Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*B)


> > *B
Праславянский словарь: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ѣ | Ж | З | И | К | Л | М | Н | О | Ѫ | П | Р | С | Т | У | Х | Ц | Ч | Ш | Щ | Ю | Ѭ | Я | Ѩ
Труды-источники: Дерксен-Старостин | Покорный | ЭССЯ (Трубачев)
Славянские словари: Старославянский | Русский | Белорусский | Болгарский | Лужицкие | Македонский | Польский | Сербохорватский | Словацкий | Словенский | Украинский | Чешский

Словарь Дерксена: A | B | C | Č | D | E | Ę | Ĕ | Ę2 | G | I | Ju | | K | L | M | N | O | Ǫ | Ǫ2 | P | R | S | Šč | Š | T | U | V | X | Z | Ž

Всего на B (Б) – 136 слов.

Proto-Slavic form: *badli
GRAM: m. –
PSLMEAN: `enchanter, healer, physician'
Page in Trubačev: I 150
Old Church Slavic: balii `physician' [m iѓ]; #OCS bali (Cloz.) `physician' [m iѓ] {1}
Church Slavic: bali (OSln.: FrD) `healer, Saviour' [m iѓ]
Old Russian:: balii `physician, enchanter' [m iѓ]; #ORu. balija `physician, enchanter' [m iѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bheh2-dhl-
IE meaning: enchanter
Page in Pokorny: 105
COMM: There is no direct evidence for a suffix *dhl-ьji-, but the form bali from the Freising Fragments could be regarded as counter-evidence, as dl is regularly retained in this dialect, cf. modliti. It is not impossible, however, that bali is of Church Slavic: origin. TrubačeЁv bases his reconstructions *badlьji and *badlovati chiefly on derivatives of the type of OCz. pr№edliґ `spinster', švadliґ `needlewoman'. According to the ESSJa (I 137-138), further evidence for a suffix *-dhl- is provided by SCr. ba?jalo m. `sorcerer', Ru. dial. baґjala m.f. `talker, chatterer, story-teller', which may be transformations of *badlьji . Meillet's idea (1902-1905: I 417) that *bali is based on a derivative in -l- deserves consideration.
Notes: {1} Cf. balovanije `treatment', balьstvo `cure, medicine'.
Proto-Slavic form: *badlovati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: I 148-149
Old Church Slavic: ubalovati `cure' [verb] {1}
Church Slavic: balovati `cure' [verb]
Russian: balovaґt' `indulge in, amuse oneself with' [verb]
Slovene: balovaґti `chatter, talk nonsense' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bheh2-dhl-
IE meaning: enchant
Page in Pokorny: 105
COMM: See -> *badli.
Notes: {1} Cf. balovanije `treatment', balьstvo `cure, medicine'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ba?ba
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `old woman'
Page in Trubačev: I 105-108
Old Church Slavic: baba `nurse' [f ѓ]
Russian: baґba `grandmother, married peasant woman' [f ѓ]
Czech: baґba `grandmother, midwife, old woman' [f ѓ]; #Cz. baba (pej.) `old woman' [f ѓ]
Slovak: baba `grandmother, midwife, old woman' [f ѓ]
Polish: baba `grandmother, midwife, old woman, mother-in-law' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: ba~baў `old woman, grannie, female (of an animal)' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ba?ba `grandmother, midwife, nurse, mother-in-law' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ba?ba (Vrgada) `grandmother, midwife' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ba?ba (Novi) `midwife' [f ѓ]
Slovene: baґba `grandmother, midwife' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: baґba `grandmother, old woman, mother-in-law' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *baґЂbaЂ
Lithuanian: boґba `old woman' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: ba~ba `old woman' [f ѓ]
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 91
Other cognates: MHG ba^be, bo^be `old woman' [f] {1}
Notes: {1} The Middle High German word is assumed to be a borrowing from Slavic (Sљawski SP I: 171).
Proto-Slavic form: *bagno
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b?
PSLMEAN: `marsh'
Page in Trubačev: I 125-127
Russian: bagnoґ (dial.) `marshy place, wild rosemary' [n o]
Ukrainian: bahnoґ `marsh, mud, wild rosemary' [n o]
Czech: bahno `marsh' [n o]; #Cz. baґhno (Jungmann) `marsh' [n o] {1}
Old Czech:: bahno `marsh' [n o]
Slovak: bahno `bog, large marsh' [n o]
Polish: bagno `bog, marsh, wild rosemary' [n o]
Slovincian: ba†~gno `wild rosemary' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: bahno `marsh, silt' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: bagno `marsh, (dial.) wild rosemary' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhog-no-
COMM: It is attractive to seek a connection with MoDu. bagger `mud' < *bhogh- and assume that we are dealing with a substratum word. The Slavic etymon is limited to West and East Slavic.
Notes: {1} Jungmann mentions both bahno and baґhno.
Proto-Slavic form: *ba°jati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `tell'
Page in Trubačev: I 138-139, 161-162
Church Slavic: bajati (RuCS) `tell fables' [verb]
Russian: bajati (dial.) `speak' [verb]
Ukrainian: baґjati `tell, narrate, practise sorcery' [verb]
Czech: bajeti `chat, tell fables' [verb]
Old Czech:: baґti `speak, invent' [verb]
Polish: bajacґ `narrate (fables, fairy-tales)' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bacґ `narrate (fables, fairy-tales)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ba?jati `practise sorcery, exorcize' [verb]
Slovene: baґjati `talk idly, prophesy, practise sorcery' [verb], baґjam [1sg], baґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: baґja `talk about, say magic chants' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bheh2-
IE meaning: speak
Page in Pokorny: 105
Other cognates: Gk. fhm… `say' [verb]; Dor. fa?m… `say' [verb]; Lat. fѓr– `say' [verb]; OE bЎian `brag' [verb] {1}
Notes: {1} Lith. boґti `draw attention to', which has an older variant dboґti, is a borrowing from Slavic, cf. Pl. dbacґ `(take) care' (Fraenkel I: 53). According to LIV (181), OE bЎ(ia)n might continue *gґhuёeH- `call', which seems dubious.
Proto-Slavic form: *basnь; ba?sn§a
GRAM: f. i; f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `tale'
Page in Trubačev: I 138-139, 161-162
Church Slavic: basnь `tale' [f i]
Russian: baґsnja `fable' [f jѓ]
Czech: baґsen№ `tale' [f i], baґsn№e [Gens]
Polish: basґnґ `tale' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ba?san `tale' [f i], ba?sni [Gens]
Slovene: ba?sЌn `fantasy, fable' [f i], ba?sni [Gens]
Bulgarian: baґsnja `fable, fantasy' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bheh2
IE meaning: speak
Page in Pokorny: 105
Other cognates: Gk. fhm… `say'; Dor. fa?m… `say' [verb]; Lat. fѓr– `say' [verb]; OE bЎian `brag' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ba°viti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `be, linger'
Page in Trubačev: I 168-170
Russian: baґvit' (dial.) `linger' [verb]
Ukrainian: baviti (OUkr.) `remain, linger, delay' [verb]
Czech: baviti `amuse, take time' [verb]
Polish: bawicґ `amuse, be, abide' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ba?vit (dial.) `be late, linger' [verb]; #SCr. ba?viti se (dial.) `be late, linger' [verb]
Slovene: baґviti se `occupy oneself with, linger' [verb], ba?vim se [1sg] {1}
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *boЂu-iЂ-tei; bЂu-inЂ-tei
Lithuanian: bu°vintis `sojourn' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoHu-eie-
Page in Pokorny: 146
Other cognates: Skt. bhѓvayati `cause to be, cherish, refresh' [verb]
Notes: {1} Pleteršnik (I: s.v.) does not indicate the change of tone in the present (o.c. II: I).
Proto-Slavic form: *bѓda°ti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: I 121-122
Old Russian:: badati `butt, prick, investigate' [verb]
Ukrainian: badaґty `investigate, test' [verb]
Czech: baґdati `investigate' [verb]
Slovak: baґdat' `investigate' [verb]
Polish: badacґ `investigate, check' [verb]
Slovincian: ba†~daўc `push' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: badasґ `investigate' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: baґdati `prick, go slowly' [verb], ba?dam [1sg]
Lithuanian: badyґti `stab' [verb], ba~do [3ps]
Indo-European reconstruction: *An iterative with long root vocalism (-> bosti°).
Page in Pokorny: 113
Other cognates: Lat. fodiЎ `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bebrъ; bobrъ; bьbrъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `beaver'
Page in Trubačev: I 174-175; II 145-146; III 159
Church Slavic: bebrъ `beaver' [m o]; #CS bobrъ `beaver' [m o]
Russian: bobr `beaver' [m o], bobraґ [Gens]; #Ru. bobeЁr `beaver (fur)' [m o], bobraґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: bebrъ `beaver' [m o]; #ORu. bobrъ `beaver' [m o]; #ORu. bьbrъ `beaver' [m o]
Ukrainian: bibr `beaver' [m o], bobraґ [Gens]
Czech: bobr `beaver' [m o]
Polish: boґbr `beaver' [m o], bobra [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: da?bar `beaver' [m o]
Slovene: boґbЌr `beaver' [m o]; #Sln. beґbЌr `beaver' [m o]
Bulgarian: boґbaўr `beaver' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bebros
Lithuanian: be~bras `beaver' [m o] 2; #Lith. bebru°s `beaver' [m u] 4
Latvian: bębrs `beaver' [m o]
Old Prussian: bebrus (EV) `beaver' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhebhrH-u- (bhebhrH-o-)
COMM: Possibly a derivative of the word for `brown', cf. Lith. be†ґras, with reduplication of the root. The fact that this etymon was not affected by the generalization of accentual mobility in the masculine o-stems points may be be accounted for by positing a u-stem.
Other cognates: Skt. babhruґ- `reddish brown' [adj]; Lat. fiber `beaver' [m]; OHG bibar `beaver' [m]; OE beofor `beaver' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *bedro°; bedra
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `thigh'
Page in Trubačev: I 175-176, 179-180
Old Church Slavic: bedra `thigh' [f ѓ]
Church Slavic: bedro (SerbCS) `thigh' [n o]; #CS bedra (SerbCS) `thigh' [f ѓ]
Russian: bedroґ `thigh, hip' [n o]; #Ru. bedraґ (dial.) `thigh' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: bedra `hip' [f ѓ]
Czech: bedra `loins, hips' [Nompn o]
Old Czech:: bedra `thigh, groin' [f ѓ]
Polish: biodro `hip' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: be°dro `thigh' [n o]; #SCr. be?dra `thigh' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. bedra? (Vrgada) `thigh' [f ѓ], be?dru [Accs]
Slovene: beґdro• `thigh' [n o]; #Sln. beґdra `thigh' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: bedroґ `thigh' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhedh-roґm
COMM: The etymology of this word is unclear. The connection with Ukr. dial. bedraґ `large pit, valley, swamp', Pl. ubiedrze `slope, steep bank' and Lith. be~dre† `swamp, valley', Latv. bedre `pit' (Anikin 1998: 30-31), which derive from *bhedh- `to dig', is semantically unattractive. Pokorny's reconstruction of a root *bed- `to swell' (IEW: 96) is impossible because of Winter's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *be?rgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: с
PSLMEAN: `bank'
Page in Trubačev: I 191-193
Old Church Slavic: brĕgъ `bank, shore, steep slope' [m o]
Russian: beґreg `bank, shore' [m o]
Czech: br№eh `bank, shore, boundary, edge' [m o]; #Cz. br№ech (dial.) `hill' [m o], br№eha [Gens]
Old Czech:: br№ĕh `hill, hillside, bank, shore, pier' [m o]
Slovak: breh `bank, shore, hill, hillside' [m o]
Polish: brzeg `bank, shore, edge' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: brjoґh `bank, shore, hill' [m o], brjoha [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: brjog `bank, shore, hill, heap' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?jeg `bank, shore, boundary, edge, hill' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. bri?g (Vrgada) `bank, shore, boundary, edge, hill' [m o], bri?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. brie?g (Orbanicґi) `hill' [m o], brie?ge [Locs]
Slovene: bre•?g `bank, shore, hillside, hill' [m o]
Bulgarian: brjag `bank, shore' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhergґh-o-
IE meaning: hill
Page in Pokorny: 140
COMM: In view of the Indo-Iranian and Armenian forms, the *g of the Slavic etymon is problematic. Attempts to establish *bergъ as a borrowing from Germanic or Venetic-Illyrian (Pokorny) seem unconvincing.
Other cognates: Go. bairgahei `mountainous region' [f]; OIc. bjarg `mountain' [m]; OHG berg `mountain' [m]; Skt. brёhaґnt- (RV+) `great, large, high'; LAv. bЌrЌz- `great, high' [adj]; Arm. barjr `high' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *bel(e)niti; belnovati; bolniti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rage'
Page in Trubačev: I 185-187, III 159
Russian: (uz)beleniґt'sja (dial.) `become infuriated' [verb]; #Ru. boloniґt' (dial.) `pester, bore' [verb]; #Ru. boloґnit' (dial.) `talk' [verb]
Czech: blenovati (Kott: Bylinaґr№ MathioluІv, 1596) `chatter' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: blaґniti (17th c.) `go crazy, rage' [verb] {6}
Slovene: ble•ncaґti `talk in one's sleep, rave, chatter' [verb], ble•nca?m [1sg] {1}
Bulgarian: blenuґvam `be poisoned by henbane, day-dream' [verb]
Macedonian: blenuva `dream' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhel(e)-n-
Page in Pokorny: 120
COMM: Apart from denominative verbs meaning `to rave, to talk nonsense', expressions of the type "he has eaten henbane" conveying the same meaning exist in several languages, e.g. Ru. on belenyґ ob"eґlsja, OCz. kdyz№ sĕ komu pr№ihodi, z№e by sĕ blena najedl, Cz. jako by se bliґnu napil, SCr. kao da se buna (bunike) nazobao (najio, (na)jeo).
Notes: {1} Also belendaґti `rave, phantasize' from Hung. beleґndek `henbane'.
Proto-Slavic form: *bel(e)nъ; belenaґ; bolnъ {1} {2}
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ; m. o
PSLMEAN: `henbane'
Page in Trubačev: I 185-187; II 177
Church Slavic: belenъ (RuCS) `henbane' [m o]
Russian: belen (dial.) `henbane' [m o]; #Ru. belenaґ `henbane' [f ѓ]
Czech: bliґn `henbane' [m o]; #Cz. blim (dial.) `henbane' [m o]
Old Czech:: bleґn `henbane' [m o]
Slovak: blen `henbane, bitterness' [m o] {2}
Polish: blen `henbane' [m o] {3}
Old Polish: blenґ `henbane' [m jo] {4}
Serbo-Croatian: ble?n (rare) `henbane' [m o]; #SCr. ble?m (rare) `henbane' [m o]; #SCr. bele°na `fool, idiot' [f ѓ]; #SCr. blan (17th c.) `furibundus' [m o] {5}
Slovene: ble•°n `henbane' [m o], ble•ґna [Gens]
Bulgarian: bljan `day-dream' [m o]; #Bulg. blen `day-dream' [m o]
Macedonian: blen (poet.) `(day-)dream' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhel-(e)n-o-
IE meaning: henbane
Page in Pokorny: 120
Other cognates: OE beolone, beolene, belene `henbane' [f]; OS bilene `henbane' [f]; Dan. (early) bylne, buln-urt `henbane'; Gaul. belenountiґan [Accs] `henbane'; Gaul. BELENO [dsg] `name of a divinity' {6}
Notes: {1} Ru. belen- cannot reflect *beln-, which would regularly yield bolon-. {2} Alongside bielian. {3} Alongside bielun. {4} In Old Polish: we find blenґ, bielun, bielunґ, bielon. According to Sљawski (SP I: Q), blen is a borrowing from Czech:. {5} Both ble?n and ble?m are rarely attested. The form with m can be traced to Stulli's dictionary. {6} Besides the n-stem *bhel(e)no-, there was an s-stem *bhel-es-, e.g. OHG bilisa, bilesa, bilsa [f], MDu. bilse, Spanish belesa, velesa, and probably W bela, bele, all meaning `henbane' (see Schrijver 1999).
Proto-Slavic form: *be°rdjь
GRAM: adj. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `with young, pregnant'
Page in Trubačev: I 188-189
Church Slavic: brĕžda `pregnant' [Nomsgf]; #CS brĕž(d)a (RuCS) `pregnant' [Nomsgf]
Russian: bereґžaja (dial.) `in foal' [Nomsgf]; #Ru. bereЁžaja (dial.) `mare in foal' [Nomsgf]
Ukrainian: bereґža `with young' [Nomsgf]
Czech: br№eziґ `with young, pregnant' [Nomsgf]
Old Czech:: br№ĕziґ `with young, pregnant' [Nomsgf]
Serbo-Croatian: bre?‹ (W. dial.) `pregnant, (Cr.) in calf' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. bre?ja (Orbanicґi) `pregnant (of a cow), with young' [Nomsgf]
Slovene: bre•ґja `with young' [Nomsgf]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *berЂdios
Lithuanian: ber~(g)ždžias `barren (of a cow)' [adj] 4; #Lith. ber(g)žde†~ `barren cow' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bherdieh2
IE meaning: pregnant
COMM: Both *bherdhieh2 and *bherHdhieh2 would have yielded forba in Latin (see Nussbaum 1999 for the development of *rdh originating from syncope). A proto-form *bherHdieh2 would therefore theoretically be possible. Nussbaum, who considers the connection with OCS brĕz№da possible, suggests that an original noun *bhori- > *fori `birther' was expanded to *fori-d- and then hypercharacterized as a feminine (1999: 406).
Other cognates: Lat. forda `in calf' [Nomsgf]
Proto-Slavic form: *bergti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `take care of'
Page in Trubačev: I 189-191
Old Church Slavic: nebrĕšti `neglect' [verb], nebrĕgǫ [1sg]
Russian: bereґčґ `take care of, spare' [verb], bereguґ [1sg], berežeЁt [3sg]
BeloRussian: beragčyґ `take care of, spare' [verb]
Ukrainian: beregtyґ `take care of, spare, preserve' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: brije°cґi (arch.) `take care of, spare, guard, preserve' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *berg-tei
Lithuanian: bi°rginti `save, stint' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhergh-
IE meaning: keep
Page in Pokorny: 145
Other cognates: Go. bairgan `keep, preserve, hide' [verb]; OIc. bjarga `keep, preserve, hide' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *be°rmę
GRAM: n. n
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `load, burden'
Page in Trubačev: I 197-197
Old Church Slavic: brĕmę `load, burden' [n n], brĕmene [Gens]
Russian: bereґmja (dial.) `armful, bundle, burden' [n n], bereґmeni [Gens]
Ukrainian: beremja `load, burden' [n n]
Czech: br№iґmĕ `heavy load, burden' [n n], brĕmene [Gens]
Slovak: brem„ (arch.) `weight' [n n]
Polish: brzemię `load, burden' [n n], brzemienia [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: brĕmjo `heavy load, burden' [n n], brĕmjenja [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: brĕmґe `load, burden, yoke, bundle' [n n], bremґenґa [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: bre?me `weight, load, pregnant woman' [n n], bre?mena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bri?me (Vrgada) `weight, load' [n n], bri?mena [Gens], brimenaІ~ [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. bre?me(n) (Orbanicґi) `load, burden' [n n]
Slovene: breґme `weight, load, bunch, foetus, burden' [n n], bremęґna [Gens]
Bulgarian: breґme `weight, load, pregnant woman' [n n], bre?mena [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bherH-men-
IE meaning: burden
Page in Pokorny: 128
COMM: The accentuation of the etymon points to the presence of a laryngeal in the root.
Other cognates: Skt. bhar–man- `maintenance, care, burden' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *berstъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `elm'
Page in Trubačev: I 199-200
Russian: beґrest `elm' [m o], beґresta [Gens] {1}
BeloRussian: beґrast `elm' [m o], beґrasta [Gens]
Ukrainian: beґrest `elm' [m o], beґresta [Gens]
Czech: br№est `elm' [m o]
Slovak: brest `elm' [m o]
Polish: brzost `elm' [m o]; #Pl. brzoґst (dial.) `elm' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?jest `elm' [m o], brije°sta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bri~st (Vrgada) `a herb similar to rosemary' [m o], br–sta? [Gens]; #SCr. breґst (Novi) `elm' [m o], brЊsta? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. brie?s (Orbanicґi) `elm' [m o], bre?sta [Gens]
Slovene: bre•ґst `elm' [m o]
Bulgarian: brjast `elm' [m o]; #Bulg. brest `elm' [m o]
COMM: If we assume that *berstъ is cognate with -> *be°rza, which has an acute root, we must explain the variant belonging AP (b). In my view, a form bherHgґ-toґ- (admittedly with slightly unexpected end-stress) would remain oxytone in Balto-Slavic, in which case the root would be affected by the Proto-Slavic loss of pretonic laryngeals. As I consider it possible that the generalization of accentual mobility in masculine o-stems with a non-acute root vowel did not apply to the marginal class of Balto-Slavic oxytona, Illič-Svityč's reconstruction of a substantivized neuter adjective is not necessarily correct.
Other cognates: Go. bairhts `bright, clear' [adj]
Notes: {1} Illič-Svityč (1963: 52), mentions a Gsg. berestaґ (dial.).
Proto-Slavic form: *be°rza
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `birch'
Page in Trubačev: I 201-203
Church Slavic: brĕza `birch' [f ѓ]
Russian: bereЁza `birch' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: bjaroґza `birch' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: bereґza `birch' [f ѓ]
Czech: br№iґza `birch' [f ѓ]
Slovak: breza `birch' [f ѓ]
Polish: brzoza `birch' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: br№u°oёza `birch' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: brĕza `birch' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: brjaza `birch' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bre?za `birch' [f ѓ]; #SCr. bre?z `birch' [m o]
Slovene: bre•ґza `birch' [f ѓ]; #Sln. bre•°z `birch' [m o]
Bulgarian: brezaґ `birch' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: breza `birch' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *beґrЂzґos; beґrЂzґaЂ
Lithuanian: beґržas `birch' [m o] 3
Latvian: bę~rzs `birch' [m o]
Old Prussian: berse `birch'
Indo-European reconstruction: *bherHgґ-o-
IE meaning: birch
Page in Pokorny: 139
COMM: The root may be identical with *bhrh1gґ- `shine', cf. Skt. bhrѓґjate- `id.'.
Other cognates: Skt. bhіrjaґ- `kind of birch' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *bez(ъ)
GRAM: prep.
PSLMEAN: `without'
Page in Trubačev: II 7-13
Old Church Slavic: bez(ъ) `without' [prep]
Russian: bez `without' [prep]
Old Russian:: bezъ `without' [prep]
Czech: bez `without' [prep]
Slovak: bez `without' [prep]
Polish: bez `without' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: bez `without' [prep]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *be(z)
Lithuanian: be° `without' [prep]
Latvian: bez `without' [prep]
Old Prussian: bhe `without' [prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhe-gґh
IE meaning: without
Page in Pokorny: 112
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕЇda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `need, poverty, misery'
Page in Trubačev: II 54-56
Old Church Slavic: bĕda `distress, need, necessity' [f ѓ]
Russian: bedaґ `misfortune, trouble' [f ѓ]
Czech: biґda `poverty, misery' [f ѓ]; #Cz. bĕda `woe!' [interj]
Slovak: bieda `poverty, calamity' [f ѓ]
Polish: bieda `poverty, misery' [f ѓ]; #Pl. biada `woe!' [interj]
Old Polish: biada `distress, necessity' [f ѓ] {1}
Upper Sorbian: bĕda `grief, woe, misery' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: bĕda `grief, pain' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bije°da `grief, misfortune' [f ѓ]
Slovene: be•ґda `misery' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: bedaґ `misfortune, misery' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoidh-eh2 {2}
IE meaning: force
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 117
COMM: According to Bіga (RR I: 345-346), Lith. be†da° 4 `misfortune, trouble, guilt' is probably not a borrowing from Slavic because it has e† instead of the expected ie (cf. bie~dnas `poor'). Indeed, there seems to be no obvious reason why be†da° and Latv. bę°da `sorrow, grief, distress' should not be old. These words could be connected with ba~das `hunger' and Skt. bѓґdhate `oppress' (Bіga l.c., Derksen 1996: 258). However, a dilemma arises if we consider that Slavic bĕditi `force, persuade' cannot be separated from Go. baidjan `force'. We must either declare the Baltic forms borrowings or assume that in Slavic *bĕd- < *bhoidh- and *bĕd- < *bhЊdh- were contaminated (cf. Anikin 1998: 39). In the latter case OCS bĕda `distress' and `necessity' would continue different roots. This is a possibility which cannot be excluded. The hypothesis that Lith. baidyґti `to scare' < *bhiH- `to fear' is cognate with *bЊ№da° and *bĕditi (cf. TrubačeЁv II: 55-56) must be rejected, if only on formal grounds.
Other cognates: Alb. be `oath' [f] {2}
Notes: {1} The vocalism of Modern Polish bieda `id.' is of Mazowian origin, cf. biada `woe!'. {2} According to Bіga (RR I: 345-346), Lith. be†da° 4 `misfortune, trouble, guilt' is probably not a borrowing from Slavic because it has e† instead of the expected ie (cf. bie~dnas `poor'). Indeed, there seems to be no obvious reason why be†da° and Latv. bę°da `sorrow, grief, distress' should not be old. These words could be connected with ba~das `hunger' and Skt. bѓґdhate `oppress' (Bіga l.c., Derksen 1996: 258). However, a dilemma arises if we consider that Slavic bĕditi `force, persuade' cannot be separated from Go. baidjan `force'. We must either declare the Baltic forms borrowings or assume that in Slavic *bĕd- < *bhoidh- and *bĕd- < *bhЊdh- were contaminated (cf. Anikin 1998: 39). In the latter case OCS bĕda `distress' and `necessity' would continue different roots. This is a possibility which cannot be excluded. The hypothesis that Lith. baidyґti `to scare' < *bhiH- `to fear' is cognate with *bЊ№da° and *bĕditi (cf. TrubačeЁv II: 55-56) must be rejected, if only on formal grounds. {3} Demiraj prefers *bheidh-i-s to an ѓ-stem (1997: 94).
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕЇdi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: II 56-57
Old Church Slavic: bĕditi `force, persuade' [verb], bĕždǫ [1sg]
Russian: bediґt' (dial.) `spoil, vex' [verb]
Czech: biґditi (Jungmann, Kott) `reduce to poverty, (se) torment oneself, suffer' [verb]; #Cz. bĕditi (Jungmann, Kott) `reduce to poverty' [verb]; #Cz. biґdit se (dial.) `live in poverty' [verb]
Slovak: bieditґ `live in poverty' [verb]
Old Polish: biedzicґ `struggle' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bije°diti `slander' [verb], bi?jed–m [1sg]
Bulgarian: bedjaґ `accuse' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoidh-eie-
IE meaning: force
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 117
COMM: It is very unlikely that Slavic *bĕditi `force' and Go. baidjan `id.' belong to different roots. Stang even includes these words in his "Sonderµbereinstimmungen" (1972: 14). The meaning `persuade' is another indication that we are dealing with PIE *bhoidh-. The question is whether denominative *bĕditi `reduce to poverty, live in poverty' ultimately continues a different root (see *bЊ№da°).
Other cognates: Gk. pe…qw `persuade' [verb]; Go. baidjan `force' [verb]; OHG beitten `demand' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕ°gati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `run, flee'
Page in Trubačev: II 58-59
Old Church Slavic: bĕgati `run, flee' [verb], bĕgajǫ [1sg]
Russian: beґgat' `run' [verb], beґgaju [1sg]
Czech: bĕhati `run' [verb]
Slovak: behat `run' [verb]
Polish: biegacґ `run' [verb]
Slovincian: bji°eёgaўc `run' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bje?gati `flee' [verb], bje?gѓm [1sg]
Slovene: be•ґgati `walk to and fro, rout' [verb], be•ґgam [1sg]
Bulgarian: bjaґgam `run, flee' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *beЂg-
Lithuanian: be†ґgti `run' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhegє-
IE meaning: run away
Page in Pokorny: 116
Other cognates: Gk. fљbomai `flee' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕ?sъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `demon'
Page in Trubačev: II 88-91
Old Church Slavic: bĕsъ `demon' [m o]
Russian: bes `demon' [m o]
Czech: bĕs `demon' [m o]
Slovak: bes `demon' [m o]
Polish: bies `demon' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?jes `demon' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. bi?s `demon' [m o], bi?sa [Gens]
Slovene: be•?s `demon' [m o]
Bulgarian: bjas `rabies, demon' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *boiЂsoґs
Lithuanian: baisu°s `terrible' [adj u]
Latvian: bai^ss `terrible' [adj u]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoiHdh-so-
Page in Pokorny: 161
COMM: Since both Slavic and Baltic point to BSl. *s instead of *s•, it has been suggested that the root of this etymon was *bhoiHdh-, cf. Lat. foedus `repulsive, terrible, disgraceful' (cf. Pedersen 1895). An extension of the root is also found in Lith. baidyґti, Latv. bai~di^t `scare', but it is uncertain if this *d , which may be identified with *dhh1- `put' and is part of a productive suffix (cf. OPr. pobaiint `punish'), is the same element.
Other cognates: Lat. foedus `repulsive, terrible, disgraceful'
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕґlъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `white'
Page in Trubačev: II 79-81
Old Church Slavic: bĕlъ `white' [adj o]
Russian: beґlyj `white' [adj o]; #Ru. bel `white' [adj o], belaґ [Nomsf], beґlo [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: biґlyґ `white' [adj o]
Slovak: biely `white' [adj o]
Polish: biaљy `white' [adj o]
Slovincian: bjaґuёliЁ `white' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?jel, bi?o `white' [adj o], bije?la [Nomsf], bije°lo [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. bi~(l) (Vrgada) `white' [adj o], b–la? [Nomsf], b–lo? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. bie?l (Orbanicґi) `white' [adj o], biela? [Nomsf], bie?lo? [Nomsn]
Slovene: be•ґљ `white' [adj o]
Bulgarian: bjal `white' [adj o]
Lithuanian: ba~las `white' [adj o] 4; #Lith. baґltas `white' [adj o] 3
Latvian: bѓ°ls `pale' [adj o]; #Latv. ba~ls `pale' [adj o]; #Latv. bal~ts `white' [adj o]
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 118
COMM: The fact that this etymon belongs to AP (b), which implies an non-acute root, does not pose any problems if one assumes that the regular reflex of a lengthened grade vowel was circumflex. We may reconstruct *bhЊlH-o-, with regular loss of the root-final laryngeal.
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *bĕža°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `run, escape'
Page in Trubačev: II 92
Old Church Slavic: bĕžati `run, run away, escape' [verb], bĕžǫ [1sg], bĕžiši [2sg]
Russian: bežaґt' `run, escape' [verb], beguґ [1sg], bežiґt [3sg]
Czech: bĕžeti `run' [verb]
Slovak: bežat' `run' [verb]
Polish: biez†ecґ (obs.) `run' [verb]
Slovincian: bji°eёžeўc `suffer from diarrhoea' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bje°žati `run, escape' [verb], bje°ž–m [1sg]; #SCr. bije°žati (Vuk: "u pjesmi") `run, escape' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. biža?ti (Vrgada) `run, escape' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. beža~t (Orbanicґi) `run (away)' [verb], beži~n [1sg]
Slovene: be•ґžati `flee, run' [verb], be•žiґm [1sg]; #Sln. be•žaґti `flee, run' [verb]
Lithuanian: be†ґgti `run' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhegє-
IE meaning: run away
Page in Pokorny: 116
Other cognates: Gk. fљbomai `flee' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bi°čь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `whip'
Page in Trubačev: II 94
Old Church Slavic: bičь `whip, lash' [m jo]
Russian: bič' `whip, lash' [m jo]
Old Russian:: bičь `whip, lash' [m jo]
Czech: bič `whip, lash' [m jo]
Slovak: bič `whip, lash' [m jo]
Polish: bicz `whip, lash' [m jo]
Slovincian: bjič `whip, lash' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?č `whip, cane' [m jo], bi°ča [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bi?č (Vrgada) `whip, cane' [m jo], bi?ča [Gens]
Slovene: bi°č `whip, lash' [m jo], biґča [Gens]
Bulgarian: bič `whip, leather lash' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhiH-tiёo-
Page in Pokorny: 118
Proto-Slavic form: *bi°dlo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: II 94-95
Russian: biґlo (dial.) `pestle, seat in a sleigh' [n o]
Old Russian:: bilo `board which is struck to convoke people to church or to the dining-table, plectrum' [n o]
Ukrainian: byґlo `board used instead of a bell in monasteries' [n o]
Czech: bidlo `pole' [n o]
Old Czech:: bidlo `rack, support, plectrum' [n o]
Slovak: bidlo `pole, perch, slay' [n o]
Old Polish: bidљo `squared beam covered with nails in a sleigh' [n o]
Slovincian: bji~dlo `round bar in a sleigh' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: bidљo `reed (of a loom)' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?lo `mountain ridge with spurs, artery, riveting hammer' [n o]
Slovene: biґlo• `artery, striking mechanism (of a clock)' [n o]
Bulgarian: biґlo `crest of a mountain, mountain ridge' [n o]
COMM: Derivative in *-dhlom from the root *bhiH- `strike' (-> *bi°ti). AP (a) is in accordance with Hirt's law.
Other cognates: OIr. benaid `strike' [verb], pret. pass. -biґth; Lat. perfinЊs (Fest.) `you may break' [2sPsSubj].
Proto-Slavic form: *bi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a?/b?
PSLMEAN: `beat'
Page in Trubačev: II 99-101
Old Church Slavic: biti `beat' [verb], bьjǫ [1sg]
Russian: bit' `beat' [verb], b'ju [1sg], b'jeЁt [3sg]
Czech: biґt `beat' [verb]
Slovak: bit' `beat' [verb]
Polish: bicґ `beat' [verb]
Slovincian: bji~c `thresh, beat' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bicґ `beat' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bisґ `beat' [verb]
Polabian: bait `beat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?ti `beat, kill' [verb]
Slovene: biґti `beat' [verb], bi?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: biґja `beat' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhiH-
Other cognates: OIr. benaid `strike' [verb], pret. pass. -biґth; Lat. perfinЊs [2sPsSubj] `you may break'.
Proto-Slavic form: *bi°tva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `battle, fight'
Page in Trubačev: II 100-101
Russian: biґtva `battle' [f ѓ]
Czech: bitva `battle, fight' [f ѓ]
Slovak: bitva `battle, fight' [f ѓ]
Polish: bitwa `battle, fight' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?tva `fight, battle' [f ѓ]
Slovene: bi?tva `battle' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: bitva `fight, battle' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhiH-tueh2
Page in Pokorny: 118
Proto-Slavic form: *blekotъ; blekota
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: II 108-109
Russian: bleЁkot (dial.) `henbane' [m o]; #Ru. blekoґtaґ (dial.) `chatterbox' [m/f o]
BeloRussian: bleЁkat `henbane, hemlock' [m o]
Ukrainian: bleґkit `poison hemlock' [m o]; #Ukr. bleґkot `henbane' [m o]; #Ukr. blekotaґ `poison hemlock, henbane' [f ѓ]
Czech: blekot `shouter, babbler' [m o]; #Cz. blekota `grumbler' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: blekot `chatter, grumbling, chatterbox, grumbler' [m o]
Slovak: bl'akot `bleating, bellowing' [m o]
Polish: blekot `fool's parsley, henbane, (arch.) stammerer, chatterbox' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: blekot `muttering, babble' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ble?kЊt `bleating' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhlek-ot-
Page in Pokorny: 157
COMM: See *blekъ.
Other cognates: blekъ
Proto-Slavic form: *blekъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: II 109
Czech: blek `bleating' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: blek `henbane' [m o]; #USrb. blik `henbane' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ble?k `bleating' [m o]
Slovene: blęґk `flock (of sheep)' [m o]
Bulgarian: blek (dial.) `henbane' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhlek-o-
Page in Pokorny: 157
COMM: The semantic connection between *blek(ot)ъ as the name of various poisonous plants and *blekotъ `chatter, chatterer' is the fact that particularly henbane may cause a delirium, cf. Ru. (dial.) beleniґt'sja `become infuriated', SCr. bele°na `fool' from *belena `henbane', or the Polish expression brodzi, jakby się blekotu (`fool's parsley') objadљ, which equals Cz. jako by se bliґnu napil. I am inclined to consider the verbs *blekati `chatter, mutter, bleat' and *blekotati derivatives of *blekъ and *blekotъ rather than vice versa (pace TrubačeЁv). The development of a meaning `bleat' may have been favoured by the onomatopoeic qualities of the root. Alternatively, we could distinguish a separate onomatopoeic root *blek- `bleat' or even separate *blek- `henbane' from *blek- `chatter, mutter'. Pokorny erroneously classifies Ru. bleЁkotъ `fool's parsley' under *bhleiq- `shine'.
Proto-Slavic form: *blędь
GRAM: f. i
Page in Trubačev: II 114-115
Old Church Slavic: blędь `nonsense, error, debauchery' [f i]; #OCS blędь `chatterer, idle talker' [m i]
Russian: bljad' `prostitute, dissipated woman' [f i], bljaґdi [Gens]
Old Russian:: bljadь `deception, nonsense, deceiver, lunatic, adulteress' [f i]
Page in Pokorny: 157
COMM: See -> *blę~sti.
Other cognates: Go. blinds `blind' [adj]; OIc. blindr `blind, unclear' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *blęsti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: II 115
Old Church Slavic: blęsti `chatter, talk nonsense' [verb], blędǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: blęsti (RuCS) `lose one's way, talk nonsense' [verb]
Old Russian:: bljasti `lose one's way, talk nonsense' [verb], bljadu [1sg]
Old Czech:: bleґsti `lose one's way, talk nonsense' [verb], bledu [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: blesti (arch.) `talk nonsense, blaspheme' [verb]
Slovene: bleґsti `rave, talk nonsense' [verb], bleґdem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *blend-
Lithuanian: blę~sti `sleep, stir flour into soup, talk nonsense, become cloudy' [verb], blen~džia [3sg]
Latvian: blie^zt `talk nonsense' [verb], blie^ž [3sg]; #Latv. blenst `btalk nonsense' [verb]; #Latv. ble°nst `be short-sighted' [verb] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *The root *bhlend- seems to be limited to Balto-Slavic and Germanic.
Page in Pokorny: 157
Notes: {1} In ME, blenst `talk nonsense' is accented ble°nst2 (ble°nzt2) or ble^nst2 (ble^nzt2). Blenst `be short-sighted' occurs with the unambiguous accentuations ble°nst\ and blen~st (1x). In some dialects, the latter verb has also preserved the root-final d.
Proto-Slavic form: *blĕ?dъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pale'
Page in Trubačev: II 111-112
Old Church Slavic: blĕdъ `pale' [adj o]
Russian: bledoґj (dial.) `pale' [adj o]; #Ru. bleЁdyj (dial.) `pale' [adj o]
Ukrainian: blidyґj `pale' [adj o]
Czech: bledyґ `pale' [adj o]
Slovak: bledyґ `pale' [adj o]
Polish: blady `pale' [adj o]
Slovincian: bladiЁґ `pale' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: blĕdy `pale, bright' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: blĕdy `pale' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bli?jed `pale' [adj o], blije°da [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. bli?d (Vrgada) `pale' [adj o], bl–da? [Nomsf], bli?do [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. blie?t (Orbanicґi) `pale' [adj o], blieda? [Nomsf]
Slovene: ble•?d `pale' [adj o]
Bulgarian: bled `pale' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bloiЂd-(uё)oґ-
Lithuanian: blai~vas `whitish, blue, sober' [adj o] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhloid-(uё)o-
Page in Pokorny: 160
COMM: In view of Winter's law, we would expect to find traces of a glottalic element in Balto-Slavic. The accentuation of Lith. blaivas - the Proto-Slavic form is mobile and therefore inconclusive - offers no evidence for an original acute, however. Pokorny's reconstruction *bhlЌido-s is impossible for Slavic and *bhleh2ido-s is incompatible with the mobile accentuation of the adjective in Balto-Slavic.
Other cognates: OE blѓt `pale' [adj]; OHG bleizza `pallor' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *blĕ?skъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `brightness'
Page in Trubačev: II 113-114
Church Slavic: blĕskъ (RuCS) `brightness, colour, lightning' [m o]
Russian: blesk `brightness, splendour' [m o]
Old Russian:: blĕskъ `brightness, colour, lightning' [m o]
Czech: blesk `lightning, brightness' [m o]
Slovak: blesk `lightning, brightness' [m o]
Polish: blask `brightness, shine' [m o]
Slovincian: bla†~sk `lightning, brightness' [m o]; #Slnc. bli°eёsk `lightning, brightness' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: blĕsk `lightning, brightness' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bli?jesak `glow, glimmer' [m o]
Slovene: ble•?sk `brightness, splendour, lightning' [m o]
Bulgarian: bljaґsaўk `brightness' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bloisko- {1}
Latvian: blaiskums `spot' [m o]; #Latv. blaizgums `spot' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhloigґ-sko-
Page in Pokorny: 156
COMM: The preglottalized velar may or may not have been lost before Winter's law. I prefer a Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction without Ђ for reasons mentioned s.v. *blьskъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *blĕjati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `bleat'
Page in Trubačev: II 107
Church Slavic: blĕjati (RuCS) `bleat' [verb]
Russian: bleґjat' `bleat, (dial.) `speak, chatter, cry' [verb]
Ukrainian: bleґjaty `bleat, speak, tell stories' [verb]; #Ukr. blijaґty `bleat' [verb]
Czech: bleti (arch.) `bleat' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bleґjati `bleat, talk nonsense' [verb], bleґj–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. blЊja?ti (Vrgada) `bleat, talk nonsense' [verb], blЊje?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bleja~t (Orbanicґi) `bleat' [verb], bleji~ [3sg]
Slovene: ble•ґjati `bleat, quarrel, mutter' [verb], ble•ґjam [1sg], ble•ґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: bleґja `bleat' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bleЂ-
Latvian: ble^t `bleat' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhleh1-
IE meaning: bleat
Page in Pokorny: 154
Other cognates: Lat. flЊre `cry' [verb]; MHG blѓЊjen `bleat' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bliskati; blistati; bliscati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: II 116-117
Old Church Slavic: bliskati sę `sparkle, shine' [verb]; #OCS bliscati sę `sparkle, shine' [verb]
Russian: blistaґt' `shine' [verb]; #Ru. bliґskat' (dial.) `sparkle' [verb]
Ukrainian: blyґskati `twinkle, kick' [verb]
Czech: blyґskati (se) `shine, flash (lightning)' [verb]
Slovak: blyґskat' `shine, flash (lightning)' [verb]
Polish: bљyskacґ `shine, flash' [verb]
Old Polish: bliskacґ `shine, flash' [verb]
Slovincian: bla†~skaўc `sparkle, glance' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bљyskacґ `sparkle, shine' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bљyskasґ (se) `sparkle, shine' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bli?skati (se) `shine' [verb]; #SCr. bli°stati (se) `shine' [verb]
Slovene: bliґskati (se) `sparkle' [verb]; #Sln. bliґskati se `shine' [verb]
Bulgarian: bljaґskam `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Lithuanian: blyške†ґti `shine' [verb], blyґški [3sg]; #Lith. blizge†ґti `shine, sparkle' [verb]; #Lith. bliske†ґti `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 156
COMM: In view of the forms with *ь (-> *blьskъ), we must assume e-grade here.
Other cognates: OE bl–can `shine' [verb]; OE bl–kan `shine' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bliskъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: II 114
Old Church Slavic: bliskъ (Euch.) `lightning' [m o]
Czech: blisk (dial.) `marsh marigold' [m o]
Slovak: blisk `gilding, brightness, marsh plant' [m o]
Slovene: bli?sk `lightning' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhleigґ-sko-
Page in Pokorny: 156
Other cognates: OHG blic `flash, lightning'; OS bliksmo `lightning'
Proto-Slavic form: *blizna; blizno
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. o
Page in Trubačev: II 118-120
Russian: bliґzna (dial.) `missing thread in fabric, flaw in home-spun material' [f ѓ]; #Ru. bliznaґ `knot in linen resulting from an incorrect arrangement of the warp' [f ѓ]; #Ru. bliznoґ `flaw in fabric, absence of one or two threads' [n o]; #Ru. bljuznaґ `flaw in fabric' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: blizna `scar' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: bljuznaґ `flaw in fabric' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: blyґzna `wound, scar' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. blyznaґ `defect in linen' [f ѓ]
Czech: blizna `stigma (bot.)' [f ѓ]
Polish: blizna `scar, gash, seam, cicatrice, trace left by a fallen leaf' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: bluzna `cicatrice, stigma, stamp' [f ѓ]
Kashubian: bliЁzna `cicatrice' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: bљuzna `scar, birth-mark' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: bluzna `scar, bruise' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bli?zna `two threads put into a reed (instead of one); #SCr. ruptured thread in weft or warp' [f ѓ], bli?zn– [Nomp]; #SCr. bli?zna `scar' [f ѓ]; #SCr. bli?zno `gap' [n o]
Bulgarian: bliznaґ `place in fabric where a thread is torn or missing' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bliЂzґ-n-
Lithuanian: blyže†~ `rip in fabric' [f Њ] 4
Latvian: bli^znis2 `pile of broken trees in a forest' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *A formation with an n-suffix derived from *bhligґ- `beat', cf. Lat. fl–gere `hit'.
IE meaning: scar
Page in Pokorny: 160
COMM: The forms that seemingly reflect *bl'uzna must be secondary.
Proto-Slavic form: *blizъ II; blizь
GRAM: adv., prep.
Page in Trubačev: II 121-122
Old Church Slavic: blizъ `near, close to' [adv/prep]
Russian: bliz `near, close to' [prep]
Polish: blizo (dial.) `near, close by' [adv]
Old Polish: blizu `near, close by' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: bliґzu `near, close by' [prep/adv]; #SCr. C№ak. bl–zu? (Orbanicґi) `near, nearby' [prep/adv]; #SCr. C№ak. bli~zu (Orbanicґi) `near, nearby' [prep/adv]
Slovene: bli°z `near, close by' [adv]; #Sln. bli°z `near, close to' [prep]
Bulgarian: bliґzo `near, close by' [adv]
Lithuanian: bliežti (dial.) `throw hard' [verb]; #Lith. blaґižyti `tear off, shell' [verb]
Latvian: blie^zt `beat, hew' [verb]; #Latv. blai^zi^t `squeeze, squash, hit, beat, rub' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhl(e)igґ-o-
IE meaning: near
Page in Pokorny: 161
COMM: Although puzzling at first, the semantic transition from `to beat' to `near' appears to have a few convincing parallels, e.g. MoFr. pre°s `near' : Lat. pressus `squeezed' (TrubačeЁv II: 122, with references).
Other cognates: Lat. fl–gere `hit' [verb]
Notes: {1} Rarely blizь.
Proto-Slavic form: *blizъ I; blizъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `near, close'
Page in Trubačev: II 121-122
Church Slavic: blizъ `near, close' [adj o] {1}
Russian: bliґzyj (dial.) `short-sighted' [adj o]; #Ru. bliґzkij `near, close' [adj o]
Ukrainian: blyґz'kyj `near, close' [adj o]
Czech: blizyґ (arch.) `near, close' [adj o]; #Cz. bliґkzyґ `near, close' [adj o]
Slovak: bliґzky `near, close' [adj o]
Polish: bliski `near, close' [adj o]
Old Polish: blizi `near, close, adjacent' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: blizki `near, close' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: blizki `near, close' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bli?z `near, close' [adj o]; #SCr. bli?zak `near, close' [adj o]
Slovene: bliґzЌk `near, close' [adj o], bliґzka [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: bliґzaўk `near, close' [adj o]
Lithuanian: bliežti (dial.) `throw hard' [verb]; #Lith. blaґižyti `tear off, shell' [verb]
Latvian: blie^zt `beat, hew' [verb]; #Latv. blai^zi^t `squeeze, squash, hit, beat, rub' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhl(e)igґ-o-
Page in Pokorny: 161
Other cognates: Lat. fl–gere `hit' [verb]
Notes: {1} As an adjective, blizъ is exclusively attested in Croatian Church Slavic: manuscripts from the 14th century.
Proto-Slavic form: *blǫЇdi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `err'
Page in Trubačev: II 125-127
Old Church Slavic: blǫditi `err, indulge in debauchery' [verb], blǫždǫ [1sg]
Russian: bludiґt' `wander, roam' [verb], blužuґ [1sg], bluґdit [3sg]; #Ru. bludiґt' `fornicate' [verb], blužuґ [1sg], bludiґt [3sg]
Czech: blouditi `lose one's way, roam, be mistaken' [verb]
Slovak: bluґdit' `lose one's way, roam, be mistaken' [verb]
Polish: bљa§dzicґ `be mistaken, roam, lose one's way' [verb]
Slovincian: bla§~Ѕeўc `be mistaken, roam, talk nonsense' [verb], blo†ґuё§ѕa§ [1sg]
Upper Sorbian: bљudzicґ `delude, lose one's way, be mistaken, roam' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bљuzґisґ `confuse, roam, be mistaken' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bluґditi `spoil, caress' [verb], blu?d–m [1sg]
Slovene: blǫґditi `roam, be mistaken, talk nonsense, mix, blend, delude' [verb], blǫґdim [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *blond-iЂ-tei
Lithuanian: blandyґtis `clear up, become cloudy, recover, roam' [verb]
Latvian: bluo^di^tie^s2 `roam, be ashamed' [verb]; #Latv. bla°ndi^tie^s2 `roam' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhlond-iH-tei
IE meaning: be in a clouded state of mind
Page in Pokorny: 157
Other cognates: Go. blandan sik `mix' [verb]; OIc. blanda `mix, blend' [verb]; OE blandan `mix' [verb]; OE blendan `darken, blend' [verb]; OIc. blunda `close one's eyes' [verb]; ME blundren `stir, confuse' [verb]; MoE blunder `blunder' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *blǫ?dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `delusion'
Page in Trubačev: II 126-127
Old Church Slavic: blǫdъ `debauchery, depravity, adultery' [m o]
Russian: blud `lechery, fornication, (dial.) evil spirit that leads the drunk astray' [m o]
Czech: blud `mistake, delusion, insanity' [m o]; #Cz. bloud `fool' [m o] {1}
Slovak: blud `mistake, delusion, insanity' [m o]
Polish: bљa§d `mistake, delusion' [m o], bљędu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: blu?d `mistake, delusion, lechery, adultery' [m o]
Slovene: blǫ?d `mistake, delusion, voluptuousness' [m o]
Bulgarian: blud `fornication, adultery, time of unrest' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *blondos
Lithuanian: blan~das `cloudiness, obscuration of mind or eyesight, drowsiness' [m o]; #Lith. blanda° `fog' [f ѓ] 4; #Lith. blandu°s `dim, cloudy, thick (soup)' [adj u]
Latvian: bluods `evil spirit that leads one astray, wood-goblin' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 157
COMM: Deverbative o-stem with o-grade in the root of *bhlend-. Skt. bradhnaґ- (RV+) `pale ruddy, yellowish, bay' [adj], which has been assumed to be cogtyy o- rather belongs together with *bronъ.
Other cognates: OIc. blundr `slumber' [m o]
Notes: {1} According to Verweij (1994: 52), the originally long root vowel of Cz. bloud may be a vestige of the accent paradigm to which *blǫdъ belonged prior to the operation of Illič-Svityč's law.
Proto-Slavic form: *blъxa°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `flea'
Page in Trubačev: II 129-130
Church Slavic: blъxa (RuCS) `flea' [f ѓ]
Russian: bloxaґ `flea' [f ѓ], bloxuґ [Accs]; #Ru. bloxaґ (dial.) `flea' [f ѓ], bloґxu [Accs]
Ukrainian: bloxaґ `flea' [f ѓ]
Czech: blecha `flea' [f ѓ]
Slovak: blcha `flea' [f ѓ]
Polish: pchљa `flea' [f ѓ] {1}
Slovincian: p»la†~ `flea' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: tcha `flea' [f ѓ]; #USrb. bka (Pfuhl) `flea' [f ѓ]; #USrb. pcha (Pfuhl) `flea' [f ѓ]; #USrb. tk(h)a (Pfuhl) `flea' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: pcha `flea' [f ѓ]; #LSrb. bcha (dial.) `flea' [f ѓ]
Polabian: blaІxaў `flea' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bu°ha `flea' [f ѓ], bu°hu [Accs], bu?he [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. buha? (Vrgada) `flea' [f ѓ], buhe? [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. bu?ha (Orbanicґi) `flea' [f ѓ]
Slovene: boґљha `flea' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: baўlxaґ `flea' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bluґs•-aH
Lithuanian: blusa° `flea' [f ѓ] 2
Latvian: blusa `flea' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhlus-eh2
IE meaning: flea
Page in Pokorny: 102
Other cognates: Gk. yЪlla `flea' [f]; Skt. pluґs•i- `flea' [m]; Lat. pіlex `flea' [m]; OHG flЎh `flea' [m]; Arm. low `flea'
Notes: {1} In Polish dialects, we find a large variety of forms, e.g. pcha, pљa, pљecha, bљecha, bљcha.
Proto-Slavic form: *blьknǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `fade'
Page in Trubačev: II 112-113
Russian: bleЁknut' `fade, wither' [verb] {1}
BeloRussian: bljaґknucґ `fade, wither' [verb]
Ukrainian: bleґknuty `fade, wither' [verb]
Polish: blakna§cґ `fade' [verb] {2}
Kashubian: vЌble†knǫc `fade' [verb]; #Kash. zble†knǫc `fade' [verb]
Lithuanian: nublie~kti `fade' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhlik-
Page in Pokorny: 157
COMM: TrubačeЁv actually reconstructs *blĕknǫti. I prefer the traditional reconstruction, which is also found in Sљawski SP I.
Notes: {1} Cf. also bleЁklyj `faded, pale, wan'. {2} Rather than regarding the a as old, I would follow Sљawski in assuming that the root vowel was influenced by bladny `pale'.
Proto-Slavic form: *blьskъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: II 113-114
Church Slavic: blьskъ `splendour' [m o]
Old Czech:: blesk `lightning, brightness' [m o], blsku [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: bљysk `lightning, brightness' [m o]
Bulgarian: blaўґsaўk `blow, stab' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *blisko- {1}
Lithuanian: bli°zgas `shine, glimmer' [m o] 2
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhligґ-sko-
Page in Pokorny: 156
COMM: The preglottalized velar may or may not have been lost before Winter's law. In the latter case, the Slavic and Baltic forms with short *i would have to be of analogical origin. For this reason I prefer a Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction without Ђ.
Proto-Slavic form: *blьščati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: II 131-132
Old Church Slavic: blьštati sę `sparkle, shine' [verb]
Ukrainian: blyščaґti `shine' [verb]
Czech: blyštĕti se `shine, sparkle, twinkle' [verb] {1}
Polish: bљyszczecґ `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Slovincian: bla†~ščeўc `shine, sparkle' [verb]; #Slnc. bli°eёščeўc `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bљyscґecґ `shine' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bљyscґasґ (se) `shine' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: blije°štati (se) `shine, glisten' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. bl–šcґi?ti se (Vrgada) `shine, glisten' [verb]
Slovene: ble•ґščati `shine, sparkle, gawk' [verb] {2}; #Sln. boљščaґti `gawk' [verb]
Bulgarian: bleґštja `open one's eyes wide, gawk' [verb]; #Bulg. bleštiґ (dial.) `shine' [3sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bliskeЂtei
Lithuanian: blyške†ґti `shine' [verb], blyґški [3sg]; #Lith. blizge†ґti `shine, sparkle' [verb]; #Lith. bliske†ґti `shine, sparkle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhligґ-sk-eH1-tei
Page in Pokorny: 156
COMM: A number of the above-mentioned forms contain a secondary full grade. For a motivation of the Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction see *blьskъ.
Notes: {1} Jungmann has blštĕti, blyštĕti, blištĕti `shine'. {2} The accentuation ble•ščaґti (Pleteršnik I: s.v.) is a misprint (see o.c. II: I).
Proto-Slavic form: *bl§usti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `watch'
Page in Trubačev: II 136-137
Old Church Slavic: bljusti `watch, guard' [verb], bljudǫ [1sg]
Russian: bljustiґ `guard, observe' [verb], bljuduґ [1sg], bljudeЁt [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: blju?sti (RJA: arch.) `guard, observe' [verb], bl§uґdЊm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *biёoud-
Indo-European reconstruction: *bheudh-e/o-
IE meaning: observe, notice, be awake
Page in Pokorny: 150
Other cognates: Gk. pљuqomai `give notice'; Skt. boґdhati `observe, heed'
Proto-Slavic form: *bl§ьva°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `vomit'
Page in Trubačev: II 140-141
Old Church Slavic: bl'ьvati `vomit' [verb], bljujǫ [1sg]
Russian: blevaґt' (vulg.) `vomit' [verb], bljujuґ [1sg], bljujeЁt [3sg]
Old Russian:: blьvati `vomit' [verb], bljuju [1sg]
Czech: bliґti `vomit' [verb]; #Cz. blut (dial.) `vomit' [verb]
Old Czech:: blvati `vomit, spit' [verb], bl'uju [1sg]; #OCz. bliґvati `vomit' [verb]
Slovak: bl'uvat' `vomit' [verb]
Polish: blwacґ (obs.) `vomit' [verb], bluję [1sg]; #Pl. blucґ `vomit' [verb], bluję [1sg]
Upper Sorbian: blecґ `vomit, spit' [verb]; #USrb. bluwacґ `vomit, spit' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bluwasґ `spit, vomit' [verb]; #LSrb. blusґ `spit, vomit' [verb]
Polabian: bl'aІvaў `vomit' [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: blju°vati `vomit' [verb], blju?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. blju?vat (Orbanicґi) `vomit' [verb], blju?je [3sg], blju?va [3sg]
Slovene: bljЌvaґti `vomit, spit' [verb], bljuґjem [1sg]; #Sln. bljuvaґti `vomit, spit' [verb], bljuґvam [1sg], bljuґjem [1sg]; #Sln. bljuґti `vomit, spit' [verb], bljuґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: baўґlvam `vomit' [verb]; #Bulg. bljuґja (dial., arch.) `vomit' [verb]; #Bulg. bljuґvam (dial., arch.) `vomit' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bliёouЂ-
Lithuanian: bliaґuti `bleat, sob, weep' [verb]
Latvian: bl§au^t `bleat, bellow' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhleuH-
Page in Pokorny: 158
Proto-Slavic form: *bo
GRAM: conj.
Page in Trubačev: II 141-142
Old Church Slavic: bo `for' [conj]
Russian: bo (dial.) `if, for, because' [conj]
Czech: bo (arch.) `for' [conj]
Polish: bo `for, because' [conj]
Serbo-Croatian: bo (dial.) `for' [conj]
Lithuanian: ba° `for' [conj]; #Lith. be° `for' [conj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bho
Page in Pokorny: 113
Other cognates: Go. ba `that not, if not'
Proto-Slavic form: *boda°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `stab, sting'
Page in Trubačev: II 122-122
Russian: bodaґt' `butt' [verb], bodaґju [1sg]
Czech: bodati `stab, pierce' [verb]
Slovak: bodat' `stab' [verb]
Slovene: bo•?dati `sting, stitch' [verb], bo•?dam [1sg]
Bulgarian: bodaґ `stab, feel a sharp pain' [verb]
Lithuanian: badyґti `butt, prick' [verb], ba~do [3ps]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhodh-
IE meaning: stab
Page in Pokorny: 113
COMM: The ESSJa mentions forms reflecting *bodati under *badati because the o-vocalism is assumed to be analogical. Since in general *boda°ti is also semantically closer to bosti° (the meaning `investigate' is limited to bѓda°ti) and in some languages occurs alongside *bѓda°ti, it is perhaps more accurate to say that it is a recent formation.
Other cognates: Lat. fodiЎ `dig' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bodъlь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `thorn'
Page in Trubačev: II 154-155
Church Slavic: bodlь (RuCS) `thorn' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?dalj (Montenegro) `a kind of thorny grass' [m jo], bo?dlja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. buo?dalj (Orbanicґi) `unidentified plant (thistle?), prickle, thorn' [m jo], buo?dlja [Gens]
Slovene: bo?dЌlj `needle, thorn' [m jo], bo?dlja [Gens]
Bulgarian: bodeґl (obs.) `thorn' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 113
Proto-Slavic form: *boga°tъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `rich'
Page in Trubačev: II 158-159
Old Church Slavic: bogatъ `rich' [adj o]
Russian: bogaґtyj `rich' [adj o]
Czech: bohatyґ `rich' [adj o]
Slovak: bohatyґ `rich' [adj o]
Polish: bogaty `rich' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bo°gat `rich' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. boga?t (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `rich' [adj o], boga?ta [Nomsf]
Slovene: boga°t `rich' [adj o]
Bulgarian: bogaґt `rich' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 107
COMM: See -> *bo?gъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?ršьno
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `flour, food'
Page in Trubačev: II 212-213
Old Church Slavic: brašьno `food' [n o]
Russian: boґrošno (dial.) `rye-flour' [n o]
Old Russian:: borošьno `(farinaceous) food' [n o]
Ukrainian: boґrošno `flour' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?šno `flour, food' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. bra?šno (Vrgada) `flour, food' [n o]
Slovene: braґšno• `food' [n o]
Bulgarian: brašnoґ `flour' [n o]
Latvian: bari~ba `food' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhar-s-in-om
Page in Pokorny: 111
COMM: We are probably dealing here with a root *bhar-, which was borrowed into PIE.
Other cognates: Lat. far `flour' [n]; Lat. far–na `flour' [f]; Go. barizeins `barley-' [adj]; OIc. barr `grain' [m]; OIr. bairgen `bread, loaf' [f], W. bara `bread' {1}
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?gъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `god'
Page in Trubačev: II 161-163
Old Church Slavic: bogъ `god' [m o]
Russian: bog `god' [m o], boґga [Gens]
BeloRussian: boh `god' [m o], boґha [Gens]
Ukrainian: bih `god' [m o], boґha [Gens]
Czech: buІh `god' [m o], boha [Gens]
Slovak: boh `god' [m o]
Polish: boґg `god' [m o], boga [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: boґh `god' [m o], boha [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?g `god' [m o], bo?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?g (Vrgada, Novi) `god' [m o], bo?ga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. buo?h (Orbanicґi) `God, Christ' [m o], bo?ga [Gens]
Slovene: bo•?g `god' [m o], boga? [Gens]
Bulgarian: bog `god' [m o]
COMM: The Slavic noun *bogъ is usually considered a borrowing from Iranian (cf. Vaillant Gr. I: 16). This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the etymon does not show the effects of Winter's law.
Other cognates: Skt. bhaґga- (RV+) `prosperity, good fortune' [m o]; LAv. ba‘a- `lord, god'
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?lgo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: II 173
Old Church Slavic: blago `(the) good' [adj o]
Russian: boґlogo (dial.) `well, good' [adv]; #Ru. bologoґ (dial.) `well, good' [adv]
Old Russian:: bologo `(the) good' [n o]
Czech: blaho `bliss, happiness' [n o]
Polish: bљogo `good, happiness' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: bla?go `wealth, money, cattle' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. blaІ?go (Vrgada) `cattle' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. bla?go (Orbanicґi) `(head of) cattle, farm animal' [n o]
Slovene: blago•? `good, goods, cattle' [n o]
Bulgarian: blaґgo `good, property, wealth' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 124
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?lgъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `good'
Page in Trubačev: II 174
Old Church Slavic: blagъ `good, gracious' [adj o]
Czech: blahyґ `blessed, good' [adj o]
Slovak: blahyґ `blessed, good' [adj o]
Polish: bљogi `good, happy, beneficial' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bla?g `sweet, good' [adj o]
Slovene: bla?g `noble, benevolent' [adj o]
Bulgarian: blag `good, pleasant, sweet' [adj o]
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?lь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pain'
Page in Trubačev: II 191-192
Old Church Slavic: bolь `sick person' [m i]
Russian: bol' `pain' [f i]
BeloRussian: bol' `pain' [m jo], boґlju [Gens]
Ukrainian: bil' `pain, suffering' [m jo], boґlju [Gens]
Czech: bol `sorrow, grief' [m o]
Slovak: bo^l' `sorrow, grief' [m o]
Polish: boґl `pain, sorrow, grief' [m o], boґlu [Gens] {1}
Kashubian: buёo†l `pain' [m o], buёo†lu {1}
Slovincian: bo†ґul `pain' [m o], bo†ґulu†_
Upper Sorbian: boґl `pain' [f jѓ], bole [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: bol `pain, grief' [f i], boli [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?l `pain, illness' [f i], bo?li [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?l (Vrgada, Novi) `pain, illness' [f i], bo?li [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. buo?l (Orbanicґi) `pain, illness' [f i], boli [Gens]
Slovene: bo?љ `pain, suffering, grief' [f i], bo?li [Gens]; #Sln. bo?љ `pain, suffering, grief' [m o]
Bulgarian: bol (dial.) `pain, sick person' [m o]; #Bulg. bol' (dial.) `sick person, illness' [m o]
Macedonian: bol `pain' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhol(H)-i-
Page in Pokorny: 125
COMM: A deverbative of -> *bolĕti.
Other cognates: OCorn. bal `illness' [f]; OIc. bǫl `misfortune, damage' [n], bǫlve [Dats]; Go. balwawesei `wickedness' [f]; OE bealu `woe, harm, wickedness' [n]
Notes: {1} Sљawski mentions boґl (17th/18th c.) `devil, demon', bolu [Gens] (SP I: 315). A variant with the expected short root vowel is also attested in dialects and in Kashubian (Gens -olu alongside -o†lu mentioned in Lorentz PW).
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?rgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stack, rick'
Page in Trubačev: II 202-203
Ukrainian: borig (dial.) `stack, rick' [m o], boroga [Gens]
Old Czech:: brah `stack, rick' [m o]
Polish: broґg `stack, rick, shed' [m o], brogu [Gens]
Slovincian: bro†ґuёg `stack, rick' [m o], bru°oёgu†
Lower Sorbian: brog `stack, rick' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorgh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 145
COMM: Lith. b(a)ra~gas `stack, rick' is a Slavic borrowing. Ru. brog was probably borrowed from Polish.
Other cognates: MLG barch (barg, berg) `shed without walls for storing sheafs' [m o] {1}
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?rnь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: II 208-209
Old Church Slavic: branь `war, battle, fight' [f i]
Russian: boґron' (dial.) `prohibition, order' [f i]
Old Russian:: boronь `battle, obstacle, guard' [f i]
Old Czech:: bran№ `arms, fortification, defence' [f i]; #OCz. bran `arms, fortification, defence' [f i]
Polish: bronґ `weapon, military division' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: broґnґ `arms, equipment' [f i]
Lower Sorbian: bronґ `arms' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?n `fight, battle, war' [f i]; #SCr. bra?n `fight, battle, war' [m o]
Slovene: bra?n `defence, kind of weir, (wicket-)gate' [f i]
Bulgarian: bran `war' [f i?]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bor-n-i-
Lithuanian: bar~nis `abuse, quarrel' [m io] 2; #Lith. barni°s `abuse, quarrel' [f i] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-n-i-
Page in Pokorny: 133
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?rvъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
Page in Trubačev: II 214-215
Church Slavic: bravъ `small live stock' [m o]
Russian: boґrov `hog, castrated boar, (dial.) boar, castrated bull' [m o]
Old Russian:: borovъ `small live stock, hog, castrated boar' [m o]
Czech: brav `small live stock' [m o]; #Cz. brav (dial.) `hog, castrated boar' [m o]
Slovak: brav `hog, castrated boar' [m o]
Polish: browek (dial.) `porker' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?v `sheep (pl.), (dial.) hog, castrated boar' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. braІ?v (Vrgada) `ram' [m o]
Slovene: bra?v `sheep (pl.), pig, animal' [m o]; #Sln. bra?v `sheep (pl.)' [f i]
Bulgarian: brav (dial.) `ram' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhor-u-o-
COMM: It is unclear whether this root may be identified with the root *bhrH- of *borti and *bъrtь, as is advocated by Pokorny (133-135).
Other cognates: OIc. bǫrgr `hog, castrated boar' [m]; OHG barug `hog, castrated boar' [m]; OHG barh `hog, castrated boar' [m]; OE bearg `hog, castrated boar' [m]; OE bearh `hog, castrated boar' [m]; MoE barrow `hog, castrated boar' [m]; MoDu barg `hog, castrated boar' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} The Germanic cognates point to *bhor-u-ko-.
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?rъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `pine-tree, pine forest'
Page in Trubačev: II 216-217
Church Slavic: borъ (RuCS) `pine-tree, pine forest' [m o]
Russian: bor `coniferous forest' [m o]; #Ru. bor (dial.) `woods, forest, heather, shrubbery, high place, dry place, waterless valley' [m o/u]
Old Russian:: borъ `pine-tree, pine forest' [m o], borove [Nompl]
Ukrainian: bir `pine forest, coniferous forest' [m o/u], boґru [Gensg]; #Ukr. byr (dial.) `high, sandy place, pinewood in a high, sandy place ' [m o/u], boru [Gensg]
Czech: bor `coniferous forest, woods' [m o]; #Cz. bor (dial.) `pine-tree, pine forest' [m o]
Slovak: bor `pine-tree' [m o]; #Slk. bo^r `pine-tree' [m o]
Polish: boґr `forest' [m o], boru [Gensg], boru [Locsg]
Slovincian: bo†ґr `dry, barren soil, pine forest' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: boґr (arch.) `pine-tree, pine forest' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: boґr (obs.) `pine-tree, (pine) forest' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?r `pine-tree' [m o], bo?ra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bo~r (Vrgada) `pine-tree' [m o], bora? [Gens]
Slovene: bo•?r `pine-tree' [m o]
Bulgarian: bor `pine-tree' [m o]
COMM: In Slavic, there are many indications for an original u-stem borъ < *bhoru-, e.g. RuCS borove `pine-trees' [Nomp], Pl. w boru `in the forest', or derivates based on a stem borov-, such as SCr. boro°v–k `coniferous forest, pine forest', bo°rovina `pine-tree, pinewood', bo°ro?vka `bilberry, raspberry'.
Other cognates: OIc. bǫrr `tree' [m]; OE bearu `tree' [m], bearwes [Gensg]
Proto-Slavic form: *bo?sъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `barefooted, unshod'
Page in Trubačev: II 223-224
Church Slavic: bosъ `barefooted' [adj o]
Russian: bosoґj `barefooted' [adj o]
Ukrainian: boґsyj `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Czech: bosyґ `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Slovak: bosyґ `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Polish: bosy `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: bosy `barefooted, tasteless' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: bosy `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?s `barefooted' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?s (Vrgada) `barefooted' [adj o], bosa? [Nomsf], bo?so [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. buo?s (Orbanicґi) `barefooted' [adj o], bo?sa [Nomsf], bo?so [Nomsn]
Slovene: bo•?s `barefooted' [adj o]
Bulgarian: bos `barefooted, unshod' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bosoґs
Lithuanian: ba~sas `barefooted' [adj o] 4
Latvian: bass `barefooted' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhos-oґ-
Other cognates: OIc. berr `naked, bare' [adj]; OHG bar `naked, bare' [adj]; OE baer `naked, bare' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *bojati sę
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `fear, be afraid'
Page in Trubačev: II 163-164
Old Church Slavic: bojati sę `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Russian: bojat'sja `fear, be afraid' [verb], bojuґs' [1sg], boiґtsja [3sg]
Ukrainian: bojaґty sja `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Czech: baґti se `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Slovak: bat' sa `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Polish: bacґ się `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Slovincian: bu°ojeўc sa§ `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bojecґ so `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: boґjasґ se `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bo°jati se `fear, be afraid' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. bo°jati se (Vrgada) `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Slovene: bojaґti se `fear, be afraid' [verb], bojiґm se [1sg]; #Sln. baґti se `fear, be afraid' [verb], bojiґm se [1sg]
Bulgarian: bojaґ se `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *b(o)i(Ђ)-aЂ-
Lithuanian: bijoґti(s) `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Latvian: bija^t(ie^s) `fear, be afraid' [verb]; #Latv. bi^tie^s `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Old Prussian: biѓtwei `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoiH-eh2-
IE meaning: fear
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 161
Other cognates: Skt. bhayi- (RV+) `fear, be afraid' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bojaznь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `fear'
Page in Trubačev: II 165
Old Church Slavic: bojaznь `fear' [f i]
Russian: bojaґzn' `fear' [f i]
Czech: baґzen№ `fear' [f i/jѓ]
Polish: bojazґnґ `fear' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?jѓzan `fear' [f i]
Slovene: boja?zЌn `fear' [f i]
Bulgarian: bojaґzaўn `fear' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *b(o)i(Ђ)-aЂ-
Old Prussian: biѓsnan `fear' [Ins]
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 161
Proto-Slavic form: *bojь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `battle, fight'
Page in Trubačev: II 167-168
Old Church Slavic: uboi `murder' [m jo]
Russian: boj `battle, fight, beating' [m jo], boґja [Gens] {1}
Ukrainian: bij `fight, battle' [m jo], boґju [Gens]
Czech: boj `battle, fight' [m jo]
Slovak: boj `battle, fight' [m jo]
Polish: boґj `battle, fight' [m jo], boju [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?j `battle, war' [m jo], bo?ja [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bo~j (Vrgada) `battle, war' [m jo], boja? [Gens]
Slovene: bo°j `battle, fight' [m jo], boґja [Gens]
Bulgarian: boj `battle, fight' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoiH-o-
Page in Pokorny: 118
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian::, sporadically (c) (Zaliznjak 1985: 134).
Proto-Slavic form: *bolĕti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ache'
Page in Trubačev: II 187-189
Old Church Slavic: bolĕti `be ill, be in pain' [verb], boljǫ [1sg], boliši [2sg]
Russian: boleґt' `ache' [verb], boliґt [3sg]; #Ru. boleґt' `be ill' [verb], boleґet [3sg]
Ukrainian: boliґty `ache' [verb], boliґt' [3sg]; #Ukr. boliґty `be in pain, be ill' [verb], boliґje [3sg]
Czech: boleti `ache' [verb]
Slovak: boliet' `ache' [verb]
Polish: bolecґ `ache' [verb]
Slovincian: bu°oёleўc `ache' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bolecґ `ache' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: boґlesґ `ache' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bo°ljeti `ache, hurt' [verb], bo°l–m; #SCr. C№ak. boli?ti `ache, hurt' [verb], boli~ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bole?t (Orbanicґi) `hurt' [verb], boli~ [3sg]
Slovene: bole•ґti `ache' [verb], boliґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: boliґ `aches' [3sg]; #Bulg. boljaґ `be ill' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhol(H)-eh1-
Page in Pokorny: 125
COMM: The possibility exists that we had *bhle(H)u- (Gk. flau~roj `inferior, bad', OIc. blau‹r `timid'?) alongside *bhel(H)- (cf. Pokorny 125, 159).
Other cognates: Go. balwjan `martyr' [verb]; OIc. bǫlva `curse' [verb]
Notes: The possibility exists that we had *bhle(H)u- (Gk. flau~roj `inferior, bad', OIc. blau?r `timid'?) alongside *bhel(H)- (cf. Pokorny 125, 159).
Proto-Slavic form: *bo°lna
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `membrane'
Page in Trubačev: II 175-177
Church Slavic: blana (RuCS) `placenta' [f ѓ]
Russian: bolonaґ `sickly outgrowth on trees, sap-wood, (dial.) lump' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: bolona `placenta' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: boloґna `membrane, window-pane' [f ѓ]
Czech: blaґna `film, membrane, web (of water-fowl), sap-wood' [f ѓ]
Slovak: blana `membrane, film' [f ѓ]
Polish: bљona `membrane, film' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: bљona `placenta, eyeweb, peritoneum, entrails' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: bљona `membrane, film' [f ѓ]
Slovene: bla?na `membrane, thin skin, parchment' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: blanaґ `manure (used as fuel), turf' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: baґlnas `white, having a white back (cattle)' [adj] 3
Indo-European reconstruction: *bholH-neh2
Page in Pokorny: 118
COMM: Both Trubac№eЁv and Sљawski are inclined to derive bolna `membrane, sapwood' and bolna `turf, meadow' from a root meaning `white'. Though the relationship between `membrane' and `white' may not be obvious, the relationship between the usually light-coloured sapwood and `white' is unproblematic. In view of the semantic similarities between `sapwood' and `membrane', the etymology advocated by TrubačeЁv and Sљawski may very well be correct. The connection between *bolna `turf, meadow' and *bolto `swamp', where an etymology involving the root for `white' is widely accepted, seems quite plausible.
Proto-Slavic form: *bolnьje
GRAM: n. io
Page in Trubačev: II 178-179
Russian: baloґn'e (dial.) `low flooded place' [n io]
Old Russian:: bolonьje `low-lying meadow near a river' [n io]
Ukrainian: boloґnja `low-lying meadow' [n io]; #Ukr. boloґnje `ravine, pasture' [n io]; #Ukr. bolon'eґ (dial.) `swamp' [n io]
Czech: blaґnĕ (arch.) `meadow, pasture' [n io]
Old Czech:: blaґniґ `meadow, lawn' [n io]
Polish: bљonie `large pasture, meadow' [n jo]
Polabian: blaІneў `meadow' [n io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bholH-nio-
Page in Pokorny: 118
Proto-Slavic form: *bolnь; boln§a
GRAM: f. i; f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: II 178
Russian: boloґn' (dial.) `peritoneum, membrane, upper layers of a tree, cambium, bull's belly' [f i]; #Ru. boґlon' (dial.) `timber' [f i]
Old Russian:: bolonь `low-lying meadow near a river' [f i]
Ukrainian: bolon' `meadow, pasture' [f i]
Czech: blan№a (dial.) `film, skin (on milk etc.)' [f jѓ]
Old Czech:: blan№e `pasture' [f jѓ]
Slovak: blana `membrane, film' [f ѓ]
Polish: bљona `membrane, film' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: blo†ґuёn `cloud' [m o], blo†ґuёnaў `cloud' [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: bљonґ `meadow, clearing' [m i]
Polabian: blaІn `meadow' [f i]; #Plb. blaІnaў `meadow' [f ѓ]
Slovene: blaґnja `board, stump, log' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: baґlnis `peeled tree-trunk' [m i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bholH-n-i-
Page in Pokorny: 118
COMM: See bo°lna. I have included Slnc. blo†ґuёn in spite of the fact that it is morphologically and semantically deviant.
Proto-Slavic form: *bo°lto
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `swamp'
Page in Trubačev: II 179-182
Old Church Slavic: blato `swamp, quagmire' [n o]
Russian: boloґto `swamp' [n o]
Czech: blaґto `mud' [n o]
Polish: bљoto `mud' [n o]
Slovincian: blu°oёto `swamp' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: bљoґto `mud' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: bla?to `mud, swampy terrain' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. bla?to (Vrgada) `mud, swampy terrain' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. bla?to (Orbanicґi) `mud, dirt' [n o]
Slovene: blaґto• `mud, swamp' [n o]
Bulgarian: blaґto `mud, swamp' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bolЂto
Lithuanian: baґltas `white' [adj o] 3; #Lith. bala° `swamp' [f ѓ] 3
Latvian: bal~ts `white' [adj o]
Old Prussian: Namuynbalt [placename] {1}
Page in Pokorny: 118
COMM: Both formally and semantically, *bo°lto may derive from PIE *bhelH- `white', cf. Pl. dial. biel, bielaw, Bel. bel' `swampy meadow' (ESSJa II: 180). PSl. *bolto is sometimes considered an "Illyrian" substratum word. In this connection not only the above-mentioned forms from the Balkan peninsula are adduced, but also Romance forms such as Lomb. palta, Pieґm. pauta.
Other cognates: Alb. balteЁ `mud, swamp' [f]; MoGk. bŽltoj `swamp' [f]; Rum. baltaў `mud, swamp' [f] {2}
Notes: {1} Cf. also the Rythabalt meadow and the placename Peusebalten. Namuynbalt is the equivalent of Namoyumpelk (pelk `swamp').
Proto-Slavic form: *bolzi°na
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: II 183-184
Serbo-Croatian: bla°zina `pillow, bolster' [f ѓ]
Slovene: blaziґna `roof-beam, cross-beam, pillow, mattress, bolster' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bolzґeiЂnaЂ; bolzґeiЂnos
Lithuanian: balžiґenas `cross-beam (harrow ,waggon, sledge)' [m o] 1/3; #Lith. balžiґena `cross-beam (harrow ,waggon, sledge)' [f ѓ] 1/3
Latvian: ba°lzie^ns `cross-beam (sledge, plough)' [m o]
Old Prussian: balsinis `cushion'; #OPr. pobalso `bolster'
Indo-European reconstruction: *bholgґh-
COMM: It seems plausible that we are dealing with two, formally indistinguishable roots (cf. IEW: 122-123, 125-126). The meaning `pillow, bolster' belongs to the same root that underlies Lith. bal~nas, OHG balg etc. Stang (1972, 14) attempts to separate `beam' from `pillow, bellows' on formal grounds (*gґ vs. gґh, respectively), but this does not seem to work, as the Balto-Slavic forms that would *gґ do not show the effects of Winter's law. It is more likely that the Germanic forms with *k contain *k(k) < *gґh-n- (Kluge's law).
Other cognates: OIc. bjalki `beam' [m]; OHG balko `beam' [m]; OE balca `beam' [m] {1}
Proto-Slavic form: *bolzьno
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `beam'
Page in Trubačev: II 184
Russian: boґlozno (dial.) `thick plank' [n o]
Kashubian: bљozno `cross-beam' [n o]
Slovincian: blu°oёzno `body of a sleigh' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bolzґeiЂnaЂ; bolzґeiЂnos
Lithuanian: balžiґenas `cross-beam (harrow ,waggon, sledge)' [m o] 1/3; #Lith. balžiґena `cross-beam (harrow ,waggon, sledge)' [f ѓ] 1/3
Latvian: ba°lzie^ns `cross-beam (sledge, plough)' [m o]
Old Prussian: balsinis `cushion'; #OPr. pobalso `bolster' {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *bholgґh-
COMM: See *bolzi°na.
Other cognates: OIc. bjalki `beam' [m]; OHG balko `beam' [m]; OE balca `beam' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *bol§e(je)
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `more'
Page in Trubačev: II 193-194
Old Church Slavic: bolje `more' [adv]; #OCS bole `more' [adv]
Russian: boґlee `more' [adv]
Upper Sorbian: boґle `more' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?lje `better' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?l§Њ (Vrgada) `better' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?lje (Orvanicґi) `better' [adv]
Slovene: bo•?lje `better' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bol-(iё)is-ios
Page in Pokorny: 96
COMM: Adverb of *bol§ьjь.
Proto-Slavic form: *bol§ьjь
GRAM: adj. jo
Page in Trubačev: II 193-194
Old Church Slavic: bol§ii `bigger, better' [adj jo], bol§ьši [Nomsf], bolje [Nomsn]
Russian: boґl'šij `bigger' [adj jo], boґl'šaja [Nomsf], boґl'šee [Nomsn]
Serbo-Croatian: bo?lj– `better' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?l§– (Vrgada) `better' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?lji (Orbanicґi) `better' [adj jo]
Slovene: bo•?lji `better' [adj jo]
Page in Pokorny: 96
COMM: A comparative bol-(iё)is-io- from a PIE root *bel- `strong'.
Other cognates: Skt. baґl–ya- `better' [adj]; Gk. belt…wn `better' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *borda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `beard'
Page in Trubačev: II 197-198
Old Church Slavic: brada `beard' [f ѓ]
Russian: borodaґ `beard, (dial.) chin' [f ѓ], bґorodu [Accs]
BeloRussian: baradaґ `beard' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: borodaґ `beard, chin' [f ѓ]
Czech: brada `chin, beard' [f ѓ]
Slovak: brada `chin, beard' [f ѓ]
Polish: broda `beard, chin' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: bru°odaў `beard' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: broda `beard, chin' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: broda `beard, moustache, chin' [f ѓ]
Polabian: brŽdaў `chin, throat' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: braґda `beard, chin' [f ѓ], bra?du [Accsg]; #SCr. bra?da `axe' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. braІЇda? (Vrgada) `beard, chin' [f ѓ], braІ?du [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. brѓda? (Orbanicґi) `chin, beard' [f ѓ], bra?du [Accs]
Slovene: braґda `beard, (beardless) chin' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: bradaґ `chin, beard' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: brada `chin, beard' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bordaґЂ
Lithuanian: barzda° `beard' [f ѓ] 4
Latvian: bѓ°rda `beard' [f ѓ]; #Latv. bѓrzda (dial.) `beard' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: bordus (EV) `beard'
Page in Pokorny: 110
COMM: Possibly a North Indo-European substratum word. In PIE terms - but with "European" a - the reconstrction is *bhardheh2.
Other cognates: Lat. barba `beard' [f]; OHG bart `beard' [m]; OE beard [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *bordatъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `bearded'
Page in Trubačev: II 198-199
Church Slavic: bradatyi `bearded' [adj o]
Russian: borodaґtyj `bearded' [adj o]
BeloRussian: baradaґty `bearded' [adj o]
Ukrainian: borodaґtyj `bearded' [adj o]
Czech: bradatyґ `bearded' [adj o]
Slovak: bradatyґ `bearded' [adj o]
Polish: brodaty `bearded' [adj o]
Slovincian: bro_da†~tiЁ `bearded' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: brodaty `bearded' [adj o]
Lower Sorbian: brodaty `bearded' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bra°dat `bearded' [adj o]
Slovene: brada°t `bearded' [adj o]
Bulgarian: bradaґt `bearded' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bordaґЂ-to-
Lithuanian: barzdoґtas `bearded' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 110
COMM: Adjective in *-to- derived from -> *borda°.
Other cognates: Lat. barbѓtus `bearded' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *bordlo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: II 200-201
Ukrainian: boroґlo (dial.) `cleft in a crag' [n o]; #Ukr. boroloґ (dial.) `crag' [n o]
Old Czech:: bradlo `cliff, (pl.) fortification' [n o] {1}
Slovak: bradlo `cliff' [n o]
Polish: brodљo (dial.) `hay-stack, shock' [n o]; #Pl. broґdљo (dial.) `hay-stack, shock' [n o]
Old Polish: brodљo `hay-stack' [n o]
Bulgarian: braґlo `weir' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-dhlom
Page in Pokorny: 133
COMM: Verbal derivative in *-dlo < *-dhlo-, cf. -> *borti.
Notes: {1} Cz. bradlo `handle of a stick' derives from *bьrati `take'.
Proto-Slavic form: *borna I
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `harrow'
Page in Trubačev: II 204-206
Russian: boronaґ `harrow' [f ѓ], boґronu [Accs]
Old Russian:: borona `harrow' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: boronaґ `harrow' [f ѓ]
Czech: braґny `harrow' [Nomplf ѓ]
Slovak: braґny `harrow' [Nomplf ѓ]
Polish: brona `harrow' [f ѓ] {1}
Slovincian: baІґrnaў `harrow' [f]
Upper Sorbian: broґna `harrow' [f ѓ]
Polabian: bornaў `harrow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: braґna `harrow' [f ѓ]
Slovene: braґna `harrow' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: braґna `harrow' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. branaґ (dial.) `harrow' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: brana `harrow' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-neh2
Page in Pokorny: 133
COMM: According to the ESSJa, *borna `harrow' and *borna `guarded entrance, barrier' belong to one and the same root. Though this may be correct, I prefer to leave it an open question whether these words may be identified. In my opinion, this is tantamount to leaving the question whether PSl. *borti, Lat. fer–re and OIc. berja are cognate with Gk. farТwsi, Lat. forѓre and OIc. bora unanswered.
Other cognates: Gk. farТwsi `plough' [3pl]; Lat. forѓre `perforate' [verb]; OIc bora `perforate, drill' [verb]; OHG borЎn `perforate, drill' [verb] {2}
Notes: {1} We find attestations of broґna (bruna) from the 16th century onwards (Sљawski SP I: 324).
Proto-Slavic form: *borna II
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: II 204-206
Old Russian:: borona `defence' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: boroґna `defence' [f ѓ]
Czech: braґna `entrance, gate, defences' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: braґna `fortification, gate' [f]
Slovak: braґna `gate, guarded entrance' [f ѓ]
Polish: brona `(arch.) fortified gate, movable part of a gate' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: braґna `dam, weir, barrier, defender, defence' [f ѓ]
Slovene: braґna `protection, defence' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: branaґ (dial.) `dam, weir' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: brana `dam, weir' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-neh2
Page in Pokorny: 133
COMM: See borna I.
Proto-Slavic form: *bo°rti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: II 213-214
Old Church Slavic: brati (sę) `fight' [verb], borjǫ (sę) [1sg], borješi (sę) [2sg]
Russian: boroґt' `overpower, throw to the ground' [verb], borjuґ [1sg], boґret [3sg]; #Ru. boroґt'sja `fight' [verb], borjuґs' [1sg], boґretsja [3sg]
Ukrainian: boroґty `overpower' [verb]
Polish: broґcґ się (dial.) `fight, contend' [verb]
Bulgarian: boґrja `torment, conquer' [verb]; #Bulg. boґrja se `fight' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *borЂ-
Lithuanian: baґrti `scold, accuse, forbid' [verb]; #Lith. baґrtis `quarrel' [verb]
Latvian: ba~rti `scold, blame' [verb]; #Latv. ba~rtie^s `quarrel' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhorH-tei
Page in Pokorny: 133
COMM: For semantic reasons it is unclear whether Lat. forѓre `perforate', OIc. bora `id.' etc. belong here as well (cf. Schrijver 1991: 216; see also s.v. *borna I). {2} The Germanic forms continue PGm. *barjan.
Other cognates: Lat. fer–re `hit' [verb]; OIc. berja `beat, hit' [verb]; OHG berjan `hit, pound, knead'
Proto-Slavic form: *borzda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `furrow'
Page in Trubačev: II 220
Old Church Slavic: brazda `furrow' [f ѓ]
Russian: borozdaґ `furrow, (dial.) harrow, canal' [f ѓ]
Czech: braґzda `furrow' [f ѓ]
Slovak: braґzda `furrow' [f ѓ]
Polish: bruzda `furrow' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: ba•ґr№d•aў `furrow' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: broґzda `furrow' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: brozda `furrow' [f ѓ]; #LSrb. bruІzda (dial.) `furrow' [f ѓ]; #LSrb. brouёzda (dial.) `furrow' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: braґzda `furrow, (dial.) canal' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. braІzda? (Vrgada) `furrow' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. brѓzda? (Orbanicґi) `furrow, row (of potatoes etc., planted in one furrow)' [f ѓ] {1}
Slovene: braґzda `furrow, wrinkle' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: brazdaґ `furrow' [f ѓ]; #Bulg. brezdaґ `furrow' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: brazdaґ `furrow, irrigation canal, wrinkle' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: bir~že† `sign (out of straws or twigs) that marks the boundary of the sowed land, furrow' [f Њ] 2 {2}
Latvian: bi°rze `furrow' [f Њ]
COMM: The reconstruction *bhrs-d(h)-, which would enable a connection with Skt. bhr•s•t•iґ- f. (RV) `point, top, spike, tooth', cannot account for the Baltic forms.
Other cognates: Skt. bhr•s•t•iґ-
Notes: {1} More common is the i-stem bra?s, Gsg. brѓzdi?. {2} The original accentuation of this word cannot be established. In Lithuanian, we find birže† 1/2/4 and biržis 1/2/3/4. In Latvian, bi°rze, bir~ze and bir^ze are attested.
Proto-Slavic form: *bosti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `stab, sting'
Page in Trubačev: II 222-223
Old Church Slavic: bosti `stab' [verb], bodǫ [1sg], basъ [1sgaor.]
Russian: bost' (Smolensk) `butt' [verb], boduґ [1sg]; #Ru. bostiґ (Kalin. obl.) `butt' [verb]
Czech: buІsti (poet.) `stab' [verb], bodu [1sg]
Old Czech:: boґsti `stab' [verb], bodu [1sg]
Polish: boґsґcґ `stab, butt' [verb], bodę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: bo°sti `sting, prick, stab' [verb], bo°dЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?sti (Vrgada) `sting, prick, stab' [verb], bode?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bo?s (Orbanicґi) `sting, prick, stab' [verb], bode?n [1sg]
Slovene: boґsti `stab, butt' [verb], boґdem [1sg]
Lithuanian: be°sti `stick, drive (into), dig' [verb], be~da [3sg] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhodh-
IE meaning: stab
Page in Pokorny: 113
Other cognates: Lat. fodiЎ `dig' [verb]
Notes: {1} We find o-vocalism in, for instance, the intensive badyґti, Latv. badi^t.
Proto-Slavic form: *bǫbьniti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: II 232
Russian: bubniґt' `grumble, mutter' [verb]
Czech: bubeniti (Jungmann) `beat the drum' [verb]
Polish: bębnicґ `beat the drum, make noise' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 93
Proto-Slavic form: *bǫbьnъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: II 232-233
Church Slavic: bubenъ (RuCS) `drum' [m o]; #CS bubonъ (RuCS) `drum' [m o]
Russian: buґben `tambourine' [m o]
Czech: buben `drum' [m o]
Polish: bęben `drum' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bu?banj `big Turkish drum, (dial.) fishing-basket' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. bu?banj (Orbanicґi) `drum' [m jo]
Slovene: bǫ?bЌn `drum, fishing-basket' [m o]
Page in Pokorny: 93
Other cognates: OIc. bumba `drum'
Proto-Slavic form: *bra°trъ; bra°tъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `brother'
Page in Trubačev: II 238, III 8-9
Old Church Slavic: bratrъ `brother' [m o]; #OCS bratъ `brother' [m o]
Russian: brat `brother' [m o], braґta [Gens]
Ukrainian: brat `brother' [m o]
Czech: bratr `brother' [m o]; #Cz. brat (dial., poet.) `brother' [m o]
Old Czech:: bratr `brother' [m o]; #OCz. brat `brother' [m o]
Slovak: brat(e)r (dial.) `brother' [m o]; #Slk. brat `brother' [m o]
Polish: brat `brother' [m o]
Old Polish: bratr (Bibl. Zof.) `brother' [m o]
Slovincian: bra~t `brother' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: bratr `brother' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: bratr (arch.) `brother' [m o]; #LSrb. bratš `brother' [m o]
Polabian: brot `brother' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?t `brother' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. bra?t (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `brother' [m o]
Slovene: bra°t `brother' [m o]; #Sln. bra?tЌr `brother' [m o]
Bulgarian: brat `brother' [m o]
Macedonian: brat `brother' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *braґЂ-t(e)r-
Lithuanian: broґlis `brother' [m io] 1; #Lith. brotere†~lis `brother (dim.)' [m io] 2
Latvian: bra~lis `brother' [m io]; #Latv. brѓtar–tis `brother (dim.)' [m io]
Old Prussian: brѓti (Ench.) `brother'; #OPr. brote (EV) `brother'; #OPr. bratr–kai (Ench.) `brother (dim.)' [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhreh2-tr-o-
IE meaning: brother
Page in Pokorny: 163
Other cognates: Gk. frŽthr [m] `member of a brotherhood'; Lat. frѓter `brother' [m]; Go. bro±ar `brother' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *bra°trьja; bra°tьja
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `brothers (coll.)'
Page in Trubačev: III 7-8, 9-10
Old Church Slavic: bratrija `brothers, brotherhood' [f jѓ]; #OCS bratija `brothers, brotherhood' [f jѓ]
Russian: braґt'ja `brothers' [Nompm o]
Ukrainian: braґttja `brothers (coll.)' [Nompn jo]
Czech: bratr№iґ (arch.) `brotherhood' [f iѓ], bratr№ie (arch.) `brotherhood' [f iѓ]
Old Czech:: bratr№ `brotherhood' [f i]
Polish: bracia (arch.) `brothers (coll.)' [f jѓ]
Lower Sorbian: bratsґa (arch., obs.) `brothers (coll.), brotherhood' [f ѓ]
Polabian: brot'aў `brothers' [Nompm o]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?cґa `brothers' [f jѓ]; #SCr. bra?tja `brothers' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak bra?cґa (Vrgada) `brothers' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak bra?cґa (Orbanicґi) `brothers (and sisters)' [f jѓ]
Slovene: bra?tja `brothers' [f jѓ]
Macedonian: bratija `brotherhood' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhreh2-tr-ieh2-
IE meaning: brotherhood
Page in Pokorny: 164
Other cognates: Gk. fra?tr…a [f] `brotherhood'
Proto-Slavic form: *brediti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `rave'
Page in Trubačev: III 12
Russian: breґdit' `be delirious, rave, (dial.) clear a way' [verb]
Ukrainian: brediti (OUkr.) `talk rubbish' [verb]; #Ukr. brĕditi (OUkr.) `talk rubbish' [verb]
Czech: br№edit se (dial.) `writhe, forget out of malice' [verb]
Polish: bredzicґ `be delirious, rave' [verb] {1}
Lithuanian: bre~dyti `chatter, deceive' [verb] {2}
Page in Pokorny: 164
COMM: No doubt, this is the same root as in -> *bresti° `wade', cf. Ru. sumasbroґd `madcap' (Van Wijk 1911: 128). We may be dealng with a denominative verb, (ESSJa) cf. Ru. bred `delirium, ravings'.
Notes: {1} Since the 16th century. According to Banґkowksi (2000: 74), we are dealing with a ruthenism. {2} A borrowing from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic form: *bresti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `wade'
Page in Trubačev: III 14-15
Old Church Slavic: {1}
Church Slavic: bresti (RuCS) `wade' [verb]
Russian: brestiґ `drag oneself along, stroll pensively' [verb], breduґ [1sg], bredeЁt [3sg]
Ukrainian: brestyґ `drag oneself along, wade' [verb], breduґ [1sg], bredeЁt [3sg]
Old Czech:: br№iґsti `wade' [verb], brdu [1sg], br№(e)du [1sg]
Slovak: brґst' `wade' [verb], brdie [1sg], brduґ [1sg]
Slovincian: bra†~sc `wade' [verb], bra†~da§ [1sg]
Polabian: bradeў `wade' [1sg]
Slovene: breґsti `wade' [verb], breґdem `wade' [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bred-
Lithuanian: bri°sti `wade' [verb], bren~da [3sg], bri°do [3sgprt] {2}
Latvian: brist `wade' [verb]
IE meaning: wade
Page in Pokorny: 164
COMM: The root must be reconstructed as *bhredh-.
Other cognates: Alb. bredh `jump, hop' [verb]
Notes: {1} The forms neprĕbredomъ and neprĕbredimъ `infinite', which are mentioned in the SSJ, do not occur in texts belonging to the canon. {2} Proto-East Baltic *bristi must have ousted *birsti < *bhrdh-ti on the analogy of forms with full grade.
Proto-Slavic form: *brę°knǫti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `swell'
Page in Trubačev: III 23
Russian: brjaґknut' (dial.) `swell, expand as a result of dryness or moisture' [verb]
BeloRussian: brjaґknuc' `get soaked' [verb]
Ukrainian: brjaґknuty `swell' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: breґknuti `swell' [verb]
Bulgarian: breґkna (dial.) `get angry, swell' [verb]
Macedonian: breґkna `swell' [verb]
Lithuanian: bri°nkti `swell, bloat, grow dry' [verb], bri°nksta [3ps], bri°nko [3pt]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrnk-
Other cognates: OIc. bringa `chest' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *bręždžati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `jingle'
Page in Trubačev: III 24-25
Russian: brjazžaґt' (dial.) `talk nonsense, jingle, strum' [verb]
Ukrainian: brjazčaґty (OUkr.) `jingle, tinkle' [verb]; #Ukr. brjažčaґty (OUkr.) `jingle, tinkle' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *brenzg-
Lithuanian: bren~gzti `jingle' [verb], brę~zgia
Proto-Slavic form: *brĕzgъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `dawn'
Page in Trubačev: III 17, 19
Old Church Slavic: probrĕzgъ `dawn' [m o]
Russian: brezg (coll., dial.) `dawn' [m o]
Czech: rozbr№esk `dawn' [m o]
Old Czech:: br№ezk `dawn' [m o]
Polish: brzask `dawn' [m o]
Old Polish: brzazg `dawn' [m o]
Slovene: bre•?sk `dawn' [m o]
Lithuanian: bre†ґkšti `dawn' [verb], bre†ґkšta `dawn' [3ps], bre†ґško [3pt]
COMM: We may reconstruct a deverbative noun *bhreh1gґ-sk-o-.
Other cognates: Skt. bhrѓjate `shine, beam' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bričь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `razor'
Page in Trubačev: III 25
Church Slavic: bričь (RuCS) `razor' [m jo]; #CS bričь (SerbCS) `razor' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?č `razor' [m jo]
Bulgarian: brič `razor' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhr(e)iH-t-io-
Page in Pokorny: 166
COMM: Derivative in *-čь < *-tio- of -> *bri°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *bridъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `sharp'
Page in Trubačev: III 28-29
Old Church Slavic: bridъkъ (Supr.) `sharp' [adj o]
Russian: briґdkij (Psk.) `sharp, cold' [adj o]; #Ru. bridkoґj (Psk.) `sharp, cold' [adj o]; #Ru. britkoґj (Dal': Arx.) `sharp' [adj o]; #Ru. briґtkij (Dal': S, W) `repulsive' [adj o]
Czech: br№itkyґ `sharp' [adj o]
Old Czech:: br№idkyґ `sharp, quick, repulsive' [adj o]
Slovak: britkyґ `sharp' [adj o]; #Slk. bridkyґ `repulsive' [adj o]
Polish: brzydki `repulsive' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: britki `repulsive' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?dak `sharp' [adj o], bri?tka [Nomsf], bri°tka [Nomsf]
Slovene: briґdЌk `sharp, bitter, beautiful' [adj o], briґdka [Nomsf]; #Sln. brida?k `sharp, bitter, beautiful' [adj o], bri?dka [Nomsf]
Proto-Slavic form: *bridъ; bridь
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: III 27-28, 29
Russian: bryd (dial.) `sharpness, fumes, haze' [m o]; #Ru. brid (dial.) `smoke' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?d `border, edge, blade' [m o]
Slovene: bri?d `sharp edge' [f i], bridi? [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhr(e)iH-tio-
Page in Pokorny: 166
Proto-Slavic form: *bri°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `shave'
Page in Trubačev: III 31-32
Church Slavic: briti sę (Christ.) `shave' [verb], brijǫ sę [1sg]
Russian: brit' `shave' [verb], breґju [1sg]
Czech: br№iґti (obs.) `shave' [verb] {1}
Slovak: brit' `shave' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?ti (arch., obs.) `shave, cut' [verb], bri?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. bri°jati `shave, cut' [verb], bri?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. bri?jati `shave, cut' [verb], bri?jЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bri?t (Orbanicґi) `shave' [verb], bri?je [3sg]
Slovene: briґti `shave, shear' [verb], bri?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: briґja `shave' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhr(e)iH-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 166
Other cognates: Skt. bhr–n•ѓґti `injure' [verb]; OIr. bronnaid [verb3sipa] 'injure, damage'; OIc. brinna [verb] 'to cause a cutting, sharp sorrow'; MoHG brennen [verb] 'to cause a cutting, sharp sorrow'
Notes: {1} Possibly a borrowing: the verb is not attested in Old Czech::.
Proto-Slavic form: *bri°tva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `razor'
Page in Trubačev: III 25
Old Church Slavic: britva `razor' [f ѓ]
Russian: briґtva `razor' [f ѓ]
Czech: br№itva `razor' [f ѓ]
Slovak: britva `razor' [f ѓ]
Polish: brzytwa `razor' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?tva `razor' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. bri?t(v)a (Vrgada) `razor' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. bri?tva (Orbanicґi) `razor, kind of knife' [f ѓ]
Slovene: bri?tva `razor, clasp-knife' [f ѓ]
Page in Pokorny: 166
COMM: Verbal derivative in *-tva < *tu-eh2. See -> *bri°ti.
Proto-Slavic form: *brodi°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wade'
Page in Trubačev: III 36
Church Slavic: broditi (RuCS) `go across' [verb]
Russian: brodiґt' `wander, roam, stroll' [verb]
Czech: broditi `bathe (horses), (rarely) wander, roam' [verb]; #Cz. broditi se `wade' [verb]
Slovak: brodit' (sa) `wade, squeeze through' [verb]
Polish: brodzicґ `wade' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: brodzґicґ `wade' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: brozisґ `wade' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bro°diti `wade' [verb]
Slovene: broґditi `wade, bathe' [verb], bro•ґdim [1sg]
Bulgarian: broґdja `wander, roam, stroll' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *brod-iH-
Lithuanian: bra(i)dyґti `wade' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrodh-
IE meaning: wade
Page in Pokorny: 164
Proto-Slavic form: *bro?dъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ford'
Page in Trubačev: III 36-37
Church Slavic: brodъ (RuCS) `ford' [m o]
Russian: brod `ford' [m o], broґda [Gens], broґdov [Genp]
Ukrainian: brid `ford' [m o], broґdu [Gens]
Czech: brod `ford' [m o]
Slovak: brod `ford' [m o]
Polish: broґd `ford' [m o], brodu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: broґd `ford' [m o], broda [Gens]
Lower Sorbian: brod `ford' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bro?d `ford, ship' [m o], bro?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bro?d (Vrgada) `ship' [m o], bro?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bro?d (Novi) `ship' [m o], bro?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. bro?t (Orbanicґi) `ship' [m o], bro?de [Locs]
Slovene: bro•?d `ford, harbour, ferry' [m o]
Bulgarian: brod `ford' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *brodos
Lithuanian: bra~das `muddy spot or road, ford, fishing net' [m o]; #Lith. brada° `muddy spot or road, ford' [f ѓ]
Latvian: brads `ford' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrodh-o-
IE meaning: ford
Page in Pokorny: 164
Proto-Slavic form: *bronъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `white (of horses)'
Page in Trubačev: III 41-42
Church Slavic: bronъ (CroatCS) `white (of horses)' [adj o]; #CS bronii (RuCS) `white (of horses)' [adj o]; #CS bronyi (RuCS) `white (of horses)' [adj o]
Old Russian:: bronii `white (of horses), grey, dun' [adj o]; #ORu. bronyi `white (of horses), grey, dun' [adj o]
Czech: bronyґ (obs.) `white (of horses)' [adj o]
Old Czech:: bronyґ `white (of horses)' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrodh-no-
Other cognates: Skt. bradhnaґ- (RV+) `pale red, ruddy, yellowish, bay' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *brusьnica
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)'
Page in Trubačev: III 51-52
Russian: brusniґka `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Czech: brusnice `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Slovak: brusnica `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Polish: brusznica `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]; #Pl. brusґnica (dial.) `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bru°snica `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), bilberry, whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus' [f jѓ]
Slovene: brusniґca `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: brusniґca `measles, mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: bru°kne† `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f Њ] 2
Latvian: brіklene `mountain cranberry, cowberry, red whortleberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhroukґ-
Proto-Slavic form: *brutъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `nail'
Page in Trubačev: III 53
Church Slavic: brutъ (SerbCS) `nail' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: bru?t (dial.) `nail' [m o]
Bulgarian: brut `nail' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *brouk-to-
Lithuanian: brau~ktas `wooden knife for cleaning flax' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhroukґ-to-
Page in Pokorny: 170
Proto-Slavic form: *bry
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `eyebrow'
Page in Trubačev: III 63-64
Old Church Slavic: brьvьmi (Supr.) `eyebrows?, eyelids?' [Inspf і]
Russian: brov' `eyebrow' [f i]
Czech: brva `eyelash, (pl.) eyebrows' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: brev `eyebrow' [f i], brve [Gens]
Slovak: brva `eyebrow, eyelid' [f ѓ]
Polish: brew `eyebrow' [f i], brwi [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: br?v (13th c.) `eyelid' [f i]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bruЂs
Lithuanian: bruvi°s (dial.) `eyebrow' [f i]; #Lith. bru°ve† `eyebrow' [f Њ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3bhruH-s
IE meaning: eyebrow
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 172
Other cognates: Skt. bhrіh• [f] `eyebrow'; Gk. Сfru~j `eyebrow' [f]; OE brі `eyebrow' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *brysadlo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: III 65
Old Church Slavic: brysalo (Supr.) `towel' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: bri?salo `rag, duster, wooden knife' [n o]
Slovene: brisaґlo• `towel, rag' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 170
COMM: Derivative in *-dlo of the iterative *brysati.
Proto-Slavic form: *brъsati; brъkati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: III 53-54, 55-56
Russian: brosaґt' `throw, (dial.) scutch flax' [verb], brosaґju [1sg]; #Ru. brokaґt' (dial.) `throw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: brґcati `throw' [verb]
Slovene: brґkati `push, rush, provoke' [verb]; #Sln. brґsati `kick, touch (in passing), graze' [verb]; #Sln. brґsati `kick, touch (in passing), graze' [verb]; #Sln. brґcati `kick' [verb]
Lithuanian: bru°kti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrukґ-
Page in Pokorny: 170
COMM: The alternation between *s and *k points to *kґ.
Proto-Slavic form: *brъselь; brъselije
Page in Trubačev: III 56
Old Church Slavic: brьselije (Supr.) `potsherd' [n io]
Church Slavic: brъselь `potsherd, tablet' [?]
Lithuanian: brau~kti `erase, scutch (flax)'
Proto-Slavic form: *brъsnǫti; brъknǫti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: III 56-57
Church Slavic: brъsnuti (RuCS) `shave' [verb]
Russian: brosnuґt' (dial.) `squeeze, pick berries' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: brґknuti `throw' [verb]
Slovene: brґsniti `kick, poke, rush' [verb]; #Sln. brґkniti `kick, poke, rush' [verb]; #Sln. brґcniti `kick, poke, rush' [verb]
Bulgarian: braўґsna `shave' [verb]
Lithuanian: bru°kti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrukґ-
Page in Pokorny: 170
Proto-Slavic form: *brъstь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `bud'
Page in Trubačev: III 58
Russian: brost' `buds (of a shrub)' [f i]
Ukrainian: brost' `bud (of a tree)' [f i]
Lower Sorbian: baršcґ (obs.) `bud' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: br?st `(young) foliage, shoots, sprouts' [f i]
Slovene: br°st `bud (of a tree), sprout' [m o], brґsta [Gens], brsta° [Gens]; #Sln. br?st `bud (of a tree), brushwood' [f i], brsti? [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrus-t-i-
Other cognates: OS brustian `bud' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *brъzda
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `bit'
Page in Trubačev: III 62
Old Church Slavic: brъzdami (Ps. Sin.) `bit' [Nompf ѓ]
Czech: brzda `brake' [f ѓ]
Slovak: brzda `brake' [f ѓ]
Slovene: brґzda `bridle' [f ѓ]; #Sln. broґzda `bridle' [f ѓ]; #Sln. bruzda° (16th-18th c.) `bridle' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bruzd-
Lithuanian: bruzdu°klis `bridle' [m io]
Proto-Slavic form: *brьdnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wade'
Page in Trubačev: III 67
Czech: br№ednouti `melt, (obs.) wade' [verb]
Slovak: brґdnut' `wade, roam' [verb]
Polish: brna§cґ `wade' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bird-
Lithuanian: bri°sti `wade' [verb], bren~da [3sg], bri°do [3sgprt]
Latvian: brist `wade' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrdh-
IE meaning: wade
Page in Pokorny: 164
COMM: One would have suspected *bьrdnǫti, but Cz. br№ednouti points to *brьd. Apparently the zero grade of the root was influenced by the full grade of other forms. Likewise, Proto-East Baltic *bristi must have ousted *birsti < *bhrdh-ti on the analogy of forms with full grade. How old the metathesis actually is, cannot be determined.
Proto-Slavic form: *brьna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `mud, clay'
Page in Trubačev: III 69-70
Old Church Slavic: brъnojǫ (Euch.) `mud, dirt' [Inssf ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: borno `bog, marsh' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: brna (16th c.) `mud, dirt' [f ѓ]
Slovene: brґna `clay, humus' [f ѓ]; #Sln. br?nja `clay, humus' [f ѓ]; #Sln. br?n `silt' [m o]
COMM: Perhaps cognate with -> *bresti, cf. Lith. brada° `mud'.
Proto-Slavic form: *brьnьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `mud, clay'
Page in Trubačev: III 170
Old Church Slavic: brьnije `mud, dirt' [n io]
Church Slavic: brьnije (RuCS) `mud, dirt' [n io]; #CS brenije (RuCS) `mud, dirt' [n io]; #CS bьrnije (RuCS) `clay' [n io]; #CS bernije (RuCS) `clay' [n io]
Serbo-Croatian: brnje (arch., obs.) `mud, dirt' [n io]
Slovene: br?nje `clay, humus, dirt' [n io]
Other cognates: brьna; brьno; brьnъ
Proto-Slavic form: *brьvъno°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `beam'
Page in Trubačev: III 72-73
Old Church Slavic: brьvьno `beam' [n o]
Russian: brevnoґ `beam' [n o]
Czech: br№evno `beam' [n o]
Slovak: brvno `beam' [n o]
Polish: bierwiono `rough timber' [n o] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: brґvno `beam, small bridge, boundary' [n o]
Slovene: br?vno• `beam' [n o]; #Sln. bru?no• `beam' [n o]
Page in Pokorny: 172
Notes: {1} A back-formation based on dial. bier(z)wionko, bierzwienko\x , cf. OPl. Birzwno (place-name) (Banґkowski 2000: 49-50).
Proto-Slavic form: *br§u?xo; br§u?xъ
GRAM: n. o; m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `belly'
Page in Trubačev: III 33-34
Russian: brjuґxo `belly' [n o]
Old Russian:: brjuxo `belly' [n o]; #ORu. brjuxъ `belly' [m o]
Czech: br№icho `belly' [n o]; #Cz. br№ich (obs.) `belly' [m o]
Slovak: brucho `belly' [n o]
Polish: brzuch `belly' [m o]; #Pl. brzucho (XV-XVIIth c., dial.) `belly' [n o]
Slovincian: br№a†~» `belly' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhreus-o-
Other cognates: OIr. bruґ `abdomen, belly, womb' [f]; W bru `womb, belly' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *bujь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `mad, foolish'
Page in Trubačev: III 84-85
Old Church Slavic: bui `mad, foolish' [adj jo]
Old Czech:: buj `mad, foolish' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhouH-
Other cognates: Skt. bhіґyѓn `bigger, stronger'
Proto-Slavic form: *bujьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: III 86
Church Slavic: buino `boldly' [adv]
Russian: buґjny `wild, tempestuous' [adj o]
Czech: bujnyґ `lush, tempestuous' [adj o]
Slovak: bujnyґ `lush' [adj o]
Polish: bujny `lush' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bu?jan `wild, stormy' [adj o]
Slovene: buґjЌn `luxuriant, lush' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhouH-
Other cognates: Skt. bhіґyѓn `bigger, stronger'
Proto-Slavic form: *bu°r§a
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `storm'
Page in Trubačev: III 97-98
Old Church Slavic: burja `storm' [f jѓ]
Russian: buґrja `storm' [f jѓ]
Czech: bour№e `storm' [f jѓ]
Slovak: buґra `thunderstorm' [f ѓ]; #Slk. bura (Kaґlal) `north wind' [f ѓ]
Polish: burza `storm, thunderstorm' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: bu?ra `stormwind' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. bu?ra (Vrgada) `north wind' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. bu?ra (Orbanicґi) `northeast wind' [f ѓ]
Slovene: buґrja `northeast wind, impetuous person' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: buґrja `storm' [f jѓ]
Latvian: bau~r§uo^t `bellow (said of oxen)' [verb]
Other cognates: Nw. bіra `bellow (said of raging oxen)' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *bіča°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `roar'
Page in Trubačev: III 74
Russian: bučaґt' (dial.) `low, weep loudly, hum' [verb]
Czech: bučeti `roar, low' [verb]
Slovak: bučat' `low' [verb]
Polish: buczecґ `hum, cry' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bučecґ `roar, low, cry' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: buґčati `make a loud noise, boom, rage' [verb], buґč–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bіča?ti (Vrgada) `hit the surface of the sea to frighten fish into a net' [verb], bu~čaІš [2sg]
Slovene: buґčati `make a loud noise, roar' [verb], bučiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: bučaґ `make a deafening noise' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bouk-
Lithuanian: bau~kti `roar' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhouk-
Page in Pokorny: 97
Proto-Slavic form: *bіdi°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `awaken, arouse'
Page in Trubačev: III 76-77
Old Church Slavic: ubuditi `awaken' [verb], ubuždǫ [1sg]; #OCS vъzbuditi `awaken' [verb], vъzbuždǫ [1sg]
Church Slavic: buditi `arouse' [verb]
Russian: budiґt' `awaken, arouse' [verb], bužuґ [1sg], buґdit [3sg] {1}
Czech: buditi `awaken, arouse' [verb]
Slovak: budit' `awaken, arouse' [verb]
Polish: budzicґ `awaken, arouse' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: buґditi `awaken, arouse' [verb], bu?d–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bіdi?ti (Vrgada) `awaken, arouse' [verb], bu~d–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bіdi?t (Orbanicґi) `wake up' [verb], bu~din [1sg]
Slovene: budiґti `awaken, arouse' [verb], budiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: buґdja `awaken, arouse' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *boud-
Lithuanian: bau~sti `incite, force, punish' [verb]; #Lith. baґudyti `incite, instigate' [verb]
Latvian: bau~di^t `incite, instigate' [verb]; #Latv. ba°udi^t `incite, instigate' [verb]
Old Prussian: etbaudints `awakened' [ppp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhoudh-eie-
IE meaning: awaken
Page in Pokorny: 150
Other cognates: Skt. bodhaґyati `awaken, draw attention'
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *bydlo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: III 147
Russian: byґdlo `cattle' [n o]
Old Russian:: bydlo `animal' [n o]
BeloRussian: byґdlo `cattle' [n o]
Ukrainian: byґdlo `cattle' [n o]
Czech: bydlo `existence, abode' [n o]
Slovak: bydlo `abode, residence' [n o]
Polish: bydљo `cattle' [n o]
Old Polish: bydљo `existence, abode, possesions' [n o]
Slovincian: biЁ^dlo `steer, young bull, bullock' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bЂutloґ
Lithuanian: bіklas `abode, den' [m o]; #Lith. bіґkla `residence, existence' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhHu-tlom
Page in Pokorny: 146
COMM: The formation is comparable to Gk. fЪtlon `race', OE botl n. `dwelling, house'. The East Slavic forms are borrowings from Polish.
Proto-Slavic form: *bylьje
GRAM: io
Page in Trubačev: III 150
Old Church Slavic: bylije `herbs, plants' [n io]
Russian: byl'eЁ (obs.) `grass' [n io]
Czech: byґliґ `weed' [n io]
Slovak: byґlie `herbs' [n io]
Old Polish: byle `weed' [n io]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?lje `plants, grass' [n jo]
Slovene: bi?lje `plants, grass, stalks' [n jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhHu-l-io-
Page in Pokorny: 146
Proto-Slavic form: *by°strъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `quick'
Page in Trubačev: III 153-154
Old Church Slavic: bystrъ `quick' [adj o]
Russian: byґstryj `quick' [adj o]
Czech: bystryґ `quick, sharp-witted' [adj o]
Slovak: bystryґ `quick, sharp-witted' [adj o]
Polish: bystry `quick, sharp-witted' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?star `clear, transparent, quick' [adj o]
Slovene: biґstЌr `quick, vivacious, transparent' [adj o]
Bulgarian: biґstaўr `clear, transparent' [adj o]
Page in Pokorny: 146
COMM: Attempts have been made to connect *by°strъ with -> bъ°drъ `cheerful, lively', which derives from PIE *bhudh-. This etymology fails to provide an explanation for the acute *y, however. We could assume that the root is simply *by- `be', but in that case the origin of the the suffix would be unclear. In my opinion, it is not unattractive to assume a connection with Skt. bhіґs•ati `support, be active for assume, strengthen', the root of which is probably an s-enlargement of *bhu- `be'.
Proto-Slavic form: *by°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a {1}
PSLMEAN: `be'
Page in Trubačev: III 155
Old Church Slavic: byti `be' [verb], bǫdǫ [1sg]
Russian: byt' `be' [verb], buґdu [1sg]
Czech: byґti `be' [verb], budu [1sg]
Slovak: byt' `be' [verb], budem [1sg]
Polish: bycґ `be' [verb], będę [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: bi?ti `be' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. bi?ti (Vrgada) `be' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. bi?ti (Orbanicґi) `be' [verb]
Slovene: biґti `be' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bЂutei
Lithuanian: bіґti `be' [verb]
Latvian: bu^t `be' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhHu-
Page in Pokorny: 146
Other cognates: Skt. bhaґvati `be, become'; Gk. fЪomai `grow, become' [verb]; OLat. fі– [verb] `be' [1sgpf]; OIr. buith `being' [f]
Notes: {1} The AP refers to the (perfective) present *bǫdǫ. The present forms that derive from PIE *h1es- are discussed separately.
Proto-Slavic form: *bytьje
GRAM: n. io
PSLMEAN: `existence'
Page in Trubačev: III 157-157
Old Church Slavic: bytije `existence, origin' [n io]
Russian: byt'eЁ (obs.) `way of life' [n io]
Czech: bytґ `existence' [n io]
Slovak: bytie `existence' [n io]
Polish: bycie `existence' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: biґcґe `being, existence' [n jo]
Slovene: biґtje `existence, state, being' [n jo]
Bulgarian: bitieґ `existence' [n jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhHu-t-io-
Page in Pokorny: 146
Proto-Slavic form: *byvati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `be, happen'
Page in Trubačev: III 157-158
Old Church Slavic: byvati `become, be' [verb], byvajǫ [1sg]
Russian: byvaґt' `happen, be' [verb]
Czech: byґvati `happen, be' [verb]
Polish: bywacґ `be often, frequent, happen' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: biґvati `happen, be' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. b–va?t (Orbanicґi) `be, dwell, live (somewhere)' [verb], bi~van [1sg]
Slovene: biґvati `be, exist, happen, live' [verb], biґvam [1sg]
Bulgarian: biґvam `be, exist, happen' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *buaЂtei
Lithuanian: buvoґti `be' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhHu-
Page in Pokorny: 146
Proto-Slavic form: *bъdĕti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c?
PSLMEAN: `be awake'
Page in Trubačev: III 109
Old Church Slavic: bъdĕti `be awake, keep watch' [verb], bъždǫ [1sg], bъdiši [2sg]
Russian: bdet' (arch.) `keep watch, keep vigil' [verb], bdiš' [2sg] {1}
Czech: bdiґti `awake, keep watch' [verb]
Slovak: bdiet' `awake, keep watch, follow' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: bzґesґ (Jakub.) `awake, keep watch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bdje?ti (arch.) `be awake, keep watch' [verb]
Slovene: bЌde•ґti `be awake, keep watch' [verb], bЌdiґm [1sg]; #Sln. bde•ґti `be awake, keep watch' [verb], bdiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: bdja `awake, keep watch' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bud-
Lithuanian: bude†ґti `be awake, keep watch' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhudh-
IE meaning: observe, notice, be awake
Page in Pokorny: 150
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 139).
Proto-Slavic form: *bъ°drъ; bъ°dr§ь
GRAM: adj. o; adj. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `cheerful'
Page in Trubačev: III 111-112
Old Church Slavic: bъdrъ `cheerful' [adj o]; #OCS bьždrejǫ (Supr.) `cheerful' [Inssf jѓ]
Russian: boґdryj `cheerful' [adj o]; #Ru. bodr `cheerful' [adj o], bodraґ [Nomsf], boґdro [Nomsn] {1}
Serbo-Croatian: ba?dar `cheerful, alert' [adj o]; #SCr. bo?dar `cheerful, alert' [adj o]; #SCr. bo°dar `cheerful, alert' [adj o]
Slovene: bЎdЌr `cheerful, lively' [adj o]
Bulgarian: boґdaўr `fresh, cheerful, awake' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *budros
Lithuanian: budru°s `vigilant' [adj u] 4
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhudh-ro-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 150
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *bъ?rz
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `fast'
Page in Trubačev: III 137-139
Old Church Slavic: brьzo (Supr.) `quickly' [adv]
Russian: boґrzyj (obs., poet.) `fast, fleet' [adj o]; #Ru. boґrzyj (dial.) `bold, dexterous, daring' [adj o]; #Ru. borzoґj (dial.) `bold, dexterous, violent' [adj o]
Czech: brzo `soon, early' [adv]; #Cz. brzy `soon, early' [adv]
Old Czech:: brzyґ `fast' [adj o]; #OCz. brzo `quickly, immediately' [adj o]
Polish: bardzo `very' [adv]; #Pl. barzo (dial.) `quickly' [adv]
Old Polish: barzy `fast' [adj o]
Slovincian: ba†~rzo `very' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: br?z `fast' [adj o], brґza [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. br?z (Vrgada) `fast' [adj o], brza? [Nomsf], br?zo [Nomsn]
Slovene: br°z `fast, quick' [adj o]
Bulgarian: braўz `fast, quick' [adj o]; #Bulg. baўrz `fast, quick' [adj o]
Lithuanian: burzdu°s `agile, active' [adj u]; #Lith. bruzdu°s `agile, busy' [adj u]
Proto-Slavic form: *bъrna
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: III 130
Slovene: brґna (Steiermark) `carnival mask depicting an animal' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: baўґrna `lip' [f ѓ]
Macedonian: brna `nose-ring (of animals)' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: burna° `mouth, face' [f ѓ] 3
Latvian: pur^ns `snout' [m o]
COMM: The root can be reconstructed as a zero grade *bhrH-, wich may be identical with the root of Lat. forѓre, OHG borЎn `perforate'. For the initial p of the Latvian form, see Kiparsky 1968.
Other cognates: Arm. beran `mouth'
Proto-Slavic form: *bъrtь; bъrtъ
GRAM: f. i; m. o
PSLMEAN: `hive of wild bees'
Page in Trubačev: III 132-133
Russian: bort' `wild beehive' [f i]
Old Russian:: bъrtь `log for bees, tree with a beehive' [f i]; #ORu. bortь `log for bees, tree with a beehive' [f i]
BeloRussian: borc' `wild beehive' [f i]
Ukrainian: bort `wild beehive' [m o]; #Ukr. bort' `wild beehive' [m jo]; #Ukr. bort' (dial.) `natural or artificial beehive in a tree, opening in a hive for viewing bees, wild family of bees living in a hollow tree-trunk' [f i] {1}
Czech: brt' `wild beehive, (dial.) opening in or section of a beehive [f i]
Old Czech:: brt `beehive (also of wild bees)' [f i]
Slovak: brt `opening in a beehive' [m o]
Polish: barcґ `wild beehive' [f i]
Slovene: brt `hollow tree with bees' [m o] {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrH-t-
Page in Pokorny: 133
Other cognates: Lat. forѓmen `opening' [n]
Notes: {1} Other dialect forms are bort' [f i], bo^rt [f i] and bort [m o]. {2} Possibly of Czech: origin.
Proto-Slavic form: *bъrzdъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `fast'
Page in Trubačev: III 135-136
Church Slavic: borzdo (RuCS) `fast' [adv]
Old Russian:: borzdo `fast' [adv]
BeloRussian: borzdyj (OBel.) `fast' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *burzd-
Lithuanian: burzdu°s `agile, active' [adj u]; #Lith. bruzdu°s `agile, busy' [adj u]
Proto-Slavic form: *bьčela°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `bee'
Page in Trubačev: III 104-105
Old Church Slavic: bьčela (Ps. Sin.) `bee' [f ѓ]; #OCS bъčela (Mar., Ass.) `bee' [f ѓ] {1}
Russian: pčelґa `bee' [f ѓ]; #Ru. bčelaґ (dial.) `bee' [f ѓ]; #Ru. bželaґ (dial.) `bee' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: bdžolaґ `bee' [f ѓ]; #Ukr. pčolaґ `bee' [f ѓ]
Czech: včela `bee' [f ѓ]
Slovak: včela `bee' [f ѓ] {2}
Polish: pszczoљa `bee' [f ѓ]; #Pl. pczoљa (dial., arch.) `bee' [f ѓ]; #Pl. pczeљa (arch.) `bee' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: pčola `bee' [f ѓ]; #USrb. wčola `bee' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: coљa `bee' [f ѓ]; #LSrb. pcoљa (arch.) `bee' [f ѓ]
Polabian: celaў `bee' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: pče°la `bee' [f ѓ]; #SCr. če°la `bee' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. če?la (Vrgada) `bee' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. čela? (Novi) `bee' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. če?lica (Orbanicґi) `bee' [f jѓ]
Slovene: bЌčę?la `bee' [f ѓ]; #Sln. bčę?la `bee' [f ѓ]; #Sln. čЌbę?la `bee' [f ѓ]; #Sln. čЌbę?la `bee' [f ѓ]; #Sln. čę?la `bee' [f ѓ]; #Sln. čmę?la `bee' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: pčelaґ `bee' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *bi-t-; bi-kel-eh2
Lithuanian: bi°te† `bee' [f Њ] 2
Latvian: bite `bee' [f Њ]
Old Prussian: bitte `bee' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhi-
IE meaning: bee
Page in Pokorny: 116
COMM: The North European root bhi occurs with various suffixes. The *-k- of the Slavic forms is also found in OIr. bech < *bi-ko-. The main alternative etymology departs from PSl. *bъčela and advocates a connection with bučati `make a loud noise, roar'. This is the eymology preferred by Sљawski (SP I: 456-457).
Other cognates: OIc. byґ `bee' [n]; MoDu. bij `bee'; OHG bini `bee' [n]; OHG b–a `bee' [f]; OE beґo `bee' [f]; OIr. bech `bee' [m]
Notes: {1} The variant bьčela occurs only once, but considering that bъčela is almost as rare, it is impossible to conclude on the basis of Old Church Slavic: which is the original form. {2} Slovak dialect forms have an anlaut pč-, fč-, pš- or \č-.
Proto-Slavic form: *bьlniti; bьlnovati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: III 159
Serbo-Croatian: buґniti se `be mistaken' [verb]; #SCr. buno°vati `rave' [verb]
Bulgarian: baўlnuґvam `day-dream, rave' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhl-n-
Page in Pokorny: 120
Proto-Slavic form: *bьlnъ; bьlnika
PSLMEAN: `henbane'
Page in Trubačev: III 159
Serbo-Croatian: bu?n `henbane' [m o], buґna [Gens]; #SCr. bu°nika `henbane' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. buni?ka (Vrgada) `henbane' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: buniґka (dial.) `henbane' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhl-n-
IE meaning: henbane
Page in Pokorny: 120
Other cognates: OE beolone, beolene, belene `henbane' [f]; OS bilene `henbane' [f]; Dan. (early) bylne, buln-urt `henbane'; Gaul. belenountiґan [Accs] `henbane'; Gaul. BELENO [dsg] `name of a divinity'
Proto-Slavic form: *bьrati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `take'
Page in Trubačev: III 162-163
Old Church Slavic: bьrati `gather, select' [verb], berǫ [1sg]
Russian: brat' `take' [verb], beruґ [1sg], bereЁt [3sg]
Ukrainian: braґty `take' [verb], beruґ [1sg]
Czech: braґti `take' [verb]
Slovak: bratґ `take' [verb]
Polish: bracґ `take' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: bracґ `take, steal' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: brasґ `take' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: bra?ti `gather' [verb], be?rЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bra?ti (Vrgada) `gather' [verb], be?reš [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. bra?t (Orbanicґi) `pick, gather, collect' [verb], be?ren [1sg]
Slovene: braґti `gather, pick, read, take' [verb], beґrem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *ber-
Lithuanian: ber~ti `scatter' [verb]
Latvian: bЊ°rt `scatter' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bher-e/o-
IE meaning: bear
Page in Pokorny: 128
Other cognates: Gk. fљrw `bear, carry' [verb]; Skt. bhaґrati `bear, carry'; Lat. ferЎ `bear, carry'; Go. bairan `bear, carry'
Proto-Slavic form: *bьrgъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: III 167
Czech: brh (obs.) `heap, shock, stack, quantity, net' [m o]
Old Czech:: brh `cave, hut, tent' [m o]
Slovak: brh `stack' [m o]
Old Polish: barg (bark) `stack, rick' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *bhrgh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 145

Главная
О праславянах и их языке: Хронология | Балто-славика | Прародина | Мифы | Особые черты | Фонетика | Морфонология | Лексика | Фразеология | Грамматика | Библиография | Ссылки
Родственное по славянским языкам: Славяноведение | Книги по славистике | Церковнославянский язык и азбука | Русские префиксы, суффиксы, корни и словари | Панславистика
Вспомогательное: Индоевропейский праязык | Y-ДНК популяция R1a | Железный век Евразии | Древняя Русь | Славянские топонимы Германии
Славянские страны: Россия | Белоруссия | Болгария | Босния | Македония | Польша | Сербия | Словакия | Словения | Украина | Хорватия | Черногория | Чехия

© «Proto-Slavic.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 25.01.2016