k–sman `time' [Accs]
COMM: The root may be reconstructed as *k(є)eh1s-, but it has been suggested that the *s belongs to the suffix, the root *kЊ (i.e. *keh1) being a variant of *kЊ(i), cf. Skt. cѓґyati. For the latter verb I have reconstructed *kweh1i-e/o- (-> *ča°jati).
Other cognates: Alb. koheЁ `time, weather' [f]
Notes: {1} AP (a) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 134).
Proto-Slavic form: *če?rpъ [ЧЕРПЪ]
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: IV 72
Church Slavic: črĕpъ (Parim) `potsherd' [m o]
Russian: čeґrep `skull' [m o], čeґrepa [Gens]
BeloRussian: čeґrap `skull' [m o], čeґrapa [Gens]
Ukrainian: čeґrep `skull' [m o], čeґrepa [Gens]
Czech: (s)tr№ep `broken piece of pottery, fragment' [m o]; #Cz. čerep (arch., dial.) `broken piece of pottery' [m o]
Slovak: črep `broken piece of pottery, vase, skull' [m o]
Polish: trzop (obs.) `potsherd, pot' [m o] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: cri?jep `broken piece of pottery, tile' [m o]
Slovene: čre•?p `shard, broken piece of pottery, jug, skull' [m o]
Bulgarian: čeґrep `skull' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kerp-o-
Page in Pokorny: 944
COMM: Obviously derived from *(s)kerp-, cf. OHG scirbi n. `potsherd', scarbЎn `cut up'.
Other cognates: OHG scirbi `potsherd' [n]
Notes: {1} Ousted by czerep, which is of East Slavic origin.
Proto-Slavic form: *če?rvo [ЧЕРВО]
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: IV 82-83
Old Church Slavic: črĕvo `belly, womb, (pl.) entrails' [n o]
Russian: čereЁvo (dial.) `belly, womb' [n o]; #Ru. čeґrevo (dial.) `belly' [n o]
Ukrainian: čeґrevo (dial.) `belly' [n o]
Czech: str№evo `gut, intestine' [n o]; #Cz. tr№evo (Kott) `gut, intestine' [n o]
Old Czech:: (s)tr№ĕvo `gut, intestine' [n o]
Slovak: črevo `gut, intestine' [n o]
Polish: trzewo `entrails, intestines' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: črjewo `intestine' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: crije°vo `gut, intestine' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. čri?vo (Vrgada) `gut, intestine' [n o], čri~va [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. čri?vo (Novi) `gut, intestine' [n o], čriґva [Nomp]
Slovene: čre•vo•? `belly' [n s], čreve•?sa [Gens]
Bulgarian: červoґ `intestine' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ker-m/uё-
Old Prussian: kЊrmens `body'
Other cognates: Skt. caґrman- `hide, skin' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *čekati [ЧЕКАТИ]
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wait, await, expect'
Page in Trubačev: IV 36-37
Church Slavic: čekati (Venc.) `wait, await' [verb]
Russian: čekaґt' (S., W. dial.) `wait, await' [verb]
Ukrainian: čekaґty `wait, await' [verb]
Czech: čekati `wait, await' [verb]
Old Czech:: čekati `wait, await' [verb]; #OCz. čkaґti `wait, await' [verb]
Polish: czekacґ `wait, await' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: če?kati `wait, await, expect' [verb], če?kѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. če?kati (Vrgada) `wait, await, expect' [verb], če?kaІЇš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. če?kat (Orbanicґi) `wait' [verb], če?kan [1sg]
Macedonian: čeґka `wait, await' [verb]
COMM: Stang (1961: 68-69) has suggested that čekati is cognate with OPr. kackint `attain', Lith. ka°kti `be sufficient' (cf. Toporov PJ 1980: 162-163 for the semantic development). In Slavic, we may originally have had *čekti alongside the intensive *čĕkati. According to an older etymology (cf. Vasmer s.v. čekaґt'), *čeka- is a reduplicated variant of the root *keh2- that we find in Lat. cѓrus `dear', MHG huore `whore' (note, however, that according to Schrijver (1996: 98, 112), the -r- belongs to the root here). It seems to me that Stang's scenario is preferable because it offers a solutio for the variation *ček-/čak-.
Proto-Slavic form: *čelesьnъ(jь) [ЧЕЛЕСЬНЪ]
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: IV 39
Church Slavic: čelesьnyj (RuCS) `main, principal, top' [adj o]
Old Russian:: čelesьnyj `main, principal, top' [adj o]
Old Czech:: čeles(e)n `oven' [m o]
Slovene: čelę?sЌn `main, principal, top' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 544
COMM: The stem shape čel-es- is probably secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *čelo° [ЧЕЛО]
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `forehead'
Page in Trubačev: IV 45-47
Old Church Slavic: čelo `forehead' [n o]
Czech: čelo `forehead, front' [n o]
Slovak: čelo `forehead, front' [n o]
Polish: czoљo `forehead, front' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: če°lo `forehead' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. čelo? (Vrgada) `forehead' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. čelo? (Novi) `forehead' [n o], če?la [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. čelo? (Hvar) `forehead' [n o], čela? [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. čelo? (Orbanicґi) `forehead, brow' [n o], čie~la [Nomp]
Slovene: čeґlo• `forehead, front' [n o]
Bulgarian: čeloґ `forehead' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 544
COMM: A neuter o-stem derived from *kelH- `lift'.
Proto-Slavic form: *čelovĕkъ [ЧЕЛОВЕКЪ]
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `man'
Page in Trubačev: IV 48-50
Old Church Slavic: človĕkъ `man' [m o]
Russian: čeloveґk `man' [m o], čeloveґka [Gens]
Ukrainian: čoloviґk `man' [m o]
Czech: človĕk `man' [m o]
Slovak: človek `man' [m o]
Polish: czљowiek `man' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: čo°vjek `man' [m o], čo°vjeka [Gens]; #SCr. čo?vjek `man' [m o], čovje°ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. čovi?k (Vrgada) `man' [m o], čovi?ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. čovi?k (Novi) `man' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. čovi?k {1} (Orbanicґi) `man' [m o], čovi?ka [Gens]
Slovene: čloґve•k `man' [m o], člove•ґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: čeloveґk `man' [m o]; #Bulg. čoveґk `man' [m o]
Lithuanian: ke~lias `family, tribe, generation' [m jo] 4; #Lith. vai~kas `child' [m o]
Notes: {1} Less frequently čove?k or šove?k.
Proto-Slavic form: *čel§adь [ЧЕЛЯДЬ]
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `servants'
Page in Trubačev: IV 40-42
Old Church Slavic: čelĕdijǫ (Mar.) `servants' [Inssf i]
Russian: čeґljad' `servants' [f i]
Czech: čeled' `servants' [f i]
Slovak: čel'ad' `family, members of a household, hired workers' [f i]
Polish: czeladzґ `servants' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: če?ljѓd `servants, family' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. če?ljaІЇd (Vrgada) `servants, family' [f i]
Slovene: čeґljad `children, servants' [f i]
Lithuanian: kilti°s `tribe' [m i] 4
Latvian: cil^ts `tribe, origin' [f i]
Page in Pokorny: 544
COMM: See -> *kolĕ°no.
Proto-Slavic form: *čemerica; čemerika [ЧЕМЕРИЦА, ЧЕМЕРИКА]
GRAM: f. jѓ; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `hellebore (Veratrum album)
Page in Trubačev: IV 52-53
Russian: čemeriґca `hellebore' [f jѓ]
Czech: čemer№ice `hellebore' [f jѓ]
Slovak: čemer№ica `hellebore' [f jѓ]
Polish: ciemierzyca `hellebore' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: czemierzyca `hellebore' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: čeme°rika `hellebore' [f ѓ]
Slovene: čemeriґka `hellebore, morose person' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: čemeriґka `hellebore' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: ke~meras `hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabium), burr marigold (Bidens tripartita)' [m o]
Latvian: cemerin§š `hellebore' [m jo]
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. kŽmaroj `delphinium' [m]; Gk. kŽm(m)aron `aconite' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *čemerъ [ЧЕМЕРЪ]
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: IV 52-53
Russian: čeґmer (dial.) `crown (of head), forelock, headache, belly-ache, horse's disease' [m o]; #Ru. čeґmer (dial.) `poison, illness caused by poison' [m o]
Czech: čemer `name of an illness, aversion' [m o]
Slovak: čemer `illness caused by coagulation of the blood, weakness' [m o]
Polish: czemier (dial.) `hellebore, stomach-ache (of a horse)' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: če?mЊr `venom, anger' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. če?mer (Vrgada) `venom, anger' [m o]
Slovene: čemęґr `venom, anger, gall' [m o]; #Sln. čme•ґr `venom, anger, gall' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kemero-
Lithuanian: ke~meras `hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabium), burr marigold' (Bidens tripartita) [m o]
Latvian: cemerin§š `hellebore' [m jo]
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Gk. kŽmaroj `delphinium' [m]; Gk. kŽm(m)aron `aconite' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *čerda°; čeґrdъ [ЧЕРДА, ЧЕРДЬ]
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `file, herd'
Page in Trubačev: IV 60-63
Old Church Slavic: črĕda `order, herd' [f ѓ]
Russian: čeredaґ `sequence, file, bur-marigold, (obs.) turn, (dial.) herd of cattle' [f ѓ], čereduґ [Accs]; #Ru. čeredaґ (dial.) `sequence, turn' [f ѓ], čeґredu [Accs]; #Ru. čereЁd `turn, (coll.) queue' [m o]
Ukrainian: čeґred `turn' [m o]
Czech: tr№iґda `row, turn, street' [f ѓ]
Slovak: čr№ieda `herd' [f ѓ]
Polish: trzoda `herd' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: czrzoda `herd' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: str№o†ґuёdaў `herd' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: črjoґda `multitude' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: čreґda `turn, sequence' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. čr–da? (Vrgada: obs.) `herd (of sheep)' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. črЊda? (Novi) `herd (of sheep)' [f ѓ], čre?du [Accs]
Slovene: čre•ґda `flock, herd, row' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: čerdaґ `herd (of cattle)' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kerdaЂ
Lithuanian: (s)ker~džius `herdsman, shepherd' [m ju]
Old Prussian: kЊrdan `time' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *On the basis of Balto-Slavic and Gothic we may reconstruct *(s)kґerdh-eh2. The connection with the Indo-Aryan forms mentioned below is dubious (Mayrhofer EWAia II: 619-620).
Page in Pokorny: 579
Other cognates: Skt. sґaґrdha- `host (of Maruts)' [m]; Skt. sґaґrdhas- `troop, host (of Maruts)' [n]; Av. sarЌ‹a- [m or n] `kind, nature'; Go. haiґrda [f ѓ].
Notes: {1} The connection with the Indo-Aryan forms is dubious, however (Mayrhofer EWAia II: 619-620).
Proto-Slavic form: *čerdi°ti [ЧЕРДИТИ]
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: IV 63
Church Slavic: črĕditi `receive, treat, satiate' [verb]
Russian: čerediґt' (dial.) `clean, clear, treat, establish' [verb]
Czech: tr№iґditi `classify, sort' [verb]; #Cz. str№iґditi (Kott) `group, distribute' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: črjoґdzґicґ `pile up' [verb]
Slovene: čre•ґditi `order, arrange' [verb], čre•?dim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kґerdh-
Page in Pokorny: 579
Other cognates: Skt. sґardhaґ- `herd, multitude' [m]; Go. haiґrda `herd' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *čermъxa; čermъša; čermъšь; čermuxa; čermuša
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. jѓ; f. i
PSLMEAN: `ramson, bird cherry'
Page in Trubačev: IV 66-68
Old Church Slavic: črĕmošь (Ps. Dim.) `ramson' [f i?]
Russian: čereЁmuxa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Ru. čereЁmxa (dial.) `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Ru. čeremšaґ `ramson' [f jѓ]
Old Russian:: čeremъxa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: čereґmuxa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. čereґmxa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Czech: str№emcha `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Cz. čermucha (Jungmann) `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: tr№ĕmcha `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Slovak: čremcha `bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Polish: trzemcha `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Pl. trzemucha `ramson, bird cherry' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: cri?jemuša `ramson' [f jѓ]
Slovene: črę?mha `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Sln. črę?msa `bird cherry' [f ѓ]; #Sln. črę?moš `ramson' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kerm-(o)us•-; sґerm-(o)us•-
Lithuanian: kermuše†~ (dial.) `tip of a drill, top of a flail, ramson' [f Њ] 3b
COMM: The variation between BSl. *k- and *sґ- (cf. -> *sermъša, etc.) points to an initial palatovelar. The plain velar may have arisen before *r . In this connection it should be noted that the cognates outside Balto-Slavic reflect *kґrem- or *kґrom- instead of *kґerm-. The suffix apparently contained an s.
Other cognates: Gk. krТmmuon (Hom.), krТmuon (Ion., Att.) `onion' [n]; Gk. krљmuon (Hsch.) `onion' [n]; OIr. crem `dog's leek, wild garlic leek, gentian, buckrams' [m]; OE hramsa `ramson' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *černovitъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `molar'
Page in Trubačev: -
Church Slavic: črĕnovitъ (RuCS) `molar' [m o]; #CS črĕnovitьсь (RuCS) `molar' [m jo]
Page in Pokorny: 582
COMM: See -> *černъ II.
Proto-Slavic form: *černovъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `molar'
Page in Trubačev: IV 68-69
Old Church Slavic: črĕnovьnyję (Ps. Sin.) `molar' [Accpm o]
Czech: tr№enovyґ (zub) `molar' [adj o]
Slovak: čr№enovyґ (zub) `molar' [adj o]
Polish: (za§b) trzonowy `molar' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 582
COMM: See -> *černъ II.
Proto-Slavic form: *černъ III; čerĕnъ; čerĕnь
GRAM: m. o; m. o; m. jo
Page in Trubačev: IV 64-65
Russian: čeren (Dal') `salt pan' [m o]; #Ru. čren (Dal') `salt pan' [m o]; #Ru. cereґn (Dal') `salt pan' [m o]; #Ru. cren (Dal') `salt pan' [m o]; #Ru. ciren (Dal') `salt pan' [m o]; #Ru. čeґren (Arx.) `salt pan' [m o]
Old Russian:: cerenъ `tub for the extraction of salt' [m o]
Ukrainian: čeriґn' `stove bottom' [m jo]; #Ukr. čeriґn' `stove bottom' [m/f i]; #Ukr. čeroґn (dial.) `stove bottom' [m o], čeroґnu [Gens]
Czech: čer№en `device for fishing' [m o]
Old Czech:: čer№ĕn `mountain ridge, rafter, square fishing-net' [m o]
Slovak: čeren№ `fishing-net' [m jo]
Polish: trzon `stove bottom' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: če°rjen (dial.) `cap with air-hole on a stove, brazier on a hearth, small basket for drying grain on a hearth' [m o]
Slovene: čere•°n `rocky place' [m o], čere•ґna [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)er-no- {1}
COMM: Illič-Svityč (1963: 43) only mentions forms that may reflect *černъ. Since Ru. cereґn (Perm) might just as well continue *čerĕn, the evidence for AP (b) - an therefore for an old neuter - is weak, the most important piece of evidence probably being Ukr. čeranoґ (dial.). The etymological connection with Gk. kљrnoj [n/m] (also tŽ kљrna [Nompn]) `earthen dish affixed with small pots for miscellaneous offerings' is doubtful.
Proto-Slavic form: *černъ II; černь II
GRAM: m. o; m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stem, stub'
Page in Trubačev: IV 69-70
Russian: čeґren (S. dial.) `molar' [m o]
Czech: tr№en№ `stem of a mushroom' [m jo]; #Cz. čren (dial.) `jaw, jaw-bone' [m o]
Slovak: čren `molar' [m o]
Polish: trzon `stem of a mushroom, trunk' [m o]
Lithuanian: ke~ras `tree-stump, stub, bush, shrub' [m o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(є)er(H)-no- {1}
Page in Pokorny: 582
COMM: If the Celtic forms mentioned below are cognate, the root must be *ker-.
Other cognates: OIr. cern `angle, corner' [f]; W cern `cheekbone, side of the head' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *černъ I; černь I
GRAM: m. o; m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `handle'
Page in Trubačev: IV 69-70
Church Slavic: črĕnъ (RuCS) `handle' [m o]
Russian: čeґren' (dial.) `handle' [m jo]
Polish: trzon `handle' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: črona `handle' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: cre?n `handle' [m o]
Slovene: čre•?n `handle' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwer-no-
Other cognates: Skt. kaґrn•a- `ear'
Proto-Slavic form: *čerpati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scoop, draw'
Page in Trubačev: IV 71
Old Russian:: čerepati `scoop, draw' [verb]
Ukrainian: čereґpaty (dial.) `scoop, draw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: cre°pati (Dubr.) `scoop, draw' [verb]
Slovene: čre•ґpati `scoop, draw, gulp' [verb], čre•ґpam [1sg], čre•ґpljem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kerp-
Lithuanian: kir~pti `chop, cut' [verb], kerpu° [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kerp-
Page in Pokorny: 944
Other cognates: OHG scirbi `potsherd'
Proto-Slavic form: *čerpti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scoop, draw'
Page in Trubačev: IV 71-72
Old Church Slavic: počrĕti `scoop, draw' [verb], počrьpǫ [1sg]
Czech: čr№iґti (Jungmann) `scoop, draw' [verb]
Old Czech:: čr№ieti `scoop, draw' [verb], čru [1sg]
Slovak: čriet' (poet.) `gather' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kerp-; kirp-
Lithuanian: kir~pti `chop, cut' [verb], kerpu° [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *-
Page in Pokorny: 944
COMM: Though the semantic development is not evident, I assume that čerp- continues PIE *(s)kerp- `cut off, tear off'.
Other cognates: Lat. carpere `pick, pluck' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čerslo°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: IV 74-75
Old Church Slavic: črĕsla `loins' [Nompn o]
Russian: čeresloґ (dial.) `ploughshare' [n o]; #Ru. čeґresla (dial.) `waist, groins' [Nompn o]
Ukrainian: čeresloґ `ploughshare' [n o]
Czech: (s)tr№iґslo `cortex, bark (used in tanning), planks, groin' [n o]
Slovak: črieslo `lintel' [n o]
Polish: trzosљa (arch.) `loins, groin' [Nompn o]; #Pl. trzoґsљa (dial.) `loins, groin' [Nompn o]
Upper Sorbian: črjoґsљo `ploughshare' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: črije°slo `cortex, bark (used in tanning)' [n o]
Slovene: čre•ґslo• `cortex, bark (used in tanning)' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kersloґ
Lithuanian: ker~slas `chisel, cutter' [m o]
Old Prussian: kersle `axe with two blades'
Page in Pokorny: 941
COMM: Derivative of the root *(s)kert-. The suffix may be reconstructed as *-slom, but *-tlom is more attractive. It does not seem implausible that *kers-tlo- < *kert-tlo- became *kerslo- in Balto-Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *čersti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: IV 75-76
Church Slavic: očrĕsti `carve' [verb], očrъtǫ [1sg]; #CS čьrsti (RuCS) `hew, slash' [verb], čьrtǫ
Old Russian:: čьrsti `hew, slash' [verb], čьrtu [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kerst-; kirst-
Lithuanian: kir~sti `hew, slash' [verb], kertu° [1sg]
Latvian: ci°rst `hew, slash' [verb], cЊ°rtu [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kert-
Page in Pokorny: 941
Other cognates: Skt. krёntaґti `cut (off), split, break' [verb]; OHG scrintan `split (intr.), burst' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čersъ; čerzъ
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `over, through'
Page in Trubačev: IV 76-77
Church Slavic: črĕsъ `through' [prep]
Russian: čeґrez `over, through' [prep]
Old Russian:: čerezъ `over, through' [prep]; #ORu. čeresъ `over, through' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: čre?z (dial.) `through, by means of' [prep]
Slovene: čre•°z `over, beyond, against' [prep]; #Sln. čre°z `over, beyond, against' [prep]
Bulgarian: črez `through, by means of' [prep]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kerso-
Lithuanian: (s)ker~sas `transverse, cross' [adj o]; #Lith. (s)kersai~ `across' [adv]
Latvian: sk§Њ°rss `transverse, cross, bad' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *skert
Proto-Slavic form: *červьje
GRAM: n. io
Page in Trubačev: IV 83-84
Russian: čereЁv'ja `belly' [Nompn o]
Old Russian:: čerevije `hide from an animal's belly, shoe' [n io]
Czech: tr№evo (Kott) `footwear' [n o]; #Cz. str№eviґ (Kott) `footwear' [n io]
Old Czech:: tr№ĕviґ `footwear' [n io]
Slovene: čre•ґvje `intestines' [n jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ker-m/uё-
Old Prussian: kЊrmens `body'
Other cognates: Skt. caґrman- `hide, skin' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *česa°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `comb, scratch'
Page in Trubačev: IV 85-87
Old Church Slavic: česati `pick, pluck' [verb], češǫ [1sg]
Russian: česaґt' `scratch, comb' [verb], češuґ [1sg], čeґšet [3sg]
Czech: česati `scratch, comb' [verb]
Slovak: česat' `comb, hackle' [verb]
Polish: czesacґ `comb, hackle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: če°sati `scratch, comb' [verb], če?šЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. česa?ti (Vrgada) `scratch' [verb], če?šeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. česa?t (Orbanicґi) `comb' [verb], če?šen [1sg]
Slovene: čeґsati `tear, scratch, comb' [verb], če•ґšem [1sg]
Lithuanian: ka°sti `dig, rake' [verb]
Latvian: kast `rake' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kes-
Page in Pokorny: 585
Other cognates: Hitt. kiszi `comb' [verb]; OIr. ciґr `comb' [f]; OE heord `hair' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *česnъ; česno; česnъkъ
GRAM: m. o; n. o; m. o
PSLMEAN: `garlic'
Page in Trubačev: IV 89-90
Russian: česnoґk `garlic' [m o]
Old Russian:: česnъkъ `garlic' [m o]
Czech: česnek `garlic' [m o]
Slovak: cesnak `garlic' [m o]
Polish: czosnek `garlic' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: če°san `garlic' [m o]; #SCr. če°sno `garlic' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. če°san (Orbanicґi) `garlic' [m o], česna? [Gens]
Slovene: čeґsЌn `garlic' [m o], čeґsna [Gens]; #Sln. čeґsnЌk `garlic (dim.)' [m o], čeґsЌnka [Gens], čeґsnЌka [Gens]
Bulgarian: čeґsaўn `garlic' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kesn-o- {1}
Certainty: -
COMM: As the Celtic forms point to *kasn-, it is likely that this etymon is not of IE origin.
Other cognates: OIr. cainnenn `leek' [f ѓ]; W cennin `leek'
Proto-Slavic form: *četverъ; četvorъ
GRAM: num.
PSLMEAN: `four'
Page in Trubačev: IV 93-94
Old Church Slavic: četvorъ `four' [num]
Russian: čeґtvero `four' [Nomsn num]
Czech: čtveryґ `four' [num]
Polish: czworo `four' [Nomsn num]
Serbo-Croatian: če?tver `fourfold' [adj o]; #SCr. če?tvero `four' [num Nomsn]; #SCr. če?tvoro `four' [num Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. če?tvero `(Vrgada, Orbanicґi) four' [num Nomsn]
Slovene: četvę?r `four, quadruple' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ketuer-; ketuor-
Lithuanian: ketveri° `four' [Nompm num]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kweґtuer-; kweґtuor-
IE meaning: four
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. catvѓґras [Nompm]; Skt. catuґras [Accpm]
Proto-Slavic form: *četvьrtъ
GRAM: num. o
PSLMEAN: `fourth'
Page in Trubačev: IV 95
Old Church Slavic: četvrьtъ `fourth' [num o]
Russian: četveЁrtyj `fourth' [num o]
Czech: čtvrtyґ `fourth' [num o]
Polish: czwarty `fourth' [num o]
Old Polish: cztwarty `fourth' [num o]
Serbo-Croatian: če°tvr?t– `fourth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. četvr?t– (Vrgada) `fourth' [num o]; #SCr. C№ak. četr?ti (Orbanicґi) `fourth' [num o]
Slovene: četrґti `fourth' [num o]
Bulgarian: četvaўґrti `fourth' [num o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ketuer-; ketuor-
Lithuanian: ketvir~tas `fourth' [num o]; #Lith. ketvertas (OLith.) `fourth' [num o]
Latvian: cetur^tai~s `fourth' [num o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwetur-to-
IE meaning: fourth
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. caturthaґ- `fourth' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *čety°re
GRAM: num.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `four'
Page in Trubačev: IV 97-98
Old Church Slavic: četyre `four' [num]
Russian: četyґre `four' [num]
Czech: čtyr№i `four' [num]
Polish: cztery `four' [num]
Old Polish: cztyrze `four' [num]; #OPl. czterzy `four' [num]
Serbo-Croatian: če°tiri `four' [num]; #SCr. C№ak. četi?ri (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `four' [num]
Slovene: štiґrje `four' [num], štiґri [f/n]; #Sln. četiґrje `four' [num], četiґri [f/n]
Bulgarian: četiґri `four' [num]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ketur-
Lithuanian: keturi° `four' [Nompm]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kweґtur-
IE meaning: four
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. catvѓґras [Nompm]; Skt. catuґras [Accpm]
Proto-Slavic form: *če°znǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `disappear'
Page in Trubačev: IV 100-101
Russian: čeґznut' (dial.) `disappear, vanish, perish' [verb]
Ukrainian: čeґznuty `disappear, (dial.) perish' [verb]
Polish: czezna§cґ (obs.) `wither, disappear, vanish' [verb] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: če?znuti `thirst for, long for, yearn' [verb], če?znЊm [1sg]
Bulgarian: čeґzna `disappear, vanish' [verb]
Notes: {1} According to Banґkowski (2000: 229), this word was originally limited to the eastern dialects and must be considered a ruthenism.
Proto-Slavic form: *čędo; čęda; čędъ
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ; m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `child'
Page in Trubačev: IV 102-104
Old Church Slavic: čędo `child' [n o]
Russian: čaґdo (obs.) `child, offspring' [n o]
Old Czech:: čad `little boy' [m o]; #OCz. čaґd `little boy' [m o]; #OCz. čada `little girl' [f ѓ]; #OCz. čaґda `little girl' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: če?do (arch.) `child' [n o]
Bulgarian: čeґdo `child' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(e)n-do-
Page in Pokorny: 563
Other cognates: Gk. kainТj `new' [adj]; Lat. recЊns `new, fresh'; MW bachgen `boy'
Proto-Slavic form: *čędь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: IV 104
Old Church Slavic: čędь `people' [f i]
Church Slavic: čadь (RuCS) `children, people, servants' [f i]
Old Russian:: čadь `children, people, servants' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: čed `family, servants' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *k(e)n-di-
Page in Pokorny: 563
Other cognates: OIr. ceneґl `nation, tribe'
Proto-Slavic form: *čę?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `part'
Page in Trubačev: IV 107-108
Old Church Slavic: čęstь `part' [f i]
Russian: čast' `part' [f i]
Czech: čaґst `part' [f i]; #Cz. čest `part' [f i] {1}
Old Czech:: čĕst `part' [f i]; #OCz. čiest `part' [f i]
Slovak: čast' `part' [f i]
Polish: częsґcґ `part' [f i]
Bulgarian: čast `part' [f i]
Lithuanian: kan~dis `bite' [io] 2
Indo-European reconstruction: *knd-
Notes: {1} Cz. čaґst must have adopted the root vowel of the diminutive čaґstka (Verweij 1994: 518).
Proto-Slavic form: *čęstъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `frequent, dense'
Page in Trubačev: IV 106
Old Church Slavic: čęstъ `frequent, dense' [adj o]; #OCS čęsto `often' [adv]
Russian: čaґstyj `frequent, close (together), dense' [adj o]; #Ru. čaґsto `often' [adv]
Czech: častyґ `frequent' [adj o]; #Cz. často `often' [adv]
Slovak: častyґ `frequent' [adj o]; #Slk. často `often' [adv]
Polish: częsty `frequent' [adj o]; #Pl. często `often' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: če?st `frequent, dense' [adj o], čeґsta [Nomsf]
Slovene: čęґsto• `often' [adv]
Bulgarian: čeґsto `often' [adv]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kimsґto-
Lithuanian: kim~štas `packed, stuffed' [ppp o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kmkґ-to-
Page in Pokorny: 555
Proto-Slavic form: *či
GRAM: conj.
Page in Trubačev: IV 109-110
Church Slavic: či `because' [conj]; #CS čimь `what' [Isgmn]
Russian: či (dial.) `if, or' [conj]
Czech: či `if' [conj]
Polish: czy `if' [conj]
Serbo-Croatian: či `if' [conj]
Slovene: či° `if' [conj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwiH
Page in Pokorny: 646
Other cognates: Av. č– `how' [adv]; Lat. qu– `how, why' [adv]; OE hwyЇ, hw– `why' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *či?nъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: IV 113-115
Old Church Slavic: činъ `row, order, rank, rule' [m o]
Russian: čin `rank, order, ceremony' [m o], čiґna [Gens]
Czech: čin `affair, act, deed' [m o]
Slovak: čin `act, deed' [m o]
Polish: czyn `affair, act, deed' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: či?n `appearance, form' [m o]
Slovene: či?n `act, deed, (from Russian:) rank' [m o]
Bulgarian: čin `rank' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwei-no-
Page in Pokorny: 637
Other cognates: Skt. cinoґti `gather, arrange, pile up' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čini°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: IV 112-113
Old Church Slavic: činiti `arrange, construct' [verb], činjǫ [1sg]
Russian: činiґt' `repair' [verb], činjuґ [1sg], čiґnit [3sg]; #Ru. činiґt' `carry out, execute' [verb], činjuґ [1sg], činiґt [3sg]
Czech: činiti `do, make, carry out, act' [verb]
Slovak: činit' `do, make, carry out, act' [verb]
Polish: czynicґ `do, make, carry out, act' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: či°niti `do, make, sift' [verb], či°n–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. čini?ti (Vrgada) `do, make, (se) appear' [verb], čini~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. čini?ti (Orbanicґi) `make, force' [verb], čini~n [1sg]
Slovene: čiґniti `sift, do, bring about' [verb], či?nim [1sg]
Bulgarian: čiґnja `do, cost' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwei-n-
Page in Pokorny: 637
COMM: In view of the *-n-, we seem to be dealing with a derivative of činъ.
Other cognates: Skt. cinoґti `gather, arrange, pile up' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čisti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: IV 119
Old Church Slavic: čisti `count, read, honour' [verb], čьtǫ [1sg]
Czech: čiґsti `read' [verb], čtu [1sg]
Old Polish: czysґcґ `read' [verb], cztę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: čiґsti (13th-16th c.) `read' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kit-
Latvian: šk§ist `think, suppose, seem' [verb], šk§i°etu [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kw(e)it-
Page in Pokorny: 637
Other cognates: Skt. ceґtati `perceive, take notice of' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *či°stiti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: IV 120
Old Church Slavic: čistiti `clean, purify' [verb], čištǫ [1sg]
Russian: čiґstit' `clean, purify' [verb], čiґšču [1sg]
Czech: čistiti `clean, purify' [verb]
Slovak: čistit' `clean, purify' [verb]
Polish: czysґcicґ `clean, purify' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: či?stiti `clean, sweep' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. či?stit (Orbanicґi) `clean' [verb]
Slovene: čiґstiti `clean, purify' [verb], či?stim [1sg]
Bulgarian: čiґstja `clean' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kid-t-
Page in Pokorny: 920
Proto-Slavic form: *či°stъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `clean, pure'
Page in Trubačev: IV 121-122
Old Church Slavic: čistъ `clean, pure' [adj o]
Russian: či°styj `clean, pure' [adj o]
Czech: čistyґ `clean, pure' [adj o]
Slovak: čistyґ `clean, pure' [adj o]
Polish: czysty `clean, pure' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: či?st `clean, pure, clear' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. či?st (Vrgada) `clean, pure, clear' [adj o], čista? [Nomsf], či?sto [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. či?s (Orbanicґi) `clean, pure, clear' [adj o], či?sta [Nomsn], či?sto [Nomsn]
Slovene: či°st `clean, pure' [adj o]
Bulgarian: čist `clean, pure, clear' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)kiЂsto-
Lithuanian: skyґstas `thin (of liquids)' [adj o]
Latvian: šk§i^sts `liquid, thin (of fabric), clean, clear' [adj o]
Old Prussian: skijstan `pure' [Accs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kid-to-
Page in Pokorny: 920
Proto-Slavic form: *čitati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `read, count'
Page in Trubačev: IV 123
Russian: čitaґt' `read' [verb], čitaґju [1sg]
Czech: čiґtati `read, count, suppose' [verb]
Slovak: čiґtat' `read' [verb]
Polish: czytacґ `read' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: či°tati `read' [verb], či°tѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. či?tati (Vrgada) `read' [verb], či?taІЇš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. či?tat (Orbanicґi) `read' [verb], či?tan [1sg] {1}
Slovene: čiґtati `read' [verb], čiґtam [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)keit-; (s)koit-
Lithuanian: skaityґti `read, count' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kweit-; (s)kwoit-
Page in Pokorny: 637
Other cognates: Skt. ceґtati `perceive, take notice of' [verb]
Notes: {1} In Orbanicґi, či?tat is on the verge of ousting šte?t, 1sg. šte?n, while in Vrgada the native verb is šti?ti, 1sg. šti?jen. In Novi, we find šta?t, 1sg. šteґn, 2sg. šte?š. These forms seem to point to *čьtĕti / *čьtati , 1sg. *čьtǫ, cf. Sln. čte•ґti `read', šte•ґti `count'.
Proto-Slavic form: *čixati; čьxati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `sneeze'
Page in Trubačev: IV 110
Russian: čixaґt' `sneeze' [verb]; #Ru. čxaґt' `sneeze' [verb]
Ukrainian: čxaґty `sneeze' [verb]
Polish: czchacґ (dial.) `sneeze' [verb]; #Pl. czychacґ (dial.) `sneeze' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: čichacґ `sneeze' [verb]
Slovene: čiґhati `sneeze' [verb], či?ham `sneeze' [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *čuditi (sę)
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `be surprised, marvel'
Page in Trubačev: IV 127-128
Old Church Slavic: čuditi sę `be surprised, marvel' [verb], čuždǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: čudiґt' (coll.) `behave eccentrically, play the fool' [verb], čudiґt [3sg]; #Ru. čuґdit'sja (coll.) `seem' [verb]
Czech: čuditi se `be surprised, marvel' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ču?diti se `be surprised, marvel' [verb], ču?d–m se [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ču?diti se (Vrgada) `be surprised, marvel' [verb], ču?d–š se [2sg]
Slovene: čuґditi se `be surprised, marvel' [verb], ču?dim se [1sg]
Bulgarian: čuґdja `surprise' [verb]; #Bulg. čuґdja se `be surprised, marvel' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *keud-
Proto-Slavic form: *ču°do
GRAM: n. s
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `miracle'
Page in Trubačev: IV 128-129
Old Church Slavic: čudo `miracle' [n s/o], čudese [Gens], čuda [Gens]
Russian: čuґdo `miracle' [n s], čudesaґ [Nomp]
Slovak: čudo `miracle' [n s]
Polish: cudo `miracle' [n o]; #Pl. cud `miracle' [m o]
Old Polish: czudo `miracle' [n s]; #OPl. cudo `miracle' [n s?]
Slovincian: cu†ґd `miracle' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ču?do `miracle' [n s], čude°sa [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ču?do `miracle' [n s], čudesaІ~ [Nomp]
Slovene: čuґdo• `miracle, marvel, admiration' [n s], čuґdesa [Gens]
Bulgarian: čuґdo `miracle' [n s], čudesaґ [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *keud-os-
Proto-Slavic form: *ču°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sense, feel, notice'
Page in Trubačev: IV 134-136
Old Church Slavic: čuti `sense, notice' [verb], čujǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: čuti (RuCS) `feel, hear, know' [verb]
Russian: čuґjat' `scent, sense, feel' [verb], čuґju [1sg], čuґet [3sg]; #Ru. čut' (dial.) `hear' [verb]
Old Russian:: čuti `feel, hear, know' [verb]
Czech: čiґti `sense, feel' [verb]; #Cz. čouti (coll., dial.) `sense, feel' [verb]
Old Czech:: čuґti `sense, feel' [verb]; #OCz. čieti `sense, feel' [verb]
Slovak: čut' `hear' [verb]
Polish: czucґ `feel' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ču?ti `hear' [verb], ču?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ču?ti (Vrgada) `hear, feel, sense' [verb], ču?ješ [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ču?t (Orbanicґi) `hear, taste, smell' [verb], ču?jen [1sg]
Slovene: čuґti `hear, be awake' [verb], čuґjem [1sg] {1}
Bulgarian: čuґja `hear' [verb]
Notes: {1} Pleteršnik (I: s.v.) incorrectly has a falling tone in the present (see o.c. II: III).
Proto-Slavic form: *čь?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `honour'
Page in Trubačev: IV 175-176
Old Church Slavic: čьstь `honour, respect' [f i]
Russian: čest' `honour, respect' [f i]
Czech: čest `honour, respect' [f i], čti [Gens]
Polish: czesґcґ `honour, respect' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: čescґ `honour' [f i], čescґe [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ča?st `honour, respect' [f i], ča?sti [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. čaІ?st (Vrgada) `honour, respect' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. ča?s (Orbanicґi) `honour' [f i]
Slovene: ča?st `honour, respect' [f i]; #Sln. čę?st `honour, respect' [f i]
Bulgarian: čest `honour, luck, happiness' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kwit-ti
Page in Pokorny: 637
Other cognates: Skt. ciґtti- `thinking, understanding' [f]; Av. čisti- 'consciousness' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrmьnovati sę
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: -
Old Church Slavic: črъmъnuetъ sę (Zogr., Mar.) `reddens (sky)' [3sg]
Church Slavic: čermnovat'sja (RuCS) `become clear' [verb]
Old Russian:: čermnovat'sja `become clear' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrmьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `red'
Page in Trubačev: IV 149-150
Old Church Slavic: črъmьnъ (Ps. Sin., Cloz., Supr.) `red' [adj o]
Russian: čeremnoґj (dial.) `red-haired, ginger' [adj o]; #Ru. čereЁmnyj (dial.) `red-haired, ginger' [adj o]
Czech: čermnyґ (Kott) `red' [adj o]; #Cz. črmnyґ (Kott) `red' [adj o]
Polish: czermny (dial.) `red' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: crman (arch., obs.) `red' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *čь°rnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `black'
Page in Trubačev: IV 155-157
Old Church Slavic: črъnъ (Zogr., Mar., Supr.) `black' [adj o]
Russian: čeЁrnyj `black' [adj o] {1}
Czech: černyґ `black' [adj o]
Slovak: čierny `black' [adj o]
Polish: czarny `black' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: čorny `black' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: carny `black' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: cr?n `black' [adj o], crґna [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. cr?n (Vrgada) `black' [adj o], crna? [Nomsf], crno? [Nomn]; #SCr. C№ak. čr?n (Orbanicґi) `black, dark' [adj o], črЇna? [Nomsf], čr?no [Nomn]
Slovene: črґn `black' [adj o]
Bulgarian: čeґren `black' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kirsno-
Lithuanian: kir~snas `black (of a horse)' [adj] 4
Old Prussian: kirsnan `black' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *krs-no-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 583
Other cognates: Skt. krёs•n•aґ- `black' [adj]
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrpati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `scoop, draw'
Page in Trubačev: IV 158-159
Old Church Slavic: črĕpьjǫšte (Supr.) `scooping' [Nompm pprsa] {1}
Russian: čeґrpat' `scoop, draw' [verb], čeґrpaju [1sg]
Czech: čerpati `scoop, draw, pump' [verb], čerpaґm [1sg]
Old Czech:: črpati `scoop, draw' [verb]
Slovak: čerpati `scoop, draw, pump' [verb]
Polish: czerpacґ `scoop, draw' [verb], czerpię [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: cr°pati (Vuk) `scoop, draw' [verb], cr°pѓm [1sg]
Slovene: črpaґti `scoop, draw, pump' [verb], črpa?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: čeґrpja `scoop, draw, host' [verb]
Lithuanian: kir~pti `chop, cut' [verb], kerpu° [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(s)kerp-
Page in Pokorny: 944
Notes: {1} The verb is generally reconstructed as črьpati, 1sg. črĕpljǫ, 2sg. črĕplješi.
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrstvъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: IV 159-161
Church Slavic: črьstvъ (RuCS) `hard, strong, dry, real' [verb]; #CS čьrstvъ (RuCS) `hard, strong, dry, real' [verb]
Russian: čeЁrstvyj `stale, hard, callous' [adj o]
Czech: č(e)rstvyґ `strong, healthy, fresh' [adj o]
Polish: czerstwy `stale, healthy, strong' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: čvr?st `strong, hard, firm' [adj o], čvrґsta [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. čvr?st (Vrgada) `strong, hard, firm' [adj o], čvrsta? [Nomsf], čvrsto? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. čvr?s (Orbanicґi) `strong, firm' [adj o], čvr?sta [Nomsf], čvr?sto [Nomsn]
Slovene: čvr?st `firm, strong, fresh' [adj o], čvrґsta [Nomsf]
Lithuanian: kir~stas `sharp, harsh (of a person)'
Indo-European reconstruction: *krt-tuo-
Page in Pokorny: 584
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrta°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `line'
Page in Trubačev: IV 161
Old Church Slavic: črъta (Zogr., Mar., Ass.) `tittle' [f ѓ]
Russian: čertaґ `line, boundary, trait' [f ѓ], čertuґ [Accs]
Czech: črta `line, sketch' [f ѓ]
Slovak: črta `trait, sketch' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: cr?ta `line' [f ѓ]
Slovene: črґta `line' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: čertaґ `line, trait' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Derivative of *čьrt- < *krt-.
Page in Pokorny: 941
Proto-Slavic form: *čьrvь
GRAM: m. i
PSLMEAN: `worm'
Page in Trubačev: IV 171-172
Old Church Slavic: črъvь `worm' [m i]
Russian: červ' `worm, maggot' [m jo], červjaґ [Gens]
Czech: červ `worm' [m o]
Slovak: červ `worm' [m o]
Polish: czerw `worm' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: čerw `worm' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: cerw `worm' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: cr?v `worm, maggot' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. čr?v (Vrgada) `worm, maggot' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. čr?v (Novi) `worm, maggot' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. čr?v (Orbanicґi) `worm' [m o], čr?va [Gens]
Slovene: čr?v `worm' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *kir-m/uё-i-
Lithuanian: kirmi°s `worm, maggot, snake' [f i] 4
Latvian: cirmis `worm, maggot, caterpillar' [m io]
Old Prussian: girmis `maggot'
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwr-m-i-
IE meaning: worm
Other cognates: Skt. krёґmi- `worm, maggot' [m]; OIr. cruim `worm' [m]; W pryf `worm' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *čьto
GRAM: pron.
PSLMEAN: `what'
Page in Trubačev: IV 177-178
Old Church Slavic: čьto `what' [prninterr], česo [Gens], česogo [Gens]
Russian: čto `what' [prninterr]
Serbo-Croatian: što? `what' [prninterr]; #SCr. C№ak. što? (Vrgada) `what' [prninterr]
Bulgarian: što `what' [prninterr]
Indo-European reconstruction: *kwi-/kwe-
IE meaning: what
Page in Pokorny: 644
Other cognates: Gk. t… `what?' [prninterr], tљo (Hom.) [Gens]

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