Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*A)


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Труды-источники: Дерксен-Старостин | Покорный | ЭССЯ (Трубачев)
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Словарь Дерксена: A | B | C | Č | D | E | Ę | Ĕ | Ę2 | G | I | Ju | | K | L | M | N | O | Ǫ | Ǫ2 | P | R | S | Šč | Š | T | U | V | X | Z | Ž

Всего на A (А) – 22 слова.

Proto-Slavic form: *a
GRAM: conj. PSLMEAN: `and, but'
Page in Trubačev: I 33-35
Old Church Slavic: a `and, but' [conj]
Russian: a `and, but' [conj]
Czech: a `and, but' [conj]
Polish: a `and, but' [conj]
Serbo-Croatian: a `and, but' [conj]
Slovene: a `and, but' [conj]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: ō
Lithuanian: õ `and, but' [conj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *(h1)ōd
IE meaning: then, and
Page in Pokorny: 284
Other cognates: Skt. ā́t (RV+) `afterwards, then, so' [adv]; Av. āąt_ 'afterwards, then' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *a°blo; a°blъ
GRAM: n. o . Accent paradigm: a . PSLMEAN: `apple'
Page in Trubačev: I 41, 44-47
Czech: jablo `apple' [n o]
Old Polish: jabљo `apple' [n o]
Slovincian: ja†~blo `apple' [n o]
Slovene: jaґblo• `apple, apple-tree' [n o]; #Sln. jaґbЌљ `apple-tree' [m o]
Bulgarian: jaґblo `apple' [n o]; #Bulg. jaґbol `apple' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aЂb-Ўl-s; aЂb-l-o
Lithuanian: obuoly~s `apple' [m io] 3a; #Lith. oґbuolas (dial.) `apple' [m o]; #Lith. oґbulas (Z№em.) `apple' [m o] 1
Latvian: a^buõls `apple, clover' [m o]; #Latv. a^buls (dial.) `apple, clover' [m o]; #Latv. a^buolis (dial.) `apple, clover' [m io] {1}
Old Prussian: woble (EV) `apple' [f]; #OPr. wabelcke (Gr.) `apple' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eb-Ўl-; h2eb-l-
IE meaning: apple
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1
Other cognates: OIc. epli `apple' [n]; OHG apful, afful `apple' [n]; OIr. ubull `apple' [n]; W afal `apple' [m]
Notes: {1} Apparently the Latvian words for `apple' and `clover' (da^buo^ls, da^buls, cf. Lith. doґbilas) were mixed up. The same may have happened in Old PRussian:, where we have wobilis `clover'.
Proto-Slavic form: *a°blъko; a°blъka; a°blъkъ
GRAM: n. o; f. ѓ; m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `apple'
Page in Trubačev: I 41, 44-47
Old Church Slavic: ablъko `apple' [n o]
Russian: jaґbloko `apple' [n o]; #Ru. jaґblok (dial.) `apple' [m o]
Old Russian:: jablъkъ `apple' [m o]; #ORu. jablokъ `apple' [m o]
Czech: jablko `apple' [n o]
Slovak: jablko `apple' [n o]
Polish: jabљko `apple' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?buka `apple, apple-tree' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?buka (Vrgada, Novi, Orbanicґi) `apple, apple-tree' [f ѓ]; #SCr. ja?buko (arch., reg.) `apple' [n o]
Slovene: jaґboљka `apple, apple-tree' [f ѓ]; #Sln. jaґboљko• `apple' [n o]
Bulgarian: jaґbaўlka `apple, apple-tree' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aЂb-Ўl-s; aЂb-l-o
Lithuanian: obuoly~s `apple' [m io] 3a; #Lith. oґbuolas (dial.) `apple' [m o]; #Lith. oґbulas (Z№em.) `apple' [m o] 1
Latvian: a^buõls `apple, clover' [m o]; #Latv. a^buls (dial.) `apple, clover' [m o]; #Latv. a^buolis (dial.) `apple, clover' [m io] {1}
Old Prussian: woble (EV) `apple' [f]; #OPr. wabelcke (Gr.) `apple' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eb-Ўl-s; h2eb-l-o-
IE meaning: apple
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1
Other cognates: OIc. epli `apple' [n]; OHG apful, afful `apple' [n]; OIr. ubull `apple' [n]; W afal `apple' [m]
Notes: {1} Apparently the Latvian words for `apple' and `clover' (da^buo^ls, da^buls, cf. Lith. doґbilas) were mixed up. The same may have happened in Old PRussian:, where we have wobilis `clover'.
Proto-Slavic form: *a°bolnь; a°blonь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `apple-tree'
Page in Trubačev: I 42-43, 47-48
Church Slavic: ablanь (MBulg.) `apple-tree' [f i]
Russian: jaґblon' `apple-tree' [f i] {2}
Old Russian:: ablanь `apple-tree' [f i]; #ORu. jablonь `apple-tree' [f i]
Czech: jablon№ `apple-tree' [f i]
Polish: jabљonґ `apple-tree' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: jaboљnґ `apple-tree' {1}
Slovene: jaґblan `apple-tree' [f i]; #Sln. jaґblana `apple-tree' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aЂb-ol-ni-; aЂb-el-i- {3}
Lithuanian: obeli°s `apple-tree' [f i] 3a; #Lith. obele†~ `apple-tree' [f Њ] 3a
Latvian: a^bele `apple-tree' [f Њ]; #Latv. a^bels `apple-tree' [f i]
Old Prussian: wobalne `apple-tree' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2eb-ol-n-i-; h2eb-el-i-
IE meaning: apple-tree
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 1
Other cognates: OIr. aball `apple-tree' [f]; W afall `apple-tree' [f]
Notes: {1} According to Schuster-S№ewc (s.v. jabљonґ), USrb. jaboљnґ is a hapax. {2} The current modern Russian: form is jaґblonja. {3} We find several forms which indicate that we are dealing with an old consonant stem, e.g. Gens. oґbels or oґbeles, Genp. obelu§~.
Proto-Slavic form: *adati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `investigate, explore'
Page in Trubačev: I 52
Old Czech:: jadati `investigate, explore' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oЂd-
Lithuanian: uґosti `smell' [verb]
Latvian: uo^st `smell' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3ed-
Other cognates: Gk. Фzw `smell'
Proto-Slavic form: *a?goda
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `berry'
Page in Trubačev: I 57-59
Old Church Slavic: agoda (Sav.) `fruit' [f ѓ]
Russian: jaґgoda `berry' [f ѓ]
Czech: jahoda `strawberry' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jahoda `strawberry' [f ѓ]
Polish: jagoda `berry' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?goda `wild strawberry, berry' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?goda (Vrgada) `blackberry' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jaґgoda `berry' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґgoda `strawberry' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oґЂgaЂ
Lithuanian: uґoga `berry' [f ѓ] 1
Latvian: uo^ga `berry' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *Hog-eh2; H3eg-eh2
IE meaning: fruit
Page in Pokorny: 773
Other cognates: Go. akran `fruit (of trees, corn)' [n]; Toch. B oko `fruit, effect' [n]
Notes: {1} SerbCS vinjaga (XVIIth c.), SCr. vi°njaga `wild grapes' is a derivation of vino rather than a compound containing *jaga.
Proto-Slavic form: *a°gnę
GRAM: n. nt
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `lamb'
Page in Trubačev: I 54-55
Old Church Slavic: agnę (Zogr., Supr.) `lamb' [n nt]
Old Russian:: jagnja `lamb' [n nt]
Czech: jehnĕ `lamb' [n nt]
Slovak: jahn№a `lamb' [n nt]
Polish: jagnię `lamb' [n nt]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?gne `lamb' [n nt]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?nґe (Vrgada) `lamb' [n nt], jaІ~nґci [Nomp]
Slovene: jaґgnje `lamb' [n nt]; #Sln. aґgnje `lamb' [n nt]
Bulgarian: aґgne `lamb' [n nt]; #Bulg. jaґgne `lamb' [n nt]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2egє-n-
IE meaning: lamb
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 9
COMM: PSl. *agn- < *h2egє-n- (N.B. Winter's law) with the diminutive suffix *-ę < *-ent-, which is common in designations of young animals. Slavic forms without a secondary suffix do not exist.
Other cognates: Gk. ўmnТj `lamb' [f/m]; Lat. agnus `lamb' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} Slavic *agnędъ `black poplar', which Trubačev derives from the word for `lamb', may be related to Greek Ґmnoj `chaste-tree'. I tentatively posit a root *h2egґ- .
Proto-Slavic form: *a°gnьcь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `lamb'
Page in Trubačev: I 57
Old Church Slavic: agnьcь `lamb' [m jo]; #OCS jagnьcь `lamb' [m jo]
Russian: aґgnec' (eccl.) `lamb' [m jo]
Czech: jehnec (Kott) `lamb' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?gnjac `lamb' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?nґe (Vrgada) `lamb' [n nt], jaІ~nґci [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?njac (Orbanicґi) `lamb' [m jo], ja~jnci [Nomp]
Slovene: ja?gnЌc `lamb' [m jo]; #Sln. ja?gnjЌc [m jo]; #Sln. a?gnЌc `lamb' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2egє-n-
IE meaning: lamb
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 9
COMM: PSl. *agn- < *h2egє-n- (N.B. Winter's law) with the diminutive suffix *-ьcь < *-iko- (cf. -> *a°gnę).
Proto-Slavic form: *a?senь; a?senъ
GRAM: m. jo; m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `ash-tree'
Page in Trubačev: I 79-80
Russian: jaґsen' `ash-tree' [m jo]
Czech: jasan `ash-tree' [m o]; #Cz. jasan№ (dial.) `ash-tree' [m jo]; #Cz. jesen (obs.) `ash-tree' [m o]; #Cz. jesen№ (dial.) `ash-tree' [m jo]
Slovak: jasen№ `ash-tree' [m jo]
Polish: jesion `ash-tree' [m o]; #Pl. jasienґ (arch., S. dial.) `ash-tree' [m jo]; #Pl. jesienґ (arch.) `ash-tree' [m jo]; #Pl. jasion (arch., S. dial.) `ash-tree' [m o] {1}
Old Polish: jasienґ `ash-tree' [m jo]
Slovincian: ja†~so†uёn `ash-tree' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: jasenґ `ash-tree' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?sЊn `ash-tree' [m o], ja?sena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?sen (Vrgada) `ash-tree' [m o], ja?sena [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. je?sЊn (Novi) `ash-tree' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. je?sen (Orbanicґi) `(European) ash (tree)' [m o], je?sena [Gens]
Slovene: jaґsen `ash-tree' [m o], jase•ґna [Gens]; #Sln. jeґsen `ash-tree' [m o], jese•ґna [Gens]
Bulgarian: jaґsen `ash-tree' [m o]; #Bulg. oґsen (N.) `ash-tree' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *oЂs-en-; oЂs-i-o-
Lithuanian: uґosis `ash-tree' [m io] 1
Latvian: uo^sis `ash-tree' [m io]
Old Prussian: woasis (EV) `ash-tree'
Indo-European reconstruction: *Heh3-s-
IE meaning: ash-tree
COMM: In view of the Baltic forms as well as Ru. ja- (je- > ja- is common in West Slavic and western South Slavic but not in East Slavic), we must reconstruct *oЂs- < *Heh3-s- for Balto-Slavic. Unless the West and South Slavic forms with je-/o- continue ja- (cf. Sљawski SP I: 159), Slavic also offers evidence for the elsewhere in Indo-European widely attested stem shape *Hh3-es. The e-vocalism could be considered an example of Rozwadowski's change (see Andersen 1996).
Other cognates: Lat. ornus `mountain-ash' [f]; OIr. uinnius `ash-tree' [m]; OIc. askr `ash-tree' [m]; OHG asc `ash-tree' [m]; Arm. hac'i `ash-tree'; Alb. ah `beech' [m]
Notes: {1} The Standard Polish form jesion originates from the Mazowian dialect area (Banґkowski 2000: 588).
Proto-Slavic form: *a?je
GRAM: n. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `egg'
Page in Trubačev: I 61-62
Polish: jajo `egg' [n jo]; #Pl. jaje (obs.) `egg' [n jo]
Slovincian: ja~j„ `egg' [n jo]
Upper Sorbian: jejo `egg' [n jo]
Lower Sorbian: jajo `egg' [n jo]
Polabian: joji `egg' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґje `egg' [n jo], jaґja [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. jaІ?je (Vrgada) `egg' [n jo], ja~ja [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?je (Novi) `egg' [n jo], jaґja [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?je (Orbanicґi) `egg' [n jo], ja~ja [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2Ўui-om
IE meaning: egg
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 783
COMM: A derivative of *h2eui- `bird'.
Other cognates: Gk. тТn `egg' [n]; Lat. Ўvum `egg' [n]; OIc. egg `egg' [n]; OHG ei `egg' [n]; W wy `egg'
Proto-Slavic form: *ajьce
GRAM: n. jo
PSLMEAN: `egg'
Page in Trubačev: I 61-63
Old Church Slavic: aice `egg' [n jo]
Russian: jajcoґ `egg' [n jo]; #Ru. jaґjko (dial.) `egg' [n o]
Czech: vejce `egg' [n jo]; #Cz. vajko (dial.) `egg' [n o]
Slovak: vajce `egg' [n jo]
Polish: jajko `egg' [n o]; #Pl. jajce (obs., dial.) `egg' [n jo]
Upper Sorbian: jejko `testicle' [n o]
Lower Sorbian: jajko `Easter-egg, berry' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґjce `egg' [n jo]
Slovene: jaґjce `egg' [n jo]; #Sln. ja°jce `egg' [n jo]; #Sln. jajce° `egg' [n jo]
Bulgarian: jajceґ `egg' [n jo]
Page in Pokorny: 783
COMM: Originally a diminutive of *jaje. Forms with a suffix *-ko are secondary.
Other cognates: Gk. тТn `egg' [n]; Lat. Ўvum `egg' [n]; OIc. egg `egg' [n]; OHG ei `egg' [n]; W wy `egg'
Proto-Slavic form: *ako
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `as, if'
Page in Trubačev: I 64-65
Old Church Slavic: jako `how, as' [adv/conj]; #OCS ako `how, as' [adv/conj] {1}
Czech: jako `as, when, if' [conj]; #Cz. jak `as' [conj]
Slovak: ako `as' [conj]; #Slk. jak `if' [conj]
Polish: jako `how, as' [adv/conj]; #Pl. jak `as' [conj]
Serbo-Croatian: ako `if' [conj]
Slovene: a°ko• `if, insofar as, although' [conj]
Bulgarian: akoґ `if' [conj]
COMM: The *a- may probably be identified with the conjunction -> *a.
Notes: {1} The form with j- is predominant.
Proto-Slavic form: *akъ(jь)
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `such as'
Page in Trubačev: VIII 171
Old Church Slavic: jakъ (Mar., Zogr., Supr.) `such as' [pron]
Czech: jakyґ `what (kind of), which' [pron]
Slovak: jakyґ `what (kind of), which' [pron]
Polish: jaki `what (kind of), which' [pron]
Upper Sorbian: jakny `outstanding, strong' [pron]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?k `strong, healthy' [adj o], jaґka [Nomsf], jaґko [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. jaІ?k `strong, healthy' [adj o], jaІЇka? [Nomsf], jaІ?ko [Nomsn]
Slovene: ja?k `strong, prominent, superb, brave' [adj o]
Bulgarian: jakyj `strong, healthy' [adj o]
COMM: I endorse the hypothesis that the meaning `strong', attested in South Slavic and Upper Sorbian, is secondary, cf. Rum. tare `strong' from *talis `such' (Meyer-Lµbke 1935: 705).
Proto-Slavic form: *a°ma
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `pit, hole'
Page in Trubačev: I 70-71
Old Church Slavic: jama `pit, hole' [f ѓ]
Russian: jaґma `pit, hole' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: jama `pit, hole, ditch, grave' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: jaґma `pit, hole, grave' [f ѓ]
Czech: jaґma `pit, hole' [f ѓ]
Slovak: jama `pit, hole' [f ѓ]
Polish: jama `pit, hole, cave' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: ja§~maў `pit, hole, cave' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?ma `pit, hole' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?ma (Vrgada, Novi) `pit, hole' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?ma (Orbanicґi) `pit, hole, two vines planted together in a hole' [f ѓ]
Slovene: jaґma `pit, hole, cave' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: jaґma `pit, hole' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *arь°mъ; arьmo°
GRAM: m. o; n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `(ox-)yoke'
Page in Trubačev: I 76-78
Old Church Slavic: jarьmъ (Supr.) `yoke' [m o]
Russian: jarmoґ `yoke (for cattle)' [n o]; #Ru. jareґm (obs.) `yoke (for cattle)' [m o]; #Ru. jareЁm (dial.) `busy period, haymaking time' [m o]
Ukrainian: jarem (dial.) `yoke' [m o]
Czech: jar№mo `yoke (for cattle)' [n o]
Slovak: jarmo `(ox-)yoke' [n o]
Polish: jarzmo `yoke (for cattle)' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґram `(ox-)yoke' [m o], jaґrma [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. jaІЇraІ~m (Vrgada) `(ox-)yoke' [m o], jaІЇrma? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. jѓraґm (Novi) `(ox-)yoke' [m o], jѓrma? [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. jѓra~m (Orbanicґi) `(ox-)yoke' [m o], jѓrma? [Gens]
Slovene: jaґrЌm `(ox-)yoke' [m o], jaґrma [Gens]
Bulgarian: jareґm `yoke' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *a°s(ъ)tręЇbъ; a°s(ъ)trĕЇbъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `hawk'
Page in Trubačev: I 83-85
Russian: jaґstreb `hawk' [m o]
Old Russian:: jastrjabъ `hawk' [m o]; #ORu. jastrebъ `hawk' [m o]
Ukrainian: jaґstrib `hawk' [m o]; #Ukr. astrjaґb (dial.) `hawk' [m o]; #Ukr. jaґstrjab `hawk' [m o]
Czech: jestr№aґb `hawk' [m o]
Old Czech:: jestr№aґb `hawk' [m o]; #OCz. jĕstr№aґb `hawk' [m o]
Slovak: jastrab `hawk' [m o]
Polish: jastrza§b `hawk' [m jo], jastrzębia [Gens] {1}
Slovincian: ja†~str№iЁb `hawk' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: jatr№ob `hawk' [m jo]
Lower Sorbian: jastsґeb `hawk' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?strijeb `hawk' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?strЊb (Vrgada) `hawk' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. ja~strop (Orlec) `hawk' [m o]
Slovene: ja?streb `hawk' [m o]
Bulgarian: jaґstreb `hawk' [m o]
COMM: As far as I can see, there are no serious objections to the daring etymology *h1oh1kґu-ptr- `fast-flier' (Vey 1953). According to Vey, the Slovene: falling tone points to the former presence of a weak jer in the medial syllable, but it seems to me that the neo-circumflex may also reflect original posttonic length. The compound has nice parallels in Homeric ‡rhx зkЪpteroj N 62 `a swift-winged hawk (or falcon)' and Lat. accipiter `hawk, falcon'.
Other cognates: Gk. зkЪpteroj (Il.) `swift-flying' [adj]; Lat. accipiter `hawk, falcon' [m]
Notes: {1} The original Gsg. jastrzęba was replaced by jastrzębia on the analogy of goљa§b, Gsg. goљębia `pigeon' (Banґkowski 2000: 577).
Proto-Slavic form: *aščerъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `lizard'
Page in Trubačev: I 87-89
Old Church Slavic: aštera (Supr.) `lizard' [Gensm o]
Russian: jaґščer `inflammation of the tongue (cattle, horses)' [m o]; #Ru. jaґščerica `lizard' [f jѓ]
Czech: ještĕr `saurian, dragon' [m o]; #Cz. ještĕrka `lizard' [f ѓ]; #Cz. ještĕr№ice (rare) `lizard' [m o]
Polish: jaszczur `salamander, saurian' [m o]; #Pl. jaszczurka `lizard' [f ѓ]; #Pl. jaszczoґr (dial.) `lizard' [m o]
Slovincian: vješči°eёr№„caў `lizard' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?ster (obs.) `lizard' [m o]; #SCr. ja?šterica `vesicle on the tongue' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. ja?šcґerica (Vrgada) `vesicle on the tongue' [f jѓ]
Slovene: ja?ščerica `green lizard' [f jѓ]; #Sln. ja?ščarica `green lizard' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: ske†ry~s `locust' [m io]
Latvian: sk§i°rgai^lis `lizard' [m io]; #Latv. sk§ir~gaila `lizard' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: estureito `lizard'
Page in Pokorny: 933
COMM: Though the details would remain unclear, there is definitely possibility that this is a substratum word showing prefixation of a non-Indo-European type (cf. Schrijver 1997: 307-312). Among the alternative solutions, the analysis *h1oh1kґu-sker-, a compound of the word for `quick' and the verbal root that is found in Gk. ska…rw `frisk' as well as probably Lith. ske†ry~s `harvestman, daddy-long-legs' and Latv. šk§i°rgai^lis2, seems the most attractive (Vey 1953, see also -> *astrębъ).
Other cognates: Gk. ўskar…j `worm in the intestines, larva of a mosquit o' [f]; Gk. skar…dej: eЌdoj ˜lm…nqwn (Hesych.)
Proto-Slavic form: *avĕ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `manifestly'
Page in Trubačev: I 93-94
Old Church Slavic: javĕ `manifestly, openly, clearly' [adv]; #OCS avĕ `manifestly, openly, clearly' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: javi `manifestly, openly' [adv]
Bulgarian: aґve `in reality' [adv]; #Bulg. jaґve `in reality' [adv]
Macedonian: jave `in reality' [adv]
Lithuanian: ovyje (DP) `in reality' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2Њu-Њis
IE meaning: apparently
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 78
COMM: OLith. ovyje `in reality' is sometimes regarded as a borrowing from Slavic but there are no compelling arguments for this view. The absence of initial j- rather points in the direction of an etymological relationship, cf. jovnai `openly', which is a borrowing from BeloRussian:. In that case we would have to start from a PBSl. i-stem *ѓv-i- (cf. Anikin 1998: 21, see also s.v. javiti). On the other hand, it seems possible that the form ovyje, whose oldest attestations are two occurrences in Daukša, is based on Church Slavic: (j)avĕ. The Slavic adverb in turn may have been borrowed from Iranian (Lubotsky p.c.).
Other cognates: Skt. ѓviґs• `apparently, noticeably' [adv]; Av. auuiš `apparently, evidently' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *aviti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `show'
Page in Trubačev: I 94-95
Old Church Slavic: javiti `show, reveal' [verb]; #OCS aviti `show, reveal' [verb]
Russian: javiґt' `show, display' [verb], javljuґ [1sg], jaґvit [3sg]
Czech: jeviti `show' [verb]
Polish: jawicґ (obs.) `show' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: jaґviti `inform' [verb], ja?v–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. jaІ?vi?ti (Vrgada) `inform?' [verb], jaІ~viš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. jѓvi?t (Vrgada) `(se) greet, answer' [verb], ja~ve [3sg]
Slovene: jaґviti `announce' [verb], jaґvim [1sg]
Lithuanian: ovytis `appear' [verb], ovijasi [3sg] {1}
Page in Pokorny: 78
Notes: {1} Lith. (arch.) ovytis `appear' derives from the i-stem which must underlie ovyje `in reality'. Fraenkel (I: 519) claims that ovytis `appear; rage' and Latv. a^vi^tie^s `talk nonsense, get up to mischief' are inherited words cognate with oґvaidas (< *avi-vaidas) `rowdy, braggart', while Lith. je†ґvaidas (< *jeva-vaidas) `ghost' and Latv. ja°vi^tie^s or ja^vi^tie^s `to behave like an idiot' are borrowings from Slavic (see also Anikin: 22). I am not convinced that this solution, which seems to rely exclusively on the presence or absence of j-, is correct. Moreover, it is not obvious that ovytis `appear' and ovytis (also jõvytis) `rage' are cognates. It seems quite possible that Lith. oґvaidas must be connected with Ukr. (dial.) jaґvida `devil', Ru. (dial.) jaґvidь `snake'.
Proto-Slavic form: *avьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `manifest, obvious'
Page in Trubačev: I 99-100
Old Russian:: javьnyj `manifest, obvious' [adj o]
Czech: jevnyґ (Kott) `manifest, public' [adj o]; #Cz. zjevnyґ `manifest, obvious' [adj o]
Polish: jawny `manifest, public, open' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ja?van `manifest, obvious' [adj o]
Slovene: jaґvЌn `manifest, obvious' [adj o]
Bulgarian: jaґven `obvious' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2Њu-
IE meaning: apparently
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 78
COMM: Possibly derived from the adverb *javĕ.
Proto-Slavic form: *azъ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `I'
Page in Trubačev: I 100-103
Old Church Slavic: azъ `I' [prnprs]
Russian: ja `I' [prnprs]
Old Russian:: (j)azъ `I' [prnprs]
Czech: jaґ `I' [prnprs]
Old Czech:: jaґz `I' [prnprs]
Polish: ja `I' [prnprs]
Old Polish: jaz (Flor.) `I' [prnprs] {1}; #OPl. ja `I' [prnprs]
Serbo-Croatian: ja? `I' [prnprs]; #SCr. ja?z (dial.) `I' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. jaІ~ (Vrgada) `I' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. ja? (Novi) `I' [prnprs]; #SCr. C№ak. ja~ (Orbanicґi) `I, me' [prnprs]
Slovene: ja°z `I' [prnprs]
Bulgarian: az `I' [prnprs]; #Bulg. ja (dial.) `I' [prnprs]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *eЂzґ-um; esґ (?)
Lithuanian: a°š `I' [prnprs]; #Lith. eš (OLith.) `I' [prnprs]
Latvian: es `I' [prnprs]; #Latv. ęs (dial.) `I' [prnprs]
Old Prussian: as `I' [prnprs]; #OPr. es `I' [prnprs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1egґ-H-om
IE meaning: I
Page in Pokorny: 291
COMM: The distribution of *jazъ and *ja suggest that the latter form is a Proto-Slavic innovation (Kortlandt forthc.).
Other cognates: Skt. ahaґm `I' [prnprs]; Gk. ™gи `I' [prnprs]; Go. ik `I' [prnprs]
Notes: {1} Possibly a Bohemianism.
Proto-Slavic form: *azьno
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `goat-skin'
Page in Trubačev: I 103-104
Church Slavic: jazьno (RuCS) `skin, leather' [n o]; #CS (j)azno (SerbCS) `skin, leather' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *aЂzґ-ino-
Lithuanian: ožena° `goat-skin' [f ѓ] 3a; #Lith. oži°nis `goat-' [adj io]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2egґ-ino-
IE meaning: (goat-)skin
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 7
COMM: The Balto-Slavic acute root vowel originates from Winter's law.
Other cognates: Skt. ajiґna- `(animal) skin' [n]

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