Исконный славянский лексикон Дерксена (*M)


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Всего на M (М) – 160 слов.

Proto-Slavic form: *ma?mъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `deceit'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 190-191
Church Slavic: mamъ `foolish' [adj o]
Czech: mam `deceit, error, (dial.) `apparition, ghost' [m o]
Slovak: mam `deceit, mirage' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?m `lure, bait, temptation, charm, frenzy' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maH-mo-
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2-mo-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 693
Proto-Slavic form: *ma?stь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `ointment'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 30-31
Old Church Slavic: mastь `chrism, ointment' [f i]
Russian: mast' `colour of wool or feathers' [f i]
Czech: mast `ointment' [f i]
Slovak: mast' `ointment, fat, lard' [f i]
Polish: masґcґ `ointment' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?st `fat, lard, grease, ointment, colour' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?s (Orbanicґi) `fat, grease' [f i], ma?sti [Gens]
Slovene: ma?st `fat, lard' [f i], masti? [Gens]
Bulgarian: maґsti `animal fat' [Nomp]
Proto-Slavic form: *ma?zь; ma?zъ
GRAM: f. i; m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `grease, ointment'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 33-34
Church Slavic: mazь `unction' [f i]
Russian: maz' `ointment' [f i]; #Ru. maz (dial.) `lover' [m o]
Czech: maz `ointment, grease, glue' [m o]
Polish: mazґ `grease, oil, tar' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: maz (dial.) `ointment, grease' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: maz `starch, grease, oil, tar' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?z (arch.) `ointment, grease' [m o]
Slovene: ma?z `lubrication, grease, ointment' [f i], mazi? [Gens]
Proto-Slavic form: *majati; mavati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wave, beckon'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 133-135, XVIII 21-22
Old Church Slavic: namaiaaxǫ (Supr.) `beckoned' [3pl ipf]
Church Slavic: pomavati (RuCS) `give a signal with one's hand or head' [verb]
Russian: maґjat' `exhaust, harass' [verb]; #Ru. mavat' (dial.) `wave' [verb]
Old Russian:: majati `beckon, agitate, vibrate' [verb]; #ORu. pomavati `give a signal with one's hand or head' [verb]
Czech: maґvati `wave' [verb]
Slovak: maґvat' `wave' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: mawasґ `wave, rock' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?jati `beckon, keep, detain' [verb]
Slovene: maґjati `move about, shake' [verb], maґjam [1sg], maґjem [1sg]
Bulgarian: maґja `dawdle, detain' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maH-
Lithuanian: moґti `beckon' [verb]
Latvian: ma~t `beckon' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2-
IE meaning: beckon
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: It is clear that *majati and *mavati continue one and the same verb, j and v being "Hiatustilger". While majati `to beckon' cannot be separated from Lith. moґti , Latv. ma~t `id.', majati `to detain, to tire, to exhaust' has been linked to Germanic forms like OHG muoan and Go. afmaui±s (cf. Stang 1972: 35). The respective roots in Pokorny are mѓ- (693) and mЎ- (746). If we assume that *majati indeed continues *meh2- as well as *meh3- (LIV: 382), we have to settle for semantic arguments. Since it is also possible to argue on semantic grounds that *majati ultimately continues *meh2- `to beckon' only (TrubačeЁv XVII 134), it is to a certain extent a matter of choice which solution one prefers.
Other cognates: Go. afmaui±s `tired' [ppp]; OHG muoan `alarm, worry' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *ma°kъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `poppy'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 149-151
Church Slavic: makъ `poppy' [m o]
Russian: mak `poppy' [m o], maґka [Gens]
Czech: maґk `poppy' [m o]
Slovak: mak `poppy' [m o]
Polish: mak `poppy' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?k `poppy' [m o], ma?ka [Gens], ma°ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?k (Vrgada) `poppy' [m o], maka? [Gens]
Slovene: ma°k `poppy' [m o], maґka [Gens]
Bulgarian: mak `poppy' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *?
Lithuanian: aguona° `poppy' [f ѓ] 2; #Lith. ma~guone† (dial.) `poppy' [f Њ] 1 {1}
Latvian: maguo^ne `poppy' [f Њ] {2} {3}
Old Prussian: moke (EV) `poppy' [f]
IE meaning: poppy
Certainty: -
Page in Pokorny: 698
COMM: The Germanic forms show grammatischer Wechsel as well as an alternation *ѓ : a. The vocalism, which could reflect PIE *eh1 : h1, does not match the ѓ of the Greek and the Slavic forms, which leads us to assume that the vowel alternation arose when at a comparatively late stage the root mѓk- was borrowed into Germanic (cf. Kluge 1989, 484). The Lithuanian and Latvian forms are usually considered borrowings from Germanic, whereas OPr. moke may have been borrowed from Polish. The Estonian and Livonian forms must be borrowings from Baltic, probably Latvian. It is generally agreed upon that ultimately we are dealing with a word of non-Indo-European (Mediterranean?) origin.
Other cognates: Gk. m»kwn `poppy' [f]; Dor. mŽ?kwn `poppy' [f]; OHG mѓho `poppy' [m]; OHG mago `poppy' [m]; OS magosѓmo `poppyseed' [m]; OS mЊcopin (KŽnigsberg) `poppy' [m]; OSw. valmoghe `poppy' [m] {4}; Est. magun `poppy; Liv. maggon `poppy'
Notes: {1} Besides, we find the variants maguona and magіna . The forms with m are restricted to the area around Klaipe†da. {2} I have found the variants magu°ona2, magana, magane and magіne. {3} The initial m of the word for `poppy' was apparently lost in Lithuanian but not in Latvian. The Lithuanian dialect forms with m- may be due to the influence of the (Latvian) language of the fishermen of the Couronian Isthmus (cf. Bіga RR III: 320). Sabaliauskas suggests dissimilatory loss of m, parallel to the loss of r in arotai : rarotai , akrіtas : rakrіtas, Latv. ruodere : uodere, іk§eris (1960, 71-72). {4} The first element means `sleep', cf. Nw. dial. vale `deep sleep', Sw. dial. valbjŽrn `Schlafdorn'.
Proto-Slavic form: *ma°lъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `small, little'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 173-178
Old Church Slavic: malъ `small, little' [adj o]
Russian: maґlyj `small, little' [adj o]
Czech: malyґ `small, little' [adj o]
Slovak: malyґ `small, little' [adj o]
Polish: maљy `small, little' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?o `small, little' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. maІ~l– (Vrgada) `small, little' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?li (Orbanicґi) `small, little' [adj o]
Slovene: ma?li `small, little' [adj o]
Bulgarian: mal (BTR) `small, little' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moh1-lo-
Page in Pokorny: 724
COMM: The question is whether *ma°lъ can be linked to PIE *melH-, as has been advocated by Varbot, for instance (1972: 63). In view of the acute root vowel, I consider this unlikely: we would have to posit a lengthened grade root of which the acute intonation is analogical after forms with full or zero grade. Thus, I prefer to reconstruct a root *mH1-, which in the etymon under discussion is followed by an l-suffix (cf. Vaillant IV, 545, where the root is assumed to be identical with the root of Ru. majat', which I reconstruct as *meH2-). The Germanic forms would have s mobile and zero grade of the root. Notice that Pokorny classifies CS mĕlъkъ under 1. mel-, melЌ- `zermalmen, schlagen, mahlen etc.', while OCS malъ can be found under mЊlo-, smЊlo- `kleines Tier'.
Other cognates: Gk. mh~lon `small cattle, goat, sheep' [n] {1}; OIr. miґl `(small) `animal'; Go. smals `small, insignificant' [m]; OIc. smali `small (live) `stock, sheep' [m]
Notes: {1} The Doric form also has h.
Proto-Slavic form: *malъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
Page in Trubačev: XVII 173-178
Russian: maґlok (folk.) `child, teenager' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?lak `small, little' [adj o], ma?lka [Nomsf]
Slovene: ma?lЌk `small man, dwarf, devil' [m o]
Bulgarian: maґlaўk `small, little' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moh1-l-uko-
Page in Pokorny: 724
Proto-Slavic form: *mamiti; maniti {1}
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `deceive'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 189-190, 197-199
Church Slavic: mamiti `deceive' [verb]; #CS maniti `deceive' [verb]
Russian: maniґt' `beckon, attract, lure; #Ru. (dial.) `deceive, lie, linger, loiter' [verb], manjuґ [1sg], maniґt [3sg]
Czech: maґmiti `stun, deceive, seduce' [verb]
Slovak: mamit' `stun, deceive' [verb]
Polish: mamicґ `deceive, seduce, lead astray' [verb]; #Pl. manicґ (dial.) `deceive, seduce, lead astray' [verb]
Slovincian: manґic `attract, lure, deceive' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: mamisґ `deceive, enchant' [verb]; #LSrb. manisґ `deceive, enchant' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: maґmiti `attract, lure, seduce' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. mІѓmi?ti (Vrgada) `attract, lure, seduce' [verb]; #SCr. maґniti (dial.) `lure' [verb]
Slovene: maґmiti `stun, deceive, seduce, fool' [verb], ma?mim [1sg]
Bulgarian: maґmja `deceive, seduce, lead astray' [verb]; #Bulg. maґnja (dial.) `deceive' [verb]
Lithuanian: mo~nyti `practise sorcery' [verb] {1}
Latvian: ma~ni^t `mislead, deceive
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2m-iH-
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: According to Van Wijk (1934: 73), *mamiti is the original denominative verb, while *maniti arose through dissimilation, which was probably favoured by the existence of *manǫti. Van Wijk's hypothesis is supported by the fact that there is more a less a geographical distribution. The form *mamiti occurs in West and South Slavic, whereas *maniti occurs in East Slavic and in certain West and South Slavic regions.
Notes: {1} I consider both the Latvian and the Lithuanian forms to be borrowings from Slavic. Endzel–ns is inclined to regard Latv. ma~ni^t as an inherited word.
Proto-Slavic form: *manǫti {1}
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `beckon'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 200-201
Church Slavic: manǫti `beckon' [verb]
Russian: manuґt' (dial.) `beckon, lure' [verb]; #Ru. maґnut' (dial.) `beckon, lure' [verb]
Old Russian:: manuti `nod, beckon' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: manuґti `nod, beckon, wave' [verb]
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: Vaillant regards *manǫti as the original perfective of *majati .
Proto-Slavic form: *mara
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `ghost, apparition'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 204-207 {1}
Church Slavic: mara (RuCS) `ecstasy' [f ѓ]
Russian: maґra, maraґ `apparition, mirage; #Ru. (dial.) house-sprite, evil spirit' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: maraґ, maґra `dream, apparition, nightmare; #Bel. (dial.) `witch, demon' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: maraґ `apparition, ghost, witch' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mara `ghost, apparition' [f ѓ]
Polish: mara `dream, illusion, ghost, (dial.) nightly spirit that attacks people and horses in their sleep' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: mara `dream, apparition, ghost' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: mara `goddess of illness and death' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: Maґra `name of a fairy-tale monster' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2-reh2
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: There are basically two views on the origin of *mara. According to a hypothesis put forward by Franck (1904: 129) and advocated by a.o. Schuster-S№ewc (885ff), *mara continues PIE *mЎrѓ and differs from *mora only in having lengthened grade. The alternative etymology, which can at least be traced to Zubatyґ 1894, connects *mara with the root ma- < *meh2- of majati, mamъ etc. Though it seems at a first glance unsatisfactory to separate *mara from *mora - in Polish, for instance, mara and mora are synonymous -, it is awkward that in most Slavic languages both apophonic variants would occur side by side. Perhaps we have to start from *mara `illusion, apparition' beside *mora `female demon that tortures people with nightmares', which later became confused. This scenario may also offer an explanation for the fact that the accentual paradigm of both words is so hard to determine. We would expect *ma°ra (a) - in view of Hirt's law - beside *mora° (b) or (c). Nevertheless we find forms like Ru. moґra and maraґ (beside maґra). I think that in this respect, too, we have to reckon with analogy.
Proto-Slavic form: *ma°slo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `oil, butter'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 230-232 {1}
Old Church Slavic: maslo `oil, butter' [n o]
Russian: maґslo `butter, oil' [n o]
Czech: maґslo `butter' [n o]
Slovak: maslo `butter' [n o]
Polish: masљo `butter' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?slo `butter, oil' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?slo (Vrgada) `butter, cream' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?slo (Orbanicґi) `butter' [n o]
Slovene: maґslo• `lard, butter' [n o]
Bulgarian: maґslo `butter, oil, fat' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mogґ-
Page in Pokorny: 696
COMM: If *ma°zati is cognate with Lith. me†ґžti 'manure, muck out', Latv. me^zt `muck out, sweep', *ma°slo < *ma°z-slo < PBSl. *moЂzґ-slo nearly matches Lith. me†ґšlas 1/3, Latv. me^§sls `manure' < PEBl. *mЊґž-sla < PBSl. *meЂzґ-slo . Here I must add that Slavic *maslo is sometimes derived from *maz-tlo .
Proto-Slavic form: *matati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XVII 235-236
Czech: maґtati (dial.) `frighten' [verb]
Slovak: maґtat' `haunt, frighten' [verb]
Old Polish: matacґ `deceive, swindle' [verb]
Slovincian: maІґuёtac `swindle, lie' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: matati (Stulli, dial.) `bait, attract'
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2t-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 693
Proto-Slavic form: *materьstvo
GRAM: n. o
Page in Trubačev: XVII 254
Old Church Slavic: materьstva (Ps. Sin.) `old age' [Gensn o]
Czech: materstvo (Jungmann) `motherhood' [n o]; #Cz. mater№stvo (Kott) `motherhood' [n o]
Slovak: materstvo `motherhood' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: materstvo (Stulli) `motherhood' [n o]
Slovene: maґterstvo `motherhood' [n o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2ter-
Page in Pokorny: 693
Other cognates: Lat. mѓtіrus `ripe, mature, premature' [adj]; Lat. mѓnus `good' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *ma°ti
GRAM: f. r
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `mother'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 254-259
Old Church Slavic: mati `mother' [f r], matere [Gens]
Russian: mat' `mother' [f r], maґteri [Gens]
Old Russian:: mati `mother' [f r], matere [Gens]
Old Czech:: maґti `mother' [f r], mater№e [Gens]
Old Polish: macґ `mother' [f r], macierze [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?ti `mother' [f r], ma?terЊ [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?ti (Vrgada) `mother' [f r], ma?terЊ [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?t (Novi, Orbanicґi) `mother' [f r], ma?teri [Gens]
Slovene: maґti `mother' [f r], maґtere [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maґЂter-
Lithuanian: moґte† (OLith, dial.) `wife, mother' [f r] 1 {1}
Latvian: ma~te `mother' [f Њ] {2}
Old Prussian: mіti (Ench.) `mother' [f]; #OPr. mothe (EV) `mother' [f]; #OPr. muti (Gr.) `mother' [f]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2ter-
IE meaning: mother
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 700ff
COMM: The root stress in this word may be due to Hirt's law, cf. Skt. mѓtѓґ , but there is a distinct possibility that it is old, cf. Gk. m»thr.
Other cognates: Skt. mѓtaґr- `mother' [f]; Gk. m»thr `mother' [f]; Lat. mѓter `mother' [f]; OHG muoter `mother' [f]; OIr. maґthir `mother' [f]; Alb. moґtreЁ `sister' [f]
Notes: {1} The oldest form of the genitive is moґteres, which occurs, for instance, in DP and in dialects. The most important Standard Lithuanian derivatives are moґteris `wife, mother' and moґtina `mother'. The form mote†~, which frequently occurs in the older scholarly literature, does not exist. {2} The accentuation ma^te (Pokorny) is incorrect.
Proto-Slavic form: *matorъ; materъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XVII 244-249
Church Slavic: matorъ `old' [adj o]
Russian: mateЁryj `experienced, full-grown' [adj o]; #Ru. materoґj `full-grown' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?tor `old, elderly' [adj o]
Slovene: matǫґr `old' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2tor-
IE meaning: mother
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: While the ESSJ (TrubačeЁv) states that *matorъ(jь) is older than *materъ(jь), the same dictionary considers the o-grade of the suffix in *matorьnъ(jь) as well as the meaning of this formation (in comparison with materьnъ(jь) `motherly') to be late. The point is, however, that *matorьnъ(jь) and *matorьnъ(jь) may not be cognate with *ma?ti at all. Lat. mѓtіrus has been connected with mѓnus `good', OIr. maith `id.' (Pokorny 693, Ernout - Meillet s.v., Schrijver 1991: 143). In TrubačeЁv's dictionary, the connection with the latter form is dismissed. Instead, *matorъ(jь) is considered cognate with both *ma?ti and mѓtіrus (with references to TrubačeЁv 19??: 32 and - incorrectly - Meillet 1902-1905 II: 407, where merely the connection with mѓne and mѓtіrus is considered). Yet another etymology was proposed by Vaillant, who tried to link the Slavic etymon to words meaning `big', such as OPr. muis `bigger' (1961: 189). In my opinion, Lat. mѓtіrus has the best chance of being cognate with *matorъ(jь) etc. (pace Vasmer s.v. mateЁryj). The connection with *ma?ti cannot be disproved on formal grounds but there are sufficient semantic reasons for keeping this word apart. Athough ultimately we may be dealing with the same root, it is unlikely that *matorъ(jь) is a recent derivative of *ma?ti .
Other cognates: Lat. mѓtіrus `ripe, mature, premature' [adj]; Lat. mѓnus `good' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *matorьnъ; materьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XVII 251-253
Russian: mateЁrnyj (dial.) `big, strong' [adj o]
Old Czech:: matornyґ `mature, serious' [adj o]
Slovene: matǫґrЌn `elderly, old' [adj o]
Bulgarian: matoґrnyj `old, senile' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2tor-
IE meaning: mother
Page in Pokorny: 693
Other cognates: Lat. mѓtіrus `ripe, mature, premature' [adj]; Lat. mѓnus `good' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *ma°zati
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `smear, anoint'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 23-25
Old Church Slavic: mazati `anoint' [verb], mažǫ [1sg]
Russian: maґzat' `smear, oil, grease' [verb], maґžu [1sg], maґžet [3sg]
Czech: mazati `smear, oil, defile' [verb]
Slovak: mazat' `smear' [verb]
Polish: mazacґ `smear' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?zati `smear, grease, paint' [verb], ma?žЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?zati (Vrgada) `soil, besmirch' [verb], ma?žeš [2sg]; #SCr. ma?zati `smear, grease, paint' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?zat (Orbanicґi) `smear, grease' [verb], ma?žen [1sg]
Slovene: maґzati `smear, grease, paint' [verb], ma?žem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moЂzґ-
Lithuanian: me†ґžti `manure, muck out'
Latvian: me^zt `muck out, sweep' [verb]; #Latv. muo~ze^t `gobble, pound, fool, harass, beat' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 696
COMM: For the time being I have grouped together Slavic *ma°zati and Lith. me†ґžti `manure, muck out', Latv. me^zt `muck out, sweep' and muo~ze^t `gobble, pound etc.' (cf. Oštir 1912: 214, Fraenkel I: 444). It seems to me that the Baltic words can be linked semantically to *ma°zati `smear' if we start from a meaning `smear, wipe, sweep' (for the semantic development attested in muo~ze^t, cf. Ru. smaґzat' `strike a blow', MoDu. (dial.) afsmeren `give s.o. a beating'). Another possibility would be to connect *ma°zati with Gk. mŽssw (aor. pass. magh~nai) `knead' (provided that the root is not mak- instead of mag-, which, according to Chantraine (670), cannot be determined), Arm. macanim `thicken, stick together' and OHG mahhЎn, OS makЎn etc. `make'. This would entail a reconstruction *meh2gґ- (*magґ- in Pokorny), which would preclude a connection with me†ґžti, Latv. me^zt.
Proto-Slavic form: *mѓxa°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wave'
Page in Trubačev: XVII 123-126
Church Slavic: maxati `wave' [verb], maxajǫ [1sg]
Russian: maxaґt' `wave' [verb], mašuґ [1sg], maґšet [3sg]
Czech: maґchati `wave' [verb]
Slovak: maґchat' `swing' [verb]
Polish: machacґ `wave, swing' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: maґhati `wave' [verb], ma?še?m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. maІЇha?ti (Vrgada) `wave' [verb], maІ~šeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mѓha?t (Orbanicґi) `wave' [verb], ma~šen [1sg]
Slovene: maґhati `wave' [verb], maґham [1sg]
Bulgarian: maґxam `wave' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maHs-
Lithuanian: mosuґoti `wave' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh2s-
Page in Pokorny: 693
COMM: In spite of the fact that the x in *maxati is not the regular reflex of *s in this position, I assume that we are dealing with a Balto-Slavic enlargement s of the root *meh2- `to beckon'.
Proto-Slavic form: *me°čь; mь°čь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sword'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 141-142
Old Church Slavic: mečь `sword' [m jo]
Russian: meč' `sword' [m jo], mečaґ [Gens]
Czech: meč `sword' [m jo]
Slovak: meč `sword' [m jo]
Polish: miecz `sword' [m jo]
Upper Sorbian: mječ `sword' [m jo]; #USrb. miecЅ† (Matthaei 1721) `sword' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?č `sword' [m jo], ma°ča [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?č (Vrgada) `sword' [m jo], mača? [Gens]
Slovene: me°č `sword' [m jo]
Bulgarian: meč `sword' [m jo]
COMM: This etymon has often been considered a borrowing from Germanic, but the Slavic short vowel does not match the long vowel of the Germanic forms. The vacillation between *e and *ь may be attributed to the raising of pretonic *e in the vicinity of a palatalized consonant (see Kortlandt 1984-1985), but this development seems to have occured prior to Dybo's law and there is no particular reason to regard *mečь as an old oxytone noun. TrubačeЁv (ESSJa s.v.) advocates a connection with OIr. mecc-, referring to Odincov 1985.
Other cognates: Go. mЊki `sword' [m]; OS mѓki `sword' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *medja°
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `border, boundary, balk'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 45-47
Old Church Slavic: meždaxъ (Supr.) `alleys' [Locpf jѓ]
Russian: mežaґ `boundary, boundary-strip' [f jѓ], mežuґ [Accs]
Ukrainian: mežaґ `boundary, boundary-strip' [f jѓ], mežuґ [Accs]
Czech: meze `balk, border' [f jѓ]
Slovak: medza `balk, border' [f jѓ]
Polish: miedza `balk, border' [f jѓ]
Upper Sorbian: mjeza `balk, border' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: me°‹a `boundary, border' [f jѓ], me?‹u [Accs]; #SCr. meja? (dial.) `boundary, boundary-strip' [f jѓ], meju? [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. meja? (Vrgada) `boundary, border' [f jѓ], me?ju [Accs]
Slovene: meґja `boundary, fence, shrub(s), grove' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: meždaґ `balk' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: me~džias `forest' [m io]
Latvian: mežs `wood' [m io]
Old Prussian: median `wood'
Indo-European reconstruction: *medh-ieh2
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 706
Other cognates: Skt. maґdhya- (RV+) `middle, located in the middle' [adj]; Lat. medius `middle, located in the middle' [adj]; Go. midjis `middle' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *medju
GRAM: prep.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `between, among'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 51-52
Old Church Slavic: meždu (Supr., Ass., Boj.) `between, among' [prep]; #OCS meždju (Zogr., Mar., Sav., Cloz.) `between, among' [prep]
Russian: mežuґ (dial.) `between, among' [prep]; #Ru. meґžu (dial.) `between, among' [prep]
Czech: mezi `between, among' [prep]; #Cz. mezu (Kott) `between, among' [prep]
Serbo-Croatian: me?‹u `between, among' [prep]
Slovene: me°ju `between, among' [prep]
Bulgarian: mežduґ `between, among' [prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *medh-i-h1ou {1}
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 706
Other cognates: Skt. maґdhya- (RV+) `middle, located in the middle' [adj]; Lat. medius `middle, located in the middle' [adj]; Go. midjis `middle' [adj]
Notes: {1} Loc. du.
Proto-Slavic form: *medojĕdъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 55
Russian: medoeґd (dial.) `honey-lover' [m o]
Czech: medojed (Jungmann) `honey-lover' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: me?dojЊd (dial.) `death's head moth' [m o]
Slovene: medoje•°d `honey-eater, honey-lover' [m o], medoje•ґda [Gens]
Page in Pokorny: 288, 707
COMM: For morphological as well as semantic reasons the noun *medojedъ must be a more recent formation than *medvĕdь .
Other cognates: Skt. madh(u)vaґd- `honey-eater' [m]
Notes: {1} The Psalter of Dimitri belongs to the corpus which was discovered at St. Catherine's monastery in 1975. Strictly speaking it might be classified as a Middle Bulgarian text (Birnbaum and Schaeken 1997: 143). {2} The attestations occur in a Croatian MS. from the 14th century and a Serbian MS. from the 15th century, respectively. {3} In West Slavic, we find secondary forms with n-, e.g. (O)Pl. niedzґwiedzґ , OCz. nedvĕd.
Proto-Slavic form: *medva°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 62
Russian: medvaґ (dial.) `hydromel, sweet must' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: me°dva (dial.) `kind of white grapes' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *medhu-eh2
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 707
Other cognates: Skt. maґdhu- `sweet drink, anything sweet, honey' [n]; Gk. mљqu `wine' [n]; OHG metu `mead' [m]; OIr. mid `mead' [n/m]
Proto-Slavic form: *medvĕ°dь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `bear'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 55, 65-67
Old Church Slavic: medvĕdь (PsDim.) `bear' [m jo] {1}
Church Slavic: medvĕdь (Par., Hval.) `bear' [m jo] {2}
Russian: medveґd' `bear' [m jo]
Czech: medvĕd `bear' [m o]
Slovak: medved' `bear' [m o]
Polish: miedzґwiedzґ (arch., dial.) `bear' [m jo] {3}
Serbo-Croatian: me°dvjed `bear' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. medvi?d (Vrgada) `bear' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. medvi?d (Novi) `bear' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. medve?d (Orbanicґi) `bear' [m o]
Slovene: meґdve•d `bear' [m o], medve•ґda [Gens]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *medveЂd-i-
Indo-European reconstruction: *medh-u-h1ed-i-
IE meaning: honey-eater
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 288, 707
Other cognates: Skt. madh(u)vaґd- `honey-eater' [m]
Notes: {1} The Psalter of Dimitri belongs to the corpus which was discovered at St. Catherine's monastery in 1975. Strictly speaking it might be classified as a Middle Bulgarian text (Birnbaum and Schaeken 1997: 143). {2} The attestations occur in a Croatian MS. from the 14th century and a Serbian MS. from the 15th century, respectively. {3} In West Slavic, we find secondary forms with n-, e.g. (O)Pl. niedzґwiedzґ , OCz. nedvĕd.
Proto-Slavic form: *me?dъ
GRAM: m. u
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `honey, mead'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 68-72
Old Church Slavic: medъ `honey' [m u/o], meda [Gens], medu [Gens]
Russian: meЁd `honey, mead' [m o], meЁda [Gens], meduґ [Locs], medyґ [Nomp]
Czech: med `honey, mead' [m o]
Slovak: med `honey, mead' [m o]
Polish: mioґd `honey, mead' [m o], miodu [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: mĕd `honey' [m o], mjedu [Gens], mjeda [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: me?d `honey' [m o], me?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. me?d (Vrgada) `honey' [m o], me?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. me?d (Novi) `honey' [m o], me?da [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mie?t (Orbanicґi) `honey' [m o], me?da [Gens]
Slovene: mę?d `honey' [m o/u], mę?da [Gens], medu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: med `honey' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *meduґ-
Lithuanian: medu°s `honey' [m u] 4
Latvian: mędus `honey' [m u]
Old Prussian: meddo (EV) `honey'
Indo-European reconstruction: *medhu-
IE meaning: honey, mead
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 707
Other cognates: Skt. maґdhu- `sweet drink, anything sweet, honey' [n]; Gk. mљqu `wine' [n]; OHG metu `mead' [m]; OIr. mid `mead' [n/m]
Proto-Slavic form: *melko°
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `milk'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 85-88
Old Church Slavic: mlĕko `milk' [n o]
Russian: molokoґ `milk' [n o]
Czech: mleґko `milk' [n o]
Slovak: mlieko `milk' [n o]
Polish: mleko `milk' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: mloko `milk' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: mlije°ko `milk' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ml–ko? (Vrgada) `milk' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. ml–ko? (Novi) `milk' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. mlieko? (Orbanicґi) `milk' [n o]
Slovene: mle•ґko• `milk' [n o]
Bulgarian: mljaґko `milk' [n o]
COMM: This etymon is often regarded as a borrowing from Germanic.
Proto-Slavic form: *melti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `grind, mill'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 90-91
Old Church Slavic: mlĕti `grind, mill' [verb], meljǫ [1sg]
Russian: moloґt' `grind, mill' [verb], meljuґ [1sg], meґljet [3sg]
Czech: mliґti `grind, mill' [verb]
Slovak: mlietґ `grind, mill' [verb]
Polish: mlecґ `grind, mill' [verb], mielę [1sg]
Slovincian: mlu°oёc `grind, mill' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: mlĕcґ `grind, mill' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mlje?ti `grind, mill' [verb], me?ljЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mli?ti (Vrgada) `grind, mill' [verb], me?l§eš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mle?t (Orbanicґi) `grind, mill, babble, chatter' [verb], me?ljen [1sg]
Slovene: mle•ґti `grind, mill' [verb], me•ґljem [1sg]
Bulgarian: meґlja `grind, mill' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *melЂtei
Lithuanian: maґlti `grind, mill' [verb]
Latvian: mal~t `grind, mill' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *melH-
IE meaning: grind
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 716ff
Other cognates: Skt. mrёn•ѓґti, mrёn•aґti `crush, grind' [verb]; Hitt. malla- `grind' [verb]; Lat. molere `grind' [verb]; Go. malan `grind' [verb]; OHG malan `grind, mill' [verb]; OIr. meilid `grind' [verb]; Arm. malem `crush' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *melzti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `milk'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 95-96
Church Slavic: mlĕsti (RuCS) `bring down, dislodge' [verb], mlьzu [1sg] {1}
Slovak: mlґzt' `suck' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mu?sti `milk' [verb], muґzЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?sti (Vrgada) `milk' [verb], mіzeš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?s (Orbanicґi) `milk' [verb], mіze?n [1sg]
Slovene: mle•ґsti `milk' [verb], moґљzem [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўlzjaґ (dial.) `milk' [verb], mlьzu [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *melЂzґtei
Lithuanian: meґlžti `milk' [verb], meґlžia [3sg]; #Lith. mi°lžti `milk' [verb], meґlžia [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h2melgґ-
IE meaning: milk
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 722
Other cognates: Gk. ўmљlgw `milk' [verb]; Lat. mulgЊre `milk' [verb]; OE melcan `milk' [verb]
Notes: {1} Also melьziti `milk'.
Proto-Slavic form: *mene
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `me'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 96-97
Old Church Slavic: mene `me' [Gens/Accs prn]
Old Russian:: mene `me' [Gens/Accs prn]
Ukrainian: meneґ `me' [Gens/Accs prn]
Serbo-Croatian: meґne `me' [Gens/Accs/Dats prn]; #SCr. me?ne (dial.) `me' [Gens/Accs/Dats prn]
Bulgarian: meґne `me' [Accs prn]
Lithuanian: manę~s `me' [Gens prn]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1mene
IE meaning: me
Other cognates: Av. mana `me' [Gens prn]
Proto-Slavic form: *merti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `die'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 101-102
Old Church Slavic: mrĕti (Supr., Ass.) `die' [verb], mьrǫ [1sg]
Russian: mriet' `die (in large numbers)' [verb], mru [1sg], mreЁt [3sg]
Czech: mr№iґti `die, wither' [verb]
Slovak: mriet' `die, wither, thaw' [verb]
Polish: mrzecґ `die' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mrije°ti `die' [verb], mre?m [1sg]
Slovene: mre•ґti `die, be miserable' [verb], mr(j)e°m [1sg], mrґjem [1sg], mr?jem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mertei; mirtei
Lithuanian: mir~ti `die' [verb]
Latvian: mi°rt `die' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mer-
Page in Pokorny: 735
Other cognates: Skt. maґrate `die' [verb]; Lat. mori `die' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *me°rža
GRAM: f. jѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `net'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 102-103
Old Church Slavic: mrĕža `net' [f jѓ]
Russian: mereґža (dial.) `fishing-net' [f jѓ]; #Ru. mereЁža (dial.) `fishing-net' [f jѓ]
Czech: mr№iґže `grating' [f jѓ]
Slovak: mreža `grating' [f jѓ]
Old Polish: mrzez†a `a type of net' [f jѓ]
Slovincian: mr№i°eёža `small fishing-net' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mre?ža `net' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mri?ža (Vrgada) `net??' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mri?ža (Novi) `net??' [f jѓ]; #SCr. mre?ža `net' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mri?ža (Vrgada) `net??' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mre?ža (Orbanicґi) `lace, net, netting of a sieve' [f jѓ]
Slovene: mre•ґža `net, grating' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: mreґža `net' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *merЂg(i)aЂ
Lithuanian: maґrška `sheet, table-cloth, drag-net' [f ѓ]
Latvian: mar^ga `railing, gallery' [f ѓ]; #Latv. męr^ga `railing, gallery' [f ѓ]
Proto-Slavic form: *mesti°
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `throw, sweep'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 105-108
Church Slavic: mesti `throw, sweep' [verb], metǫ [1sg]
Russian: mestiґ `sweep' [verb], metuґ [1sg], meteЁt [3sg]
Czech: meґsti `sweep' [verb]; #Cz. meґsti (Jungmann, Kott) `throw, sweep' [verb]
Polish: miesґcґ `sweep, throw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: me°sti `sweep' [verb], me°tЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. me?sti (Vrgada) `sweep' [verb], mete?š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. me?s (Orbanicґi) `sweep' [verb], mete?n [1sg]
Slovene: meґsti `sweep, throw' [verb], meґtem [1sg]
Bulgarian: metaґ `sweep' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *met-
Lithuanian: me°sti `throw' [verb], me~ta [3sg]
Latvian: mest `throw' [verb], męt [3sg]
Old Prussian: pomests (Ench.) `submissive' [ppp.], pomett–wingi (Ench.) `obedient' [adj. mnp]
Notes: {1} Cf. also the derivation *metati `to throw', e.g. Ru. metaґt', SCr. me°tati, Cz. metati, Pl. miotacґ .
Proto-Slavic form: *meta°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `throw'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 112-115
Old Church Slavic: metati `throw' [verb], metǫ [1sg], meštǫ [1sg], metajǫ [1sg]
Russian: metaґt' `throw' [verb], mečuґ [1sg], meґtet [3sg]
Czech: metati `throw' [verb]
Slovak: metat' `throw' [verb]
Polish: miotacґ `throw' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: me°tati `place, put, throw' [verb], me?cґЊm [1sg]
Slovene: meґtati `throw' [verb], męґčem [1sg]
Proto-Slavic form: *mę
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `me'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 232-233
Old Church Slavic: mę `me' [Accs prnprs]
Russian: mja `me' [Accs prnprs]
Czech: mĕ `me' [Accs prnprs]
Polish: mię `me' [Accs prnprs]
Serbo-Croatian: me `me' [Accs prnprs]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mЊm
Old Prussian: mien (EV) `me' [Accs prnprs]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1me-m
IE meaning: me
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 702
Other cognates: Skt. mѓm `me' [Accs prnprs]; Av. ma§m `me' [Accs prnprs]
Proto-Slavic form: *mę?so
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `flesh, meat'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 7-11
Old Church Slavic: męso `flesh, meat' [n o]
Russian: mjaґso `flesh, meat' [n o]
Czech: maso `flesh, meat' [n o]
Slovak: m„so `flesh, meat' [n o]
Polish: mięso `flesh, meat' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: me?so `flesh, meat' [n o], meґsa [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. me?so (Vrgada) `flesh, meat' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. me?so (Novi) `flesh, meat' [n o], me?sa [Nomp]; #SCr. C№ak. mie?so (Orbanicґ) `meat, flesh' [n o]
Slovene: meso•? `flesh, meat' [n o]
Bulgarian: mesoґ `flesh, meat, (pl.) body' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mЊns; mЊnsaЂ
Lithuanian: me†sa° `flesh, meat' [f ѓ] 4; #Lith. mensa° (S. Z№em.) `flesh, meat' [f ѓ]
Latvian: mi°esa `flesh, meat' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: menso (EV) `meat'; #OPr. mensѓ (Ench.) `meat'
Indo-European reconstruction: *mЊms-om
IE meaning: flesh, meat
Certainty: +
Other cognates: Skt. mѓmў†saґ- (RV+) `flesh, meat' [n]; Skt. mѓh• (RV) `flesh, meat' [n]; Go. mimz `meat' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *męknǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `become soft'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 241-242
Church Slavic: męknǫti `become soft' [verb]
Russian: mjaґknut' `become soft' [verb]
Czech: mĕknouti `become soft' [verb]
Slovak: m„knuґt' `make soft, become soft' [verb]
Polish: miękna§cґ `become soft' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: me?knuti `become soft' [verb]
Slovene: męґkniti `become soft' [verb], mę?knem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *minЂk-(; menЂk-??)
Lithuanian: mi°nkyti `knead' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *m(e)nHk-
Other cognates: OE mengan `mix' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mękъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `soft'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 248-251
Old Church Slavic: mękъkъ `soft' [adj o]
Russian: mjaґgkij `soft' [adj o], mjaґgok [short]
Old Russian:: mjakъkyi `soft' [adj o]
Czech: mĕkkyґ `soft' [adj o]
Slovak: m„kkyґ `soft' [adj o]
Polish: miękki `soft' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: me?k `soft' [adj o], meka? [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. me?k (Vrgada) `soft' [adj o], meka? [Nomsf], me?ko [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. me?kak (Orbanicґi) `soft, softhearted' [adj o], me?hka [Nomsf], me?hko [Nomsn]
Slovene: meha?k `soft, softhearted' [adj o], mehka° [Nomsf]; #Sln. meґhЌk `soft, softhearted' [adj o], meґhka [Nomsf]; #Sln. meka?k `soft, softhearted' [adj o], mehka° [Nomsf]; #Sln. meґkЌk `soft, softhearted' [adj o], meґhka [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: mek `soft, tender' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *minЂk-
Lithuanian: mi°nkštas `soft' [adj o]
Latvian: mi^ksts `soft' [adj o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mnHk-
Other cognates: OE mengan `mix' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *męsti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `stir, trouble'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 12-13
Old Church Slavic: męsti `trouble, disturb' [verb], mętǫ [1sg]
Russian: mjastiґ (obs.) `trouble, disturb' [verb], mjatuґ [1sg], mjateЁt [3sg]
Czech: maґsti `confuse' [verb], matu [1sg]
Old Czech:: miesti `confuse' [verb], matu [1sg]
Slovak: miast' `confuse' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: meґsti `disturb, mix, stir' [verb], meґtЊm [1sg]
Slovene: męґsti `disturb, churn' [verb], męґtem [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *menstei
Lithuanian: mę~sti `mix' [verb], men~čia [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ment-
Page in Pokorny: 732
Other cognates: Skt. maґnthati `whirl, rub' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *męti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `compress, crumple, scutch'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 18-19
Church Slavic: męti `compress' [verb], mьnǫ [1sg]
Russian: mjat' `work up, knead, crumple, scutch' [verb], mnuґ [1sg], mneЁt [3sg]
Old Czech:: mieti `rub, knead' [verb], mnu [1sg]
Slovak: m„t' `rub, knead' [verb]
Polish: mia§cґ `rumple, crumple, (dial.) scutch' [verb], mnę [1sg]
Slovene: męґti `rub, mince' [verb], maґnem [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўґna `scutch' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *minЂtei
Lithuanian: mi°nti `trample, scutch' [verb]
Latvian: mi~t `trample, scutch' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *męzdra; męzdro
GRAM: f. ѓ; n. o
PSLMEAN: `inner side (of a hide)'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 7-11
Church Slavic: męzdra `inner side of a rind' [f ѓ]
Russian: mezdraґ `inner side (of a hide)' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: mizdroґ `inner side (of a hide)' [n o]; #Ukr. mizdrjaґ `inner side (of a hide)' [f ѓ]
Czech: maґzdra `pellicle, film, membrane' [f ѓ]
Slovak: maґz(d)ra (dial.) `membrane of an egg' [f ѓ]
Polish: mięzdra (dial.) `membrane' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: mia§zdra `membrane' [f ѓ]; #OPl. mięzdra `membrane' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: meґzdra `pellicle on flesh, membrane, inner side (of a hide)' [f ѓ]
Slovene: męґzdra `inner side (of a hide), skin on milk, sap-wood' [f ѓ]; #Sln. męґzdro• `sap-wood, bast' [n o]; #Sln. męґzda `membrane' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mЊms-ro-
IE meaning: flesh, meat
Other cognates: Lat. membrum `limb' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°dь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `copper'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 144-146
Old Church Slavic: mĕdь `copper' [f i]
Russian: med' `copper' [f i]
Ukrainian: mid' `copper' [f i]
Czech: mĕd' `copper' [f i]
Slovak: med' `copper' [f i]
Polish: miedzґ `copper' [f i]
Upper Sorbian: mjedzґ `ore' [f i] {1}
Lower Sorbian: mĕzґ `copper' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: mje?d `copper, brass' [f i]; #SCr. mje?d `copper, brass' [m o]
Slovene: me•?d `ore, metal (esp. copper and alloys of copper)' [f i], me•di? [Gens]; #Sln. me•?d `ore, metal (esp. copper and alloys of copper)' [m o]
Bulgarian: med `copper' [f i]
Notes: {1} According to Schuster-S№ewc (HEW II: 920), mĕdzґ `copper' is of Czech: origin.
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ?si°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `mix, knead'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 119-201
Old Church Slavic: mĕsimъ (Supr.) `being mixed' [Nomsm ptcprsp]
Russian: mesiґt' `knead' [verb], mešuґ [1sg], meґsit [3sg]
Czech: miґsiti `mix, confuse' [verb]
Slovak: miesit' `knead' [verb]
Polish: miesicґ `knead' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mije°siti `knead' [verb], mi?jes–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. m–si?ti (Vrgada) `knead' [verb], mi~s–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. miesi?t (Orbanicґi) `knead (dough)' [verb], mie~sin [1sg]
Slovene: me•ґsiti `mix, knead' [verb], me•ґsim [1sg]
Bulgarian: meґsja `mix, knead' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moisґiЂtei
Lithuanian: mie~šti `dilute' [verb]; #Lith. maišyґti `mix' [verb]
Latvian: ma°isi^t `mix' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moikґ-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 714
Other cognates: Skt. misґraґyati `mix' [verb]; Lat. miscЊre `mix' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ?xъ; mĕšъkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bag (made from skin)'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 156-159, 220-221
Old Church Slavic: mĕxъ `wine-skin' [m o]
Russian: mex `fur, (dial.) bag' [m o], meґxa [Gens], mexaґ [Nomp] {1}; #Ru. mešoґk `bag' [m o], meškaґ [Gens]
Czech: mĕch `bag, net' [m o]; #Cz. miґšek `purse, small bag' [m o], meškaґ [Gens]
Slovak: mech `bag' [m o]
Polish: miech `bag, bellows' [m o]
Slovincian: mji°ex `bag, bellows' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: mĕch `bag, bellows' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?jeh `bellows, wine-skin' [m o], mi?jeha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?h (Vrgada) `bellows, wine-skin' [m o], mi?ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?h (Novi) `bellows, wine-skin' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. mie?h (Vrgada) `bellows, bag-pipes' [m o], mie?he [Locs]
Slovene: me•?h `fur, wine-skin, bellows, leather bag' [m o/u], me•?ha [Gens], me•hu? [Gens]; #Sln. me•?šЌk `small bellows' [m o]
Bulgarian: mjax `bellows, bag made from skin' [m o]; #Bulg. mex `bellows, bag made from skin' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mois•oґs
Lithuanian: mai~šas `bag, sack' [m o] 4 {2}
Latvian: ma°iss `bag' [m o]
Old Prussian: moasis (EV) `bellows'
Indo-European reconstruction: *moiso-
IE meaning: ram
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 747
COMM: I feel that we should not attach too much importance to De Vries's observation that with respect to Germanic it is unwarranted to start from an original meaning `Tragkorb aus Fell' (1962: 382). In fact, the same would apply to the Baltic forms. I consider the semantic similarity between, for instance, Lith. mai~šas `ein aus Schnµren gestricktes Heunetz' (note that the meaning `net' is also attested in Slavic), OIc. heymeiss `hay-sack' and Eng. (dial.) maiz `large, light hay-basket' sufficient evidence for the etymological identity of the Germanic and the Balto-Slavic forms. MoIr. moais `bag, hamper', moaiseog `wicker basket' is doubtless a borrowing from Germanic.
Other cognates: Skt. mes•aґ- `ram' [m]; OIc. meiss `basket' [m]; OHG meisa `pannier' [m]
Notes: {1} The plural noun mexiґ means `fur bag, wine-skin'. {2} Friedrich Kurschat's dictionary (1883) mentions the more specific meaning `ein aus Schnµren gestricktes Heunetz'.
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°lъ; mĕ°lъkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `small, little'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 168-170
Church Slavic: mĕlъkъ `small, thin' [adj. o]
Russian: melyj (dial.) `small, little' [adj. o]; #Ru. meґlkij `small, little' [adj. o]
Czech: mĕlyґ (Kott) `small, little' [adj. o]; #Cz. mĕlkyґ `small, shallow' [adj. o]
Polish: mieљy (obs.) `small, little' [adj. o]; #Pl. miaљki `small, refined [adj. o]
Polabian: mґoleў `small, little' [Nompm o]
Serbo-Croatian: me?ok `small, shallow' [adj. o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh1-lo-
Page in Pokorny: 724
COMM: See *ma°lъ.
Other cognates: Gk. mh~lon `small cattle, goat, sheep' [n] {1}; OIr. miґl `(small) `animal'; Go. smals `small, insignificant' [m]; OIc. smali `small (live) `stock, sheep' [m] {2}
Notes: {1} The Doric form also has h.
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕlь; mĕlъ
GRAM: f. i; m. o
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 162-168
Old Church Slavic: mĕla (Supr.) `lime' [Gensm o]
Russian: mel' `sand-bank, shoal' [f i]; #Ru. mel `chalk' [m o]
Czech: mĕl (SSJC№) `spit' [f i]; #Cz. mĕl (Jungmann) `pebble, dust, shoal' [f i]; #Cz. mĕl (Kott) `loose earth, powder, pebble' [f i]
Old Czech:: mĕl `shoal, sand-bank, fodder' [m i]
Polish: miaљ, mieљ (dial.) `dust, chalk, muddy water, fine powder' [m o]
Old Polish: miel `sand-bank' [f i]; #OPl. miaљ `finely ground substance' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: me~lj (C№ak.), me°lja [Gens] `fine sand' [m jo]; #SCr. meґl (C№ak.), me°la [Gens] `dust, powder' [m o]
Slovene: me•?lj `sand-bank' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *(s)mЊl-i-
Lithuanian: sme†~lis `sand' [m io] 2 {1}
Latvian: smЊlis `fine sand' [m io] {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *mЊlH-i-
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 717
COMM: The Baltic and Slavic forms are formally compatible with the root melH- `to grind', the Baltic word showing s mobile . The lengthened grade vowel points to an old root noun. Semantically, this etymology does not seem implausible to me (pace Stang (l.c.), who, by the way, does not mention any Baltic forms).
Other cognates: OIc. melr (dial.) `sand-bank' [m]; Sw. mjaІg (dial.) `sand-hill, high riverbank' [m]; Sw. smula `chunk' [m]; Nw. smola (dial.) `smash' [verb]; Nw. smol (dial.) `dust' [m] {3} {4}
Notes: {1} Also Standard Lithuanian is sme†ly~s 4. {2} Judging by the Lithuanian evidence, the zero grade of the root was originally acute: smiltis 1/3/4 (LKZ№) `fine sand, gritty earth'. The only non-ambiguous Latvian forms in ME are smi°lts and smi°ltis `sand', however. The most plausible option is that the Latvian falling tone is secondary (cf. Derksen 1996: 147). {3} The Scandinavian forms with sm- could derive from the root melH- `grind' preceded by s mobile. OIc. melr and Sw. (dial.) mjaІg < *mjalg are mentioned by Stang in connection with Ru. mel' etc. (1972: 36). According to Stang, these words point to *melha- /melga. Therefore the possible etymological relationship with the Slavic forms is limited to the root.
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `change, exchange'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 171-172
Old Church Slavic: mĕna (Supr.) `exchange' [f ѓ]
Russian: meґna `exchange' [adj o]
Czech: mĕna `exchange, change' [f ѓ]
Polish: miana `change' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mije°na `exchange, change, new moon, metamorphosis' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. m–na? (Vrgada) `phase of the moon' [f ѓ]
Slovene: me•ґna `exchange, change, phase of the moon' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moinaЂ
Lithuanian: mai~nas `exchange' [m o]
Latvian: mai~na `exchange' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moi-
Other cognates: OHG mein `false, deceitful' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕniti I
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `change, exchange'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 173-174
Old Church Slavic: mĕnitъ (Supr.) `changes' [verb]
Russian: meniґt' (dial.) `change, exchange' [verb]
Czech: mĕniti `exchange, change' [verb]
Slovak: menit' sa `exchange, change' [verb]
Polish: mienicґ się `change colour' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mije°niti `change' [verb]
Slovene: me•niґti `change, exchange' [verb], meniґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: menjaґ `change, exchange' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moiniЂtei
Lithuanian: mainyґti `exchange' [verb], mai~no [3sg]
Latvian: mai~ni^t `exchange' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moi-
Other cognates: Skt. maґyate `exchange, change' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕniti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `think'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 174-175
Old Church Slavic: mĕniti `suppose, think, reckon, mention' [verb], mĕnjǫ [1sg]
Old Russian:: mĕniti `think, suppose, mention, mean, symbolize' [verb]
Czech: miґniti `think, suppose, intend' [verb]
Slovak: mienit' `intend, plan' [verb]
Polish: mienicґ `think, suppose' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mijeniti `think, say, remember' [verb]
Slovene: me•ґniti `think, suppose' [verb], me•ґnim [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moi-n-
Other cognates: OHG meinen `mean' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°ra
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `measure'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 178-181
Old Church Slavic: mĕra `measure' [f ѓ]
Russian: meґra `measure' [f ѓ]
Czech: miґra `size, measure, limit' [f ѓ]
Slovak: miera `size, measure, limit' [f ѓ]
Polish: miara `measure' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: mĕra `measure' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mje?ra `measure, weight' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?ra (Vrgada) `measure, 100 liters' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. me?ra (Orbanicґi) `measure, size' [f ѓ]
Slovene: męґra `measure, size' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh1-r-
Page in Pokorny: 704
Other cognates: Gk. mhtij `plan, ruse' [f]; OE mѓЊ‹ `measure' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°riti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `measure'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 183-185
Old Church Slavic: mĕriti `measure' [verb], mĕrjǫ [1sg]
Russian: meґra `measure' [f ѓ]
Czech: mĕr№iti `measure, judge' [verb]; #Cz. miґr№iti `aim at, try' [verb]
Slovak: mierit' `aim at, compare' [verb]
Polish: mierzycґ `measure, judge, aim at' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mje?riti `measure, weigh' [verb], mje?r–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?riti (Vrgada) `measure, weigh' [verb], mi?r–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. me?riti (Orbanicґi) `measure, weigh' [verb], me?riš [2sg]
Slovene: męґriti `measure, compare, aim at' [verb], mę?rim [1sg]
Bulgarian: meґrja `measure, weigh, aim at' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh1-r-
Page in Pokorny: 704
Other cognates: Skt. miґmѓti `measure, assign'; Lat. mЊt–r– `measure' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°sęcь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `moon, month'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 191-195
Old Church Slavic: mĕsęcь `moon, month' [m jo]
Russian: meґsjac' `month' [m jo]
Czech: mĕsiґc `month, moon' [m jo]
Slovak: mesiac `month' [m jo]
Polish: miesia§c `month' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: mje?sЊc `month, moon' [m jo], mje?sЊca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?sЊc (Vrgada, Novi) `month, moon' [m jo], mi?sЊca [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. me?sec (Novi) `moon, month' [m jo], me?seca [Gens]
Slovene: me•?sec `month, moon' [m jo], me•?seca [Gens], me•?sca [Gens]
Bulgarian: meґsec `month, moon' [m jo]
Lithuanian: me†ґnuo `moon, month' [m s] 1, me†ґnesio [Gens]
Latvian: me~ness `moon' [m i]
Old Prussian: menig (EV) `moon'
Indo-European reconstruction: *meh1ns-(e)n-ko-
Page in Pokorny: 731
Other cognates: Skt. mѓґs `moon, month' [m]; Gk. me…j (Ion.) `moon', mhnТj [Gens]; Lat. mЊnsis `month'; Go. mena `moon' [f]; OHG mѓno `moon' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕ°sto
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `place'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 203-206
Old Church Slavic: mĕsto `place' [n o]
Russian: meґsto `town' [n o]
Czech: mĕsto `town' [n o]; #Cz. miґsto `place, space' [n o]
Slovak: miesto `place, town' [n o]
Polish: miasto `town, city' [n o]
Upper Sorbian: mĕsto `city, place' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: mje?sto `place, town, city' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?sto (Vrgada) `place, town, city' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. me?sto (Novi) `place, town, city' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. me?sto (Orbanicґi) `place, spot, room, space' [n o]
Slovene: me•ґsto• `place, town, city, square' [n o]
Bulgarian: mjaґsto `place' [n o]
Proto-Slavic form: *mĕЇzga°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `sap'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 23-25
Russian: mezgaґ (dial.) `sap-wood, pulp, membrane, remnants of meat on the inside of a hide' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: mĕzga `sap, sap-wood, resin' [f ѓ]; #ORu. mjazga `sap-wood, resin' [f ѓ]
Czech: miґza `sap' [f ѓ]; #Cz. mizga (Mor. dial.) `sap' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: miezha `sap' [f ѓ]; #OCz. miezka `sap' [f ѓ]
Slovak: miazga `sap' [f ѓ]
Polish: miazga `mass, mash, pulp' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: mjaІґuzgaў `sap' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: mĕza `sap' [f ѓ]
Lower Sorbian: mĕzga `sap' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: meґzga `sap' [f ѓ]; #SCr. meґzgra `sap' [f ѓ]
Slovene: me•ґzga `sap' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: maўzgaґ `sap' [f ѓ]
COMM: Obviously, some forms have been influenced semantically and/or formally by -> *męzdra. The original meaning of the etymon seems to be `sap of (trees)' rather than `sap-wood'. The connection with MoHG Maische , MHG meisch, OE mѓx-wyrt `mash (in a brewery)' is not unattractive, but becomes less plausible if the Germanic word derives from OHG miscen, OE miscian `mix'. The ESSJa suggests that the root is *h3meigґh- (-> mižati II, etc.) and adduces Sln. mЌze•ґti `trickle', me•ґžiti se `begin to contain sap'. The seemingly obvious semantic link may be secondary, however.
Proto-Slavic form: *migati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `blink'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 26-28
Russian: migaґt' `wink, blink, twinkle' [verb]
Czech: miґhati `shimmer, loom' [verb]
Slovak: migaґtґ `move quickly, blink' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?gati `blink, twinkle, move' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?gati (Vrgada) `wink' [verb]; #SCr. mi?gati `blink, twinkle, move' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?ga (Orbanicґi) `flash (of lightning)' [3sg]
Slovene: miґgati `blink, wink, twinkle, swarm (with)' [verb], mi?gam [1sg]
Bulgarian: miґgam `blink, wink, flicker' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *meig-
Lithuanian: miegoґti `sleep' [verb]
Old Prussian: meicte `sleep' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
Proto-Slavic form: *mi?gъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `blink, moment'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 30-31
Russian: mig `blink, moment' [m o], miґga [Gens]
Czech: mih `wink, twinkle, moment' [m o]
Slovak: mih `wink, twinkle, moment' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?g `moment, gesture' [m o], mi?ga [Gens]
Slovene: mi?g `moment, wink' [m o]
Bulgarian: mi?g `moment' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-
Lithuanian: mie~gas `sleep' [m o] 4
Latvian: mi°egs `sleep' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
Other cognates: Skt. meghaґ- (RV) `cloud, gloomy weather' [m] {1}
Notes: {1} For a discussion about the relationship between this root and the root of *h3migh-leh2 see s.v. *mьgla° .
Proto-Slavic form: *mijati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pass'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 31
Czech: miґjeti `pass' [verb]
Old Czech:: miґjĕti `pass' [verb]
Polish: mijacґ `pass' [verb]
Slovincian: mji~jaўc `pass' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mei-
Page in Pokorny: 710
Other cognates: Lat. meѓre `go, pass' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mikati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIX 31-32
Russian: miґkat' (dial.) `stuff (a bag)' [verb]
Czech: mikati `move abruptly' [verb]
Slovak: mikat' `move abruptly, wave' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: mikacґ `blink' [verb]
Lower Sorbian: mikasґ `blink, wink, twinkle' [verb]
Slovene: mi?kati `make jerky movements, pluck, bite, hackle' [verb], mi?kam [1sg], mi?čem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meik-
Page in Pokorny: 712
Other cognates: Lat. micѓre `tremble, move quickly, sparkle' [verb]
Notes: {1} Cf. migati etc.
Proto-Slavic form: *mi°lъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `sweet, dear'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 46-48
Old Church Slavic: milъ `pitiable' [adj o]
Russian: miґlyj `sweet, dear' [adj o]
Czech: milyґ `sweet, dear' [adj o]
Slovak: milyґ `sweet, dear' [adj o]
Polish: miљy `sweet, dear' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?o `sweet, dear, sympathetic' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?l– (Vrgada) `dear' [adj o]; #SCr. mi?o `sweet, dear, sympathetic' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?l– (Vrgada) `dear' [adj o]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?li (Orbanicґi) `dear' [adj o] {1}
Slovene: mi?љ `sympathetic, kind' [adj o], miґla [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: mil `sweet, dear' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *m(e)iЂlos
Lithuanian: mieґlas `nice, sweet, dear' [adj o] 3; #Lith. myґlas (Z№em.) `nice, sweet, dear' [adj o]
Latvian: mi~l§š `nice, sweet, dear' [adj jo]
Old Prussian: mijls `sweet, dear' [adj]
Indo-European reconstruction: *m(e)iH-lo-
Page in Pokorny: 711
Other cognates: Lat. m–tis `soft (of taste)' [adj]
Notes: {1} Only in religious contexts.
Proto-Slavic form: *mimo
GRAM: ad./prep.
PSLMEAN: `by, past'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 50
Old Church Slavic: mimo `by, past' [adv]
Russian: miґmo `by, past' [adv/prep]
Czech: mimo `by, past, besides, despite' [prep]; #Cz. miґmo `by, past, besides, despite' [adv/prep]
Slovak: mimo `besides, notwithstanding' [adv/prep]
Polish: mimo `despite, past by' [adv/prep]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?mo `by, past, besides, through' [adv/prep]
Slovene: mi?mo• `by, past, besides' [adv/prep]; #Sln. mimo•° `by, past, besides' [adv/prep]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mei-
Page in Pokorny: 710
Other cognates: Lat. meѓre `go, pass' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *minovati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pass'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 51-52
Old Church Slavic: minovati (Supr.) `pass' [verb], minujǫ [1sg]
Russian: minovaґt' `pass' [verb], minuґju [1sg]
Czech: minovati `pass' [verb]
Polish: minowacґ `pass' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mino°vati `pass' [verb]
Slovene: minovaґti `pass' [verb], minu?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: minaґvam `pass' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mei-
Page in Pokorny: 710
Other cognates: Lat. meѓre `go, pass' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *minǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pass'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 52-53
Old Church Slavic: minǫti `pass' [verb], minǫ [1sg]
Russian: minuґt' `pass' [verb]
Czech: minouti `pass' [verb]
Slovak: minuґt' `pass' [verb]
Polish: mina§cґ `pass' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: miґnuti `pass' [verb]
Slovene: miniґti `pass' [verb], miґnem [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mei-
Page in Pokorny: 710
Other cognates: Lat. meѓre `go, pass' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mirъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `peace, world'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 55-57
Old Church Slavic: mirъ `peace, world' [m o]
Russian: mir `peace, world' [m o]
Czech: miґr `peace, world' [m o]
Slovak: mier `peace' [m o]
Polish: mir `peace' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?r `peace, world' [m o], miґra [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?r (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `peace' [m o], mi?ra [Gens]
Slovene: mir `peace' [m o/u], mi?ra [Gens], miru? [Gens]
Bulgarian: mir `peace, (obs.) world' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *meiЂroґ-
Lithuanian: mieras (OLith.) `peace' [m o]
Latvian: mie^rs `peace' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meiH-ro-
Other cognates: Lat. m–tis `soft (of taste)' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mitĕ
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `in turn, alternately'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 59
Old Church Slavic: mitĕ (Supr.) `in turn, alternately' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: miґcґe (dial.) `in turn, alternately' [adv]
Bulgarian: mitoґ (dial.) `irregularly' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meith2-
Page in Pokorny: 715
Other cognates: Skt. mithaґs (RV+) `mutually, alternately' [adv]; Lat. mіtuus `mutual' [adj]; Go. misso `alternately' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *mitusь
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `opposite one another, criss-cross'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 60-61
Church Slavic: mitusь (RuCS) `opposite one another, criss-cross' [adv]
Old Russian:: mitusь `opposite one another, criss-cross' [adv]
Ukrainian: myґtus' `with their heads in opposite directions' [adv]; #Ukr. mytuґs' (dial.) `inopportunely' [adv]
Polish: mitusґ (dial.) `across, criss-cross, the other way round' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meith2-u-
Page in Pokorny: 715
Other cognates: Skt. mithunaґ `paired' [adj]; Av. mi±wana- `paired' [adj]; Av. mi±wara- `paired' [adj]; Lat. mіtuus `mutual' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mitva
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XIX 61
Czech: mitvy (dial.) `in turn, alternately' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *meith2-u-
Page in Pokorny: 715
Other cognates: Skt. mithunaґ `paired' [adj]; Av. mi±wana- `paired' [adj]; Av. mi±wara- `paired' [adj]; Lat. mіtuus `mutual' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mižati; mьzĕti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XIX 63; XXI 179
Serbo-Croatian: mi°žati `urinate' [verb] {1}
Slovene: mЌze•ґti `flow, trickle, drip' [verb], mЌziґm [1sg]; #Sln. mze•ґti `flow, trickle, drip' [verb], mziґm [1sg]
Lithuanian: my~žti `urinate' [verb]
Latvian: mi°zt `urinate' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigґh-
IE meaning: urinate
Page in Pokorny: 713
Other cognates: Gk. Сme…^Гq† `urinate' [verb]
Notes: {1} In view of *mьžati `drizzle' etc., I do not agree with TrubačeЁv that Bel. mižaґc' `drizzle' doubtless belongs here.
Proto-Slavic form: *mlinъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `pancake'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 67-68
Church Slavic: mlinъ `placenta' [m o]; #CS mlinъ (RuCS) `pancake' [m o]
Russian: blin `pancake' [m o]
Old Russian:: mlinъ `pancake' [m o]
Ukrainian: mlin `pancake' [m o]
Lower Sorbian: mlin (dial.) `pancake' [m o]
Bulgarian: mlin `pastry' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mlH-
Page in Pokorny: 716
Proto-Slavic form: *moči°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wet'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 144
Old Church Slavic: močiti (Zogr., Mar., Supr.) `wet' [verb]
Russian: močiґt' `urinate, wet, moisten' [verb], močuґ [1sg], moґčit [3sg]
Czech: močiti `urinate, wet, moisten' [verb]
Slovak: močit' `urinate, wet, moisten' [verb]
Polish: moczycґ `wet, moisten' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°čiti `wet, soak' [verb], mo°č–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. moči?ti (Vrgada) `wet, soak' [verb], mo?č–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. moči?t (Orbanicґi) `wet, soak' [verb], mo?či [3sg]
Slovene: moґčiti `wet, moisten, be moist, urinate' [verb], mǫґčim [1sg]; #Sln. močiґti `urinate' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *modla
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `idol'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 85-86
Czech: modla `idol' [f ѓ]; #Cz. modla (Kott) `sculpture, statue, temple' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: modla `idol' [f ѓ]
Slovak: modla `idol' [f ѓ]
Polish: modљa `sacrifice (obs.), prayer, idol' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moldaЂ
Lithuanian: malda° `prayer' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: maddla `prayer' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moldh-(l?)-
Other cognates: Hitt. ma-al-ta-i/ma-al-di `pray' [verb]; OS meldЎn `report, tell' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *modliti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `pray'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 87-92
Old Church Slavic: moliti `ask, pray' [verb], moljǫ [1sg]
Russian: moliґt' `pray, beseech' [verb], moljuґ [1sg], moґlit [3sg]
Czech: modliti se `pray' [verb]
Slovak: modlit' sa `pray' [verb]
Polish: modlicґ `pray' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°liti `pray, ask' [verb], mo?l–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. moli?ti (Vrgada) `pray, ask' [verb], mo?l–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. moli?t (Orbanicґi) `pray, beg' [verb], mo?lin [1sg]
Slovene: modliti (OSln., dial.) `pray' [verb]; #Sln. moґliti `pray (for), wish' [verb], mǫґlim [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moldiЂtei
Lithuanian: mel~sti `ask, implore, pray' [verb], mel~džia [3sg]; #Lith. maldyґti `implore' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moldh-(l?)-
Other cognates: Hitt. ma-al-ta-i/ma-al-di `pray' [verb]; OS meldЎn `report, tell' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *modrъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XIX, 101-104
Church Slavic: modrъ `blue' [adj o]
Czech: modryґ `blue' [adj o]
Slovak: modryґ `blue' [adj o]
Polish: modry `blue' [adj o]
Slovincian: modriЁґ `blue' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: moґdry `blue' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?dar `blue' [adj o], mo?dra [Nomsf], mo?dro [Nomsn]; #SCr. mo°dar (Croat.) `blue' [adj o], mo°dra [Nomsf], mo°dro [Nomsn]
Slovene: mǫґdЌr `blue' [adj o], moґdra [Nomsf]
COMM: Machek (1949) has connected *modrъ with Hitt. antara- `blue', which requires that the latter etymon has an < *am-. In view of Winter's law, we would have to reconstruct *modhro- for Slavic and a zero grade *mdhro- for Hittite.
Proto-Slavic form: *mo?r§e
GRAM: n. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `sea'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 227-230
Old Church Slavic: morje `sea' [n jo]
Russian: moґre `sea' [n jo], morjaґ [Nomp]
Czech: mor№e `sea' [n jo]
Slovak: more `sea' [n jo]
Polish: morze `sea' [n jo]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?re `sea' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. (Vrgada) mo?re `sea' [n o]; #SCr. C№ak. (Orbanicґi) muo?re `sea' [n o]
Slovene: morję? `sea' [n jo]; #Sln. mo•?rje `sea' [n jo]
Bulgarian: moreґ `sea' [n nt]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *morio; moriaЂ
Lithuanian: ma~rios `sea, isthmus' [Nompf jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mor-i-
Other cognates: Lat. mare `sea' [n]; OIr. muir `sea' [n]; Go. marei `sea' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mogti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `be able'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 107-111
Old Church Slavic: mošti `be able' [verb], mogǫ [1sg], možetъ [3sg]
Russian: moč' `be able' [verb], moguґ [1sg], moґžet [3sg]
Czech: moci `be able' [verb], mohu [1sg], muІže [3sg]
Slovak: mo^ct' `be able' [verb], mo^žem [1sg]
Polish: moґc `be able' [verb], mogę [1sg], moz†e [3sg]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°cґi `be able' [verb], mo°gu [1sg], mo?žЊ [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?cґi (Vrgada) `be able' [verb], mo?gu [1sg], mo?že [3sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?cґ (Orbanicґi) `can, be able (to), be allowed (to)' [verb], mo?ren [1sg]
Slovene: moґči `be able, must' [verb], mǫґrem [1sg], moґrem [1sg]
Bulgarian: moґga `be able, be allowed' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mog-
Lithuanian: mage†ґti `please, interest' {1} [verb], ma~ga [3sg]
Old Prussian: massi `be able {2}
Indo-European reconstruction: *mogh-
IE meaning: be able, capable
Page in Pokorny: 695
COMM: The generally accepted apophonic relationship between Slavic *mogti, Lith. mage†ґti etc. on the one hand and me†ґgti `love, like', Latv. me^gt `be able, be accustomed to' on the other cannot be maintained if one adheres to the view that the lengthened grade yielded a Balto-Slavic circumflex. The acute of the latter verbs may be due to Winter's law (*h1megґ- if cognate with Gk. perihmektљw `be aggrieved, chafe'). The o-vocalism of mage†ґti and the Slavic and the Germanic forms points to an old perfect. For the semantic development `to be able' -> `to like', cf. Go. mag vs. MoHG mŽgen. As Pokorny remarks himself, his reconstruction *magh-, mѓgh- is entirely based on the presumed connection of the aforementioned forms with Gk. mhcav» `means, instrument', mh~coj `instrument, apparatus', Dor. maЇcaЇna, ma~coj, which was rejected by Endzel–ns (1931: 183), Fraenkel (1951, 168), Stang (1972, 37) a.o. for various reasons (cf. ESSJa X: 110) but nevertheless reappears in Lehmann 1986 (239).
Other cognates: Skt. maghaґ- `power, wealth, gift' [m]; Go. mag `have power, be able' [3sg]; OIc. mega `be able' [verb], maґ [3sg]; OHG magan, mugan `be able' [verb]
Notes: {1} The verb usually occurs in impersonal constructions. {2} The scholarly community is divided with respect to the question whether massi is a borrowing from Slavic (viz. Polish moz†e) or a genuine PRussian: form (see Mažiulis III: 114 for the relevant literature).
Proto-Slavic form: *mogtь
GRAM: f. i
PSLMEAN: `power'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 111-113
Old Church Slavic: moštь (Euch., Supr.) `power' [f i]
Russian: moč' `power, might' [f i]
Czech: moc `ability, influence, power' [f i]
Slovak: moc `ability, influence, power' [f i]
Polish: moc `power, strength' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?cґ `power' [f i]; #SCr. C№ak. muo?cґ `power, strength' [f i]
Slovene: mo•?č `power, strength' [f i], moči? [Gens]
Bulgarian: mošt `power, strength' [f i]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mogh-ti-
Page in Pokorny: 695
Other cognates: Skt. maghaґ- `power, wealth, gift' [m]; Go. mahts `power, might' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mo?rkъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `darkness'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 234-236
Old Church Slavic: mrakъ `darkness' [m o]
Russian: moґrok (dial.) `darkness, cloud, fog' [m o]
Czech: mrak `darkness, twilight, cloud' [m o]
Slovak: mrak `big (dark) cloud, twilight, crowd' [m o]
Polish: mrok `twilight, shadow, darkness' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mra?k `darkness' [m o], mra?ka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mraІЇk (Vrgada) `darkness' [m o], mraІЇka [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mra?k (Novi) `darkness' [m o]
Slovene: mra?k `twilight' [m o/u], mra?ka [Gens], mraku? [Gens]
Bulgarian: mrak `darkness' [m o]
Lithuanian: meґrkti `close one's eyes' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *morHk-oґ-
Other cognates: Go. maurgins `morning' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mo?stъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `bridge'
Page in Trubačev: XX 30-35
Old Church Slavic: mostъ (Supr.) `bridge' [m o]
Russian: most `bridge' [m o], moґsta [Gens], mostaґ [Gens] {1}
Czech: most `bridge' [m o]
Slovak: most `bridge' [m o]
Polish: most `bridge' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: moґst `bridge' [m o], mosta [Gens], mostu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?st `bridge' [m o], mo?sta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?st (Vrgada) `bridge' [m o], mo?sta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?st (Novi) `bridge' [m o], mo?sta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. muo?s (Orbanicґi) `bridge' [m o], mo?sta [Gens]
Slovene: mo•?st `bridge' [m o/u], mo•?sta [Gens], mosta? [Gens], mostu? [Gens]
Bulgarian: most `bridge' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *masd-to-??
Other cognates: Lat. mѓlus `mast, pole' [m]; OHG mast `mast' [m]
Notes: {1} AP (c) in Old Russian:: (see Zaliznjak 1985: 137)
Proto-Slavic form: *mo?zgъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `marrow, brain'
Page in Trubačev: XX 94-97
Church Slavic: mozgъ `marrow' [m o]
Russian: mozg `brain, marrow' [m o]
Czech: mozek `brain' [m o]
Old Czech:: mozk `brain, marrow' [m o]
Slovak: mozog `brain' [m o]
Polish: moґzg `brain' [m o], moґzgu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?zak `brain, (Dubr.) marrow' [m o], mo?zga [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?zak (Vrgada) `brain' [m o], mo?ska [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?zak (Orbanicґi) `brain' [m o], mo?zgi [Nomp]
Slovene: mo•?zg `marrow, (pl.) brain' [m o]; #Sln. mo•?zЌg `marrow, (pl.) brain' [m o]; #Sln. mo•?zЌk `marrow, (pl.) brain' [m o]
Bulgarian: moґzaўk `brain' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mozg-
Lithuanian: sme~genys `brain' [Nompm io]
Old Prussian: musgeno `marrow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *msgh-o-
Page in Pokorny: 750
Other cognates: Skt. majjaґn- (RV+) `marrow' [m]; OIc. mergr `marrow' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mojь
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `my'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 126-128
Old Church Slavic: moi `my' [prn], moja [Nomsf], moje [Nomsn]
Russian: moj `my' [prn], mojaґ [Nomsf], moeЁ [Nomsn]
Czech: mu•j `my' [prn]
Slovak: mo^j `my' [prn]
Polish: moґj `my' [prn]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?j `my' [prn], mo°ja [Nomsf], mo°je [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. mo~j `my' [prn], moja? [Nomsf], moje? [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. muo~j `my' [prn], moja? [Nomsf], moje? [Nomsn]
Slovene: mo•ґj `my' [prn]
Bulgarian: moj `my' [prn]
Old Prussian: mais `my' [prn], maia [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h1mo-io-
Other cognates: Lat. meus `my' [pron]
Proto-Slavic form: *mokrъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b?
PSLMEAN: `wet, damp'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 144
Old Church Slavic: mokrъi (Supr.) `wet' [adj o]
Russian: moґkryj `wet, damp' [adj o]; #Ru. mokr `wet, damp' [adj o], mokraґ [Nomsf], moґkro [Nomsn] {1}
Czech: mokryґ `wet, damp' [adj o]
Slovak: mokryґ `wet, damp' [adj o]
Polish: mokry `wet, damp' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?kar `wet, damp' [adj o], mo?kra [Nomsf]; #SCr. mo°kar `wet, damp' [adj o], mo°kra [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?kar (Vrgada) `wet, damp' [adj o], mokra? [Nomsf], mo?kro [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?kar (Orbanicґi) `wet' [adj o], mo?kra [Nomsf], mo?kro [Nomsn]
Slovene: mǫґkЌr `wet, damp' [adj o], moґkra [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: moґkaўr `wet' [adj o]
Lithuanian: mako~ne† `mud' [f Њ]
Other cognates: Arm. mЎr `mud'
Notes: {1} AP (b) in Old Russian:: (Zaliznjak 1985: 136).
Proto-Slavic form: *moldenьcь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `infant, child, youth'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 151-153
Old Church Slavic: mladenьcь `infant' [m jo]; #OCS mladĕnьcь `infant' [m jo]; #OCS mladьnьcь `infant' [m jo] {1}
Russian: mladeґnec `infant' [m jo]
Czech: mlaґdenec (arch., dial.) `child, youth, adolescent' [m jo]
Slovak: mlaґdenec `youth, unmarried young man' [m jo]
Polish: mљodzieniec `youth' [m jo]
Serbo-Croatian: mla?djenac `infant, child, youth' [m jo]
Slovene: mladęґnЌc `youth' [m jo]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maldenikos
Old Prussian: maldenikis `child'
Indo-European reconstruction: *mold-
Page in Pokorny: 718
Other cognates: Skt. mrёduґ- `soft, tender' [adj]; Lat. mollis `soft' [adj]
Notes: {1} The variant mladьnьcь may have adopted the first jer from mladьnъ, which in OCS is limited to Supr.
Proto-Slavic form: *moldъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `young'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 174-179
Old Church Slavic: mladъ `young' [adj o]
Russian: molodoґj `young' [adj o]
Czech: mladyґ `young' [adj o]
Slovak: mladyґ `young' [adj o]
Polish: mљody `young' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mla?d `young' [adj o], mlaґda [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mlaІ?d (Vrgada) `young' [adj o], mlaІЇda? [Nomsf], mlaІ?do [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. mla?t (Orbanicґi) `young' [adj o], mlѓda? [Nomsf], mla~da [Nomsf], mla?do [Nomsn]
Slovene: mla?d `young' [adj o], mlaґda [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: mlad `young' [adj o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moldos
Old Prussian: maldai `boy' [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mold-o-
Page in Pokorny: 718
Other cognates: Skt. mrёduґ- `soft, tender' [adj]; Lat. mollis `soft' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *moldьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `young'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 184-185
Old Church Slavic: mladьnъ (Supr.) `children's' [adj o]
Old Czech:: mladnyґ `young' [adj o]
Upper Sorbian: mљoґdny `young, fresh, blooming' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mla?dan (RSA) `young, youthful' [adj o]; #SCr. mla°dan (RSA) `young, youthful' [adj o]
Slovene: mlaґdЌn `soft' [adj o], mlaґdna [Nomsf]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moldos
Old Prussian: maldai `boy' [Nomp]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mold-o-
Page in Pokorny: 718
Other cognates: Skt. mrёduґ- `soft, tender' [adj]; Lat. mollis `soft' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *molti°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: b
Page in Trubačev: XIX 192-194
Old Church Slavic: `beat, thresh'
Church Slavic: mlatiti `beat' [verb]
Russian: molotiґt' `thresh' [verb], moločuґ [1sg], moloґtit [3sg]
Czech: mlaґtiti `thresh, beat' [verb]
Slovak: mlaґtit' `thresh, beat' [verb]
Polish: mљoґcicґ `thresh' [verb]
Upper Sorbian: mљoґcicґ `thresh' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mlaґtiti `thresh, beat' [verb], mla?t–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mlaІЇti?ti (Vrgada) `thresh, beat' [verb], mlaІ~t–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mlѓti?t (Orbanicґi) `thresh, beat' [verb], mla~ti [3sg]
Slovene: mlaґtiti `thresh' [verb], mlaґtim [1sg]
Bulgarian: mlaґtja `beat' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *molH-
IE meaning: grind
Page in Pokorny: 716ff
Other cognates: Lat. malleus `hammer' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *moltъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `hammer'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 197-199
Old Church Slavic: mlatъ (Supr.) `hammer' [m o]
Russian: moґlot `hammer' [m o]
Czech: mlat `hammer' [m o]
Slovak: mlat `(big) hammer' [m o]
Polish: mљot `hammer' [m o]; #Pl. mљoґt (obs.) `hammer' [m o]
Slovincian: mlu°oёt `sledgehammer' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: mљoґt `hammer' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mla?t `big hammer, flail' [m o], mla?ta [Gens]; #SCr. mlaґt (Pos.) `hammer(?)' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. mlaІЇt (Vrgada) `big hammer, flail' [m o], mlaІЇta [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mla?t (Novi) `big hammer, flail' [m o], mla?ta [Gens]
Slovene: mla?t `hammer' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *molH-to-
IE meaning: grind
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 716ff
COMM: Traces of AP (b) are sparse in this etymon. Nikolaev (1989: 54, 89) mentions mљoґt, Gsg. mљoґta in a archaic dialect of Upper Sorbian, mlaґt, Isg. mlaґtom in a grammar of a Posavian variant of Serbo-Croatian:, and a number of end-stressed froms from BeloRussian: and NW Russian: dialects. Since there are no neuter variants (cf. -> *koґltъ, where the evidence for AP (b) is much stronger), we might posit an original masculine o-stem, which become mobile as a result of Illič-Svityč's law. In that case the accentuation of molti°ti could simply reflect the original state of affairs.
Other cognates: Lat. malleus `hammer' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *molь
GRAM: m. jo
PSLMEAN: `moth'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 263-265
Church Slavic: molь `moth' [m jo]; #CS mol§ь `moth' [m jo]
Russian: mol' `moth' [f i]
Czech: mol `moth, scab' [m o]
Slovak: mol' `moth' [m jo]
Polish: moґl `moth' [m jo], mola [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?lj `moth' [m o], mo°lja [Gens]
Slovene: mo°lj `moth' [m o], moґlja [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *molH-o-
Page in Pokorny: 716
Other cognates: Go. malo `moth' [n]; OIc. mǫlr `moth' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *monisto
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `necklace'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 209-211
Old Church Slavic: monisto (Euch.) `necklace' [n o]
Russian: moniґsto `necklace' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: monisto (eccl.) `necklace' [n o]
Bulgarian: maniґsto `necklace, beads' [n o]
IE meaning: monH-
Page in Pokorny: 747
Other cognates: Skt. man•iґ- (RV+) `necklace' [n]; Lat. mon–le `necklace' [n]; OHG menni `necklace' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *mora°
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `nightly spirit, nightmare'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 211-214
Church Slavic: mora (SerbCS) `sorceress' [f ѓ]
Russian: moґra (dial.) `mythological female creature, ghost, darkness' [m/f ѓ] {1}
Ukrainian: moґra (dial.) `nightmare, house-spirit' [f ѓ]
Czech: muІra {4} `nightmare, mythological creature that suffocates people in their sleep, moth' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mora, mura `demonical mythological creature that torments people in their sleep' [f ѓ]
Polish: mora (dial.) `nightly spirit that attacks people and horses in their sleep, nightly apparition, nightmare' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: mu°ora (dial.) `nightmare, its female personification' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°ra `nightmare' [f ѓ] {2}; #SCr. C№ak. Mora? (Orbanicґi) `[personified] nightmare, female phantom (appears early in the morning, walks with the sound of a cat tripping; #SCr. makes a habit of sitting on people's throats and nearly suffocating them' [f ѓ]
Slovene: moґra `nightmare, owl' [f ѓ] {3}
Bulgarian: moraґ `nightmare' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mor-eh2
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 735-736
COMM: The image of a (female) ghost who induces nightmares is apparently common to Slavic, Germanic and, possibly, Celtic. The root of this creature's name is unclear. Pokorny assumes a connection with *mer- `aufreiben, reiben; packen, rauben', which is not entirely convincing. For a discussion of the relationship between *mora and *mara, see s.v. *mara .
Other cognates: OIc. mara `nightmare' [f]; OE mare `nightmare' [f]; OIr. mor-riґgain `goddess of the battlefield, female demon' [f] {5}
Notes: {1} The noun also occurs in Ru. kikiґmora m/f `house-sprite that spins at night'. {2} The folkloristic belief that the mora is an evil female creature (witch, sorceress) is mentioned in Karadžicґ's dictionary (cf. the form from Orbanicґi). {3} There is a variant mo?ra `nightmare, house-spirit, creature that at night suffocates people in their sleep and harms animals' (Slovar slovenskega jezika II: 238. {4} In dialects, we find a variant mora .
Proto-Slavic form: *morky
GRAM: f. і
Page in Trubačev: XIX 234
Ukrainian: morokvaґ (dial.) `quagmire, swamp' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: mer~kti `wet, moisten (flax, linen)' [verb]
Latvian: mЊ°rkt `wet, moisten, strike' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mork-
Other cognates: Gaul. mercasius `swamp' [m]; MHG meren `dip bread into water or wine' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *morvi
GRAM: f. –
PSLMEAN: `ant'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 246-249
Church Slavic: mravii `ant' [f iѓ]
Russian: muraveґj `ant' [m io], murav'jaґ [Gens]
Old Russian:: morovej `ant' [m io]; #ORu. moravej `ant' [m io]; #ORu. muravej `ant' [m io]
Ukrainian: muravyґj `ant' [m io]
Polish: mroґwka `ant' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mra?v `ant' [m o], mra?va [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mraІЇv `ant' [m o], mraІЇva [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mra?v (Novi) `ant' [m o]
Slovene: mra?v `ant' [f i]; #Sln. mra?v `ant' [m o]; #Sln. mraґvlja `ant' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: mraґvka `ant' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moru-iH-
Other cognates: Av. maoir–- `ant' [f]; OIr. moirb `ant' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mo°rzъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `frost'
Page in Trubačev: XX 10-14
Old Church Slavic: mrazъ (Euch., Supr.) `frost' [m o]
Russian: moroґz `frost' [m o]
Czech: mraґz `frost' [m o]
Slovak: mraґz `frost' [m o]
Polish: mroґz `frost' [m o], mrozu [Gens]
Slovincian: maІґrz `frost' [m o], ma~rzu† [Gens]; #Slnc. mro†ґuёz `frost' [m o], mru°oёzu† [Gens]
Upper Sorbian: mroґz `frost' [m o], mroґza [Gens], mroґzu [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: mra?z `frost' [m o], mra?za [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mra?z (Vrgada) `frost' [m o], mra?za [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mra?z (Novi) `frost' [m o]; #SCr. C№ak. mra?s (Orbanicґi) `hoarfrost, frost' [m o], mra?za [Gens]
Slovene: mra°z `cold, frost, hoarfrost' [m o]
Bulgarian: mraz `frost' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *moґrgґ-o-
Other cognates: Alb. mardheЁ `frost' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *morъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `plague'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 250-251
Old Church Slavic: morъ (Mar., Zogr., En.) `plague' [m o]
Russian: mor `plague' [m o]
Czech: mor `plague' [m o]
Slovak: mor `plague' [m o]
Polish: moґr `plague' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?r `plague' [m o]
Slovene: mo°r `death, plague' [m o], mǫґra [Gens]
Bulgarian: mor `plague' [m o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *moros
Lithuanian: ma~ras `plague' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mor-o-
Page in Pokorny: 735
Other cognates: Skt. pramaraґ- (RV) `death' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mošьna
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `small bag, purse'
Page in Trubačev: XX 37-39
Old Church Slavic: mošьna (Zogr., Mar.) `small bag, scrip' [f ѓ]
Russian: mošьnaґ `pouch, purse' [f ѓ]
Czech: mošna `purse' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mošna `pocket' [f ѓ]
Polish: moszna `purse, pocket, scrotum' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mo?šnja `purse, scrotum' [f jѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mo?šnja (Orbanicґi) `pod, seedcase' [f jѓ]
Slovene: moґšnja `purse, scrotum' [f jѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *maks•(i)naЂ
Lithuanian: makšna° `case' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: dantimax `gums'
Indo-European reconstruction: *mak-s-in-eh2
Page in Pokorny: 698
Other cognates: OHG mago `stomach' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *motati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `wind'
Page in Trubačev: XX 44-47
Russian: motaґt' `reel, wind' [verb]
Old Russian:: motati `tire, worry' [verb]
Czech: motati `wind' [verb]
Slovak: motat' `wind' [verb]
Polish: motacґ `reel, wind' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°tati `revolve, wind, move, throw' [verb], mo°tѓm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mota?ti (Vrgada) `revolve' [verb], mo?taІЇš [2sg]
Slovene: motaґti `wind, unwind' [verb], mota?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: motaґja `wind' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *motriti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `look at, watch'
Page in Trubačev: XX 65-67
Church Slavic: motriti `look at' [verb], moštrjǫ [1sg]
Russian: motriґt' (dial.) `look at, watch' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°triti `look at, watch' [verb]
Slovene: moґtriti `look at, watch' [verb], moґtrim [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mot(r)iЂtei
Lithuanian: matyґti `look at, watch' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *motyka
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `hoe'
Page in Trubačev: XX 79-82
Old Church Slavic: motyky (Supr.) `hoes' [Accpf ѓ]
Russian: motyґga `hoe' [f ѓ]
Czech: motyka `hoe' [f ѓ]
Slovak: motyka `hoe' [f ѓ]
Polish: motyka `hoe' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: motiška `hoe' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. moti?ka (Vrgada) `hoe' [f ѓ]
Slovene: moti?ka `hoe' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: motiґka `hoe' [f ѓ]
Other cognates: Skt. matya°- (AV+) `agricultural device, harrow(?)' [m]; Lat. mateola `hoe, grip of a hoe' [f]; OE mattoc `hoe' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *moždžanъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XX 104-105
Old Church Slavic: moždanъ (Ps. Sin.) `full of marrow' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mo°ždan– `cerebral' [adj o]; #SCr. mo?ždan `cerebral, (arch., dial.) wise' [adj o]; #SCr. mo?ždѓni (Vuk: Dubr.) `brain' [Nompm o]
Slovene: možda?ni `brain, mind' [Nompm o]; #Sln. moždža?ni `brain, mind' [Nompm o]; #Sln. možga?ni `brain, mind' [Nompm o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mozg-
Lithuanian: sme~genys `brain' [Nompm io]
Old Prussian: musgeno `marrow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *msgh-
Page in Pokorny: 750
Other cognates: Skt. majjaґn- (RV+) `marrow' [m]; OIc. mergr `marrow' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *moždženь; moždženo
PSLMEAN: `brain'
Page in Trubačev: XX 105-106
Church Slavic: moždeni (RuCS) `brains' [Accpm i?]
Polabian: mµzdin `brain' [m i?]; #Plb. mµzdenµ `brain' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: moždena (dial.) `brain' [Nompn o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mozg-
Lithuanian: sme~genys `brain' [Nompm io]
Old Prussian: musgeno `marrow'
Indo-European reconstruction: *msgh-
Page in Pokorny: 750
Other cognates: Skt. majjaґn- (RV+) `marrow' [m]; Av. mazga- `brain, marrow' [m]; OIc. mergr `marrow' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mǫ°čiti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `torment, torture'
Page in Trubačev: XX 151-117
Old Church Slavic: mǫčiti `torment, torture' [verb], mǫčǫ [1sg]
Russian: muґčit' `torment, harrass, worry' [verb]
Czech: mučiti `torment, torture' [verb]
Slovak: mučit' `torment, torture' [verb]
Polish: męczycґ `torment, torture' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mu?čiti `torment, worry' [verb], mu?č–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?čiti (Vrgada) `torment, worry' [verb], mu?č–š [2sg]
Slovene: muґčiti `torment, torture' [verb], muґčim [1sg]; #Sln. močiti `torment, torture' [verb]
Bulgarian: maўґča `torment, torture' [verb]
Lithuanian: maґnkyti `knead' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *monHk-
Proto-Slavic form: *mǫґdrъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `wise'
Page in Trubačev: XX 130-133
Old Church Slavic: mǫdrъ `wise' [adj o]
Russian: muґdryj `wise' [adj o]
Czech: moudryґ `wise' [adj o]
Slovak: muґdry `wise' [adj o]
Polish: ma§dry `wise' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: muґdar `wise' [adj o], muґdra [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?dar (Vrgada) `wise' [adj o], mіdra? [Nomsf], mu?dro [Nomsn]; #SCr. C№ak. mu~dar (Orbanicґi) `wise' [adj o], mu~dra [Nomsf]
Slovene: mǫґdЌr `wise' [adj o], mǫґdra [Nomsf]
Bulgarian: maўґdaўr `wise' [adj o]
Lithuanian: man~dras `cheerful, lively' [adj o] 4; #Lith. mandru°s `cheerful, lively' [adj u] 4
Latvian: muo^drs `cheerful, lively, alert, vigorous' [adj o]; #Latv. muo^žs `cheerful, lively, alert, vigorous' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mon-dh1-ro-
Other cognates: Skt. medhѓґ- (RV+) `mental power, wisdom, intelligence' [f]; Av. mazdѓ `wisdom' [f]; OHG muntar `ardent, cheerful' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mǫ?žь
GRAM: m. jo
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `man, husband'
Page in Trubačev: XX 158-161
Old Church Slavic: mǫžь `man, husband' [m jo]
Russian: muž `man, husband' [m jo]
Czech: muž `man, husband' [m jo]
Slovak: muž `man, husband' [m jo]
Polish: ma§z† `man, husband' [m jo], męz†a [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: mu?ž `husband, (obs.) man' [m jo], mu?ža [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?ž (Vrgada) `husband' [m jo], mu?ža [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?ž (Novi) `husband' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. muo?š (Orbanicґi) `husband' [m jo], muo?ža [Gens]
Slovene: mǫ?ž `man, husband' [m jo], moža? [Gens]
Bulgarian: maўž `man, husband' [m jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mon-g-io-??
Other cognates: Skt. maґnu- (RV+) `man, mankind' [m o]; OHG mann [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *mǫ°ka
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `torment, torture'
Page in Trubačev: XX 136-138
Old Church Slavic: mǫka `torment, torture, instrument of torture' [f ѓ]
Russian: muґka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]
Czech: muka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]
Slovak: muka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]
Polish: męka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mu?ka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?ka (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `pain, torment' [f ѓ]
Slovene: muґka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]; #Sln. mǫґka `torment, torture' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: maўґka `torment, torture, pain, hell' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *monHk-
Proto-Slavic form: *mǫЇti°ti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `stir, trouble'
Page in Trubačev: XX 142-145
Old Church Slavic: mǫtiti (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `disquiet' [verb]
Russian: mutiґt' `trouble, stir up' [verb], mučuґ [1sg], mutiґt [3sg]
Czech: moutiti (obs.) `make cloudy, grieve, worry' [verb] {1}; #Cz. moutiti, muґtiti (Jungmann) `grieve, churn, mix, worry' [verb]; #Cz. muґtit' (dial.) `churn' [verb]
Old Czech:: muґtiti `trouble, grieve, torment' [verb]
Slovak: muґtit' `trouble, churn' [verb]
Polish: ma§cicґ `trouble, disturb' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: muґtiti `trouble, confuse' [verb], mu?t–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mіti?ti (Vrgada) `trouble, confuse' [verb], mu~t–š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. muoti?t (Orbanicґi) `stir, make turbid, muddy, confuse, entangle, talk smb. into smth.' [verb], muo~ti [3sg]
Slovene: mǫґtiti `trouble, stir' [verb], mǫґtim [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўґtja `trouble, disturb' [verb]
Lithuanian: mę~sti `mix' [verb], men~čia [3sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ment-
Page in Pokorny: 732
Other cognates: Skt. maґnthati `whirl, rub' [verb]
Notes: {1} The SSJC№ gives the variants muґtiti and mutiti.
Proto-Slavic form: *mЎ§ka°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `flour'
Page in Trubačev: XX 135-136
Old Church Slavic: mǫka (Zogr., Mar., Ass., Sav.) `flour' [f ѓ]
Russian: mukaґ `flour' [f ѓ]
Czech: mouka `flour' [f ѓ]
Slovak: muґka `flour' [f ѓ]
Polish: ma§ka `flour' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: muґka `flour' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mіka? (Vrgada, Novi, Hvar) `flour' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. muoka? (Orbanicґi) `flour' [f ѓ], muoko? [Accs]
Slovene: mǫґka `flour' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *monk-
Proto-Slavic form: *muditi
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XX 167-169
Old Church Slavic: muditi (Zogr., Ass., Sav., Supr.) `stay, linger' [verb], muždǫ [1sg], mudiši [2sg]; #OCS mǫditi (Zogr.) `stay, linger' [verb], mǫždǫ [1sg], mǫdiši [2sg]
Slovene: mudiґti `delay, linger, (m. se) dwell' [verb], mudiґm [1sg]
Latvian: mude^t `moulder, decay, go bad' [verb]
COMM: Verb containing the o-grade of the root *mudh- (-> *mъdĕti).
Proto-Slavic form: *murъ II
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XX 195-196
Russian: muґryj (dial.) `reddish brown, reddish grey, having dark streaks or spots (of animal's hair or coat)' [adj. o]
Ukrainian: muґryj `dark-grey with spots, dark-complexioned' [adj. o]
Slovene: mu?r `black (of animal's hair or coat)' [adj. o]
Proto-Slavic form: *murъ I; mura
GRAM: m. o; f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XX 191-192, 195
Russian: mur (Voron.) `mould' [m o]; #Ru. muroґk `(Arx.) meadow grass, (Psk.) May' [m o]
Czech: mour `coal-dust, soot' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: muґra (Vuk: Bačka) `mud, clay' [m o]
Lithuanian: maurai~ `duckweed, silt, mud' [Nompm o] 3
Latvian: mau~rs `grass, lawn' [m o]
Proto-Slavic form: *mu°xa
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `fly'
Page in Trubačev: XX 170-172
Old Church Slavic: muxa (Ps. Sin., Supr.) `fly' [f ѓ]
Russian: muґxa `fly' [f ѓ]
Czech: moucha `fly' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mucha `fly' [f ѓ]
Polish: mucha `fly' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mu°ha `fly' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mu?ha (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `fly' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. muha? (Novi) `fly' [f ѓ]
Slovene: muґha `fly' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: muxaґ `fly' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: mu°se† `fly' [f Њ]; #Lith. musia° `fly' [f jѓ]
Latvian: mu~sa `fly' [f ѓ]; #Latv. muša `fly' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: muso `fly' [f ѓ]
Other cognates: Gk. mui~a `fly' [f]; Lat. musca `mosquito' [f]; OIc. myґ `mosquito' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *muzga; muzgъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
Page in Trubačev: XX 202-203
Church Slavic: muzga `pool' [f ѓ]
Russian: muґzga (dial.) `cavity (often filled with water), pool' [f ѓ]
Polish: muzga (dial.) `grass of superior quality, grass near water' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mu?zga `stripe, trail' [f ѓ]
Slovene: muґzga `tree-sap, silt, mud' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: muґzga `snout of a pig' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mous-g-
Other cognates: Lat. muscus `marsh' [m]; Nw. (dial.) musk `dust, drizzle, darkness' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *my
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `we'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 21-24
Old Church Slavic: my `we' [prnps]; #OCS ny (KB) `we' [prnprs]
Russian: my `we' [prnps]
Czech: my `we' [prnps]
Slovak: my `we' [prnps]
Polish: my `we' [prnps]
Serbo-Croatian: mi? `we' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. mi~ (Vrgada) `we' [prnps]; #SCr. mi? `we' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. miґ (Hvar) `we' [prnps]; #SCr. C№ak. mi? (Orbanicґi) `we' [prnps]
Slovene: mi? `we' [prnps]
Bulgarian: mi (dial.) `we' [prnps]
Lithuanian: me~s `we' [prnps]
Latvian: me~s `we' [prnps]
Old Prussian: mes `we' [prnps]
COMM: The *m- probably orginates from the ending of the first person plural. The *y must have been adopted from *vy `you (pl.)' < *iuH-. The n- of the form ny (KB) was taken from the oblique cases, cf. the enclitic Apl. ny.
Proto-Slavic form: *my°dlo
GRAM: n. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `soap'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 27-28
Church Slavic: mylo `soap' [n o]
Russian: myґlo `soap, lather (on horses)' [n o]
Czech: myґdlo `soap' [n o]
Slovak: mydlo `soap' [n o]
Polish: mydљo `soap, lather (on horses)' [n o]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?lo (dial., obs.) `soap' [n o]
Slovene: miґlo• `soap' [n o]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *m(o)uЂtei
Indo-European reconstruction: *muH-
Page in Pokorny: 741
Other cognates: Skt. mіґtra- (AV+) `urine' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *my?slь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `thought, idea'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 47-50
Old Church Slavic: myslь `thought, idea' [f i]
Russian: mysl' `thought, idea' [f i]
Czech: mysl `mind, courage' [f i]
Slovak: mysel' `mind' [f i]
Polish: mysґl `thought, idea' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?sao `thought, idea' [f i], mi?sli [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?sal (Orbanicґi) `thought' [f i], mi?sli [Gens]
Slovene: mi?sЌљ `thought, idea' [f i], mi?sli [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muHdh-
Proto-Slavic form: *mykati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `bellow'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 35
Church Slavic: mykati `bellow' [verb]
Russian: myґkat' (dial.) `bellow, cry, weep' [verb], myґkaju [1sg]
Czech: mykati (dial.) `bleat' [verb], myґkaju [1sg]
Serbo-Croatian: miґkati `bellow' [verb]
Latvian: mau^t `bellow' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *my°šь
GRAM: f. i
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `mouse'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 64-67
Old Church Slavic: myšъ (Euch.) `mouse' [f i]
Russian: myš' `mouse' [f i]
Czech: myš `mouse' [f i]
Slovak: myš `mouse' [f i]
Polish: mysz `mouse' [f i]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?š `mouse' [m jo]; #SCr. C№ak. mi?š (Vrgada, Orbanicґi) `mouse' [m jo]
Slovene: mi°š `mouse' [f i], miґši [Gens]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muHs-
Page in Pokorny: 752
Other cognates: Skt. mіґs•- `mouse, rat' (RV) [m/f]; Gk. mu~C `mouse, muscle' [m]; Lat. mіs `mouse' [m]; OHG mіs `mouse, muscle' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *myšьca
GRAM: f. jѓ
PSLMEAN: `muscle, shoulder'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 67
Old Church Slavic: myšьca `hand, shoulder, muscle' [f jѓ]
Russian: myšca `muscle' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?šca (obs.) `muscle, shoulder' [f ѓ]; #SCr. mi°šca (obs.) `muscle, shoulder' [f jѓ]
Slovene: mi?šca `muscle, shoulder' [f jѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muHs-
Page in Pokorny: 752
Other cognates: Lat. musculus `muscle' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *my°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `wash'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 76-79
Old Church Slavic: myti (Zogr., Ass., Supr.) `wash' [verb], myjǫ [1sg]
Russian: myt' `wash' [verb], moґju [1sg], moґet [3sg]
Czech: myґti `wash' [verb]
Slovak: myt' `wash' [verb]
Polish: mycґ `wash' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mi?ti `wash' [verb], mi?jЊm [1sg]
Slovene: miґti `wash' [verb], mi?jem [1sg]
Bulgarian: miґja `wash' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *m(o)uЂtei
Lithuanian: maґudyti `bathe' [verb]
Latvian: mau^t `submerge, swim' [verb]; #Latv. mauda^t `bathe' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muH-
Page in Pokorny: 741
Other cognates: Skt. mіґtra- (AV+) `urine' [n]; Skt. m–ґvati- (AV+) `push, shove' [verb]; Lat. movЊre `move' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *myto
GRAM: n. o
PSLMEAN: `toll, fee'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 81-82
Old Church Slavic: myto (Ps. Sin.) `gift, bribe' [n o]
Russian: myґto (arch.) `toll, fee, duty' [n o]
Czech: myґto `toll' [n o]
Slovak: myґto `toll, fee' [n o]
Polish: myto `fee, duty' [n o]
Slovene: miґto• `bribery, tax, rent' [n o]
Bulgarian: miґto `toll' [n o]
COMM: This etymon is generally considered a borrowing from Germanic.
Other cognates: OHG mіta `toll' [f]; MLat. mіta `toll' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъčati
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XX 203-204
Old Church Slavic: mьčimi (Supr.) `being thrown' [Nompm ptcprsp]
Russian: mčat' `rush, whirl along' [verb], mču [1sg], mčit [3sg]
Czech: mčeti (Jungmann, Kott) `move, make for' [verb]
Old Czech:: mčieti `pull, carry, drag' [verb]
Lithuanian: mu°kti `come off, flit, stick' [verb]
Latvian: mukt `come off, flee' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muk-
Page in Pokorny: 744
Proto-Slavic form: *mъdĕti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XX 205-206
Russian: modet' (dial.) `sit out patiently, become weak, decay, go bad' [verb]
Latvian: mude^t `moulder, decay, go bad' [verb]
COMM: Winter's law permits us to reonstruct the root as *mudh-. The connection with Gk. mЪdoj `damp' is therefore formally impossible.
Proto-Slavic form: *mъdьlь
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XX 210-211
Church Slavic: mъdlъ `slow, sluggish' [adj o]; #CS mьdlъ `slow, sluggish' [adj o]; #CS mьdьlyi (RuCS) `compassionate' [adj o] {1}
Old Russian:: medlyj `compassionate' [adj o]
Czech: mdlyґ `weak, flat, dull' [adj o]
Slovak: mdlyґ `weak, flat, dull' [adj o]
Polish: mdљy `dim, dull, faint, sickening' [adj o]
Old Polish: mdљy `weak, thin' [adj o]; #OPl. mgљy `weak, thin' [adj o]
Slovincian: mgљiЁґ `weak, thin' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: madal (obs.) `unclear, dim' [adj o]
Slovene: mЌdЌ°љ `weak, flat, dull, faint, sickening, thin' [adj o], mЌdla° [Nomsf]; #Sln. mЌda?љ `weak, flat, dull, faint, sickening, thin' [adj o], mЌdla° [Nomsf]; #Sln. meґdЌљ `weak, flat, dull, faint, sickening, thin' [adj o]; #Sln. maґdЌљ `weak, flat, dull, faint, sickening, thin' [adj o], maґdla [Nomsf]
COMM: Adjective derived from the root *mudh- (-> *mъdĕti).
Notes: {1} Cf. OCS mъdlost' (Cloz.) `sluggishness'.
Proto-Slavic form: *mъdьlьnъ
GRAM: adj. o
Page in Trubačev: XX 211
Church Slavic: mьdьlьnyi (RuCS) `slow, sluggish' [adj o]
Russian: meґdlennyj `slow' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: C№ak. mle?dan (Vuk: Dubr.) `thin' [adj o], mle?dna [Nomsf], mle?dno [Nomsn]
Slovene: mЌdlę?n `weak' [adj o]; #Sln. mle•ґdЌn `emaciated, flat, dull' [adj o], mle•ґdna [Nomsf]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъknǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `move'
Page in Trubačev: XX 219
Czech: mknouti `move' [verb]
Polish: mkna§cґ `flit, fleet' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ma°knuti `move' [verb], ma?knЊm [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. maknu?ti (Vrgada) `move' [verb], ma?kneš [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. maknu?t (Orbanicґi) `move, shove' [verb], ma?knen [1sg]
Slovene: mЌkniґti `jerk, tug, move' [verb], maґknem [1sg], męґknem [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўґkna `drag along' [verb]
Lithuanian: mu°kti `come off, flit, stick' [verb]
Latvian: mukt `come off, flee' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muk-
Page in Pokorny: 744
Proto-Slavic form: *mъldni
GRAM: f. –
PSLMEAN: `lightning'
Page in Trubačev: XX 220-222
Old Church Slavic: mlъni (Zogr., Mar., Ass., Sav.) `lightning' [f iѓ]; #OCS mlъnii (Mar., Ass, Supr.) `lightning' [f iѓ] {1}
Russian: moґlnija `lightning' [f jѓ]; #Ru. moloґn'ja (dial.) `lightning' [f iѓ]; #Ru. molodnjaґ (dial.) `lightning' [f jѓ]; #Ru. melenґjaґ (dial.) `lightning' [f jѓ]
Ukrainian: maladnjaґ (dial.) `lightning without thunder' [f jѓ]
Czech: mlna (arch.) `lightning' [f ѓ]
Polish: meљnia (dial.) `lightning' [f jѓ] {2}
Slovincian: mouёљna†ґuё `lightning' [f jѓ]
Polabian: ma•unґa `lightning' [f jѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: muґnja `lightning' [f jѓ]
Slovene: moґљnja `lightning' [f jѓ]
Bulgarian: maўґlnija `lightning' [f iѓ]
Latvian: milna `hammer of the thunderer' [f ѓ]
Old Prussian: mealde `lightning'
Indo-European reconstruction: *mldh-n-
Other cognates: OIc. mjǫllnir `Thor's hammer' [m]
Notes: {1} The variant mlъ- is more frequent than mlь-. {2} Probably only in Pomoranian.
Proto-Slavic form: *mъlva
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `speech'
Page in Trubačev: XX 225-226
Old Church Slavic: mlъva `tumult, commotion' [f ѓ]
Russian: molvaґ (obs.) `rumour, talk' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: moґva `language, speech' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: moґva `language, speech' [f ѓ]
Czech: mluva `speech' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mluva (lit.) `speech' [f ѓ]
Polish: mowa `speech' [f ѓ]
Slovincian: muёova `speech' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: maўlvaґ `rumour, noise, racket' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mluH-eh2
COMM: I am not convinced that a vocalization *ml•uёH-V- would be out of the question (LIV s.v. *mleuёh2).
Other cognates: Skt. braґv–ti `speak, say'
Proto-Slavic form: *mъlviti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `speak, say'
Page in Trubačev: XX 227-228
Old Church Slavic: mlъviti (Zogr., Mar., Ass., Sav.) `make ado, make a rout' [verb], mlъvljǫ [1sg]
Russian: moґlvit' (obs., dial.) `say' [verb]
Ukrainian: moґvyty `speak, say' [verb]
Czech: mluviti `speak, say' [verb]
Slovak: mluvit' (Kaґlal) `speak, say' [verb]
Polish: moґwicґ `speak, say' [verb]
Slovincian: mu°oёvji~c `speak, say' [verb]
Slovene: moґљviti `grumble, mumble' [verb], moґљvim [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўlvjaґ `whisper, rumour' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *r
Indo-European reconstruction: *mluH-eh2
Other cognates: Skt. braґv–ti `speak, say'
Proto-Slavic form: *mъmati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `stammer'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 111
Church Slavic: mъmati `stammer' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъnogъ
GRAM: adj. o
PSLMEAN: `much, many'
Page in Trubačev: XX 229-231
Old Church Slavic: mъnogъ `much, many' [adj]; #OCS mnogo `much, many' [adv]
Russian: mnoґgij `much, many, numerous' [adj]; #Ru. mnogo `much, many' [adv]
Czech: mnohyґ `numerous' [adj]; #Cz. mnoho `much, far' [adv]
Slovak: mnohyґ `numerous' [adj]; #Slk. mnoho `much, far' [adv]
Polish: mnogi `numerous' [adj]
Serbo-Croatian: mno?g– `much, many, numerous' [adj]
Slovene: mnǫ?g `many' [adj]; #Sln. mnǫ?go `much, many' [adv]
Bulgarian: mnoґgo `much, many' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mnogh
Certainty: -
Other cognates: Go. manags `many' [adj]; OHG manag `many' [adj]; OIr. menic `frequent, abundant' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъrgati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `blink, wink'
Page in Trubačev: XX 237-238
Russian: morgaґt ` `blink, wink' [verb]
Czech: mrgat' (dial.) `move, wave, watch gloomily' [verb]
Polish: margacґ `wave, wag, move' [verb]; #Pl. mrugacґ `wave, wag, move' [verb]
Slovincian: ma†~rgaўc `blink, wink' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *murЂg-; mirЂg-
Lithuanian: mirge†ґti `twinkle' [verb], mi°rga [3sg]
Latvian: mir^dze^t `twinkle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mr(H)gє
Other cognates: OIc. myrkr `dark' [adj], myrkvan [Accs]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъrky
GRAM: f. і
PSLMEAN: `carrot'
Page in Trubačev: XX 247-249
Russian: morkoґv' `carrots' [f i]; #Ru. moґrkva (dial.) `carrots' [f ѓ]; #Ru. morkvaґ (dial.) `carrots' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: morkov' `carrots' [f i]; #ORu. morkva `carrots' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: moґrkva `carrot' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: moґrkva `carrot' [f ѓ]
Czech: mrkev `carrot' [f i]; #Cz. mrkva (Jungmann, Kott) `carrot' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: mrkev `carrot' [f i]
Slovak: morkva `carrot' [f ѓ]
Polish: marchew `carrot' [f i]
Old Polish: marchew `carrot' [f i]; #OPl. marchwa `carrot' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: mr?kva `carrot' [f ѓ]; #SCr. C№ak. mr?kva (Vrgada) `carrot' [f ѓ]
Slovene: mrґkЌv `carrot' [f i] {1}; #Sln. mr?kva `carrot' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrk-uH-
Other cognates: OHG morha `carrot' [f]; OE moru `carrot' [f]
Notes: {1} Gsg. mrґkve.
Proto-Slavic form: *mъrmiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `mumble, grumble'
Page in Trubačev: XX 250
Russian: mormuґlit' (dial.) `grumble, chatter' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mrmljiti `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *murm-
Lithuanian: murm(l)eґnti `mumble' [verb]; #Lith. murme†ґti `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Other cognates: Lat murmurѓre `mumble' [verb]; OHG murmulЎn `mumble' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъrm(ъ)rati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `mumble, grumble'
Page in Trubačev: XX 252
Czech: mrmrati `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mr°mrati `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Slovene: mrmraґti `mumble, grumble' [verb], mrmra?m [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўrmoґrja `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *murm-
Lithuanian: murm(l)eґnti `mumble' [verb]; #Lith. murme†ґti `mumble, grumble' [verb]
Other cognates: Lat murmurѓre `mumble' [verb]; OHG murmulЎn `mumble' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъšica
GRAM: f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: XXI 15
Church Slavic: mъšica `mosquito, locust' [f jѓ]
Russian: mšiґca (dial.) `midge, gnats, smell insects' [f jѓ]
Czech: mšice `midge, plant-louse' [f jѓ]
Slovak: mšica `louse' [f jѓ]
Polish: mszyca `louse, midge' [f jѓ]
Slovene: mЌšiґca `mosquito, midge, plant-louse' [f jѓ]
Lithuanian: mu°se† `fly' [f Њ]; #Lith. musia° `fly' [f jѓ]
Latvian: mu~sa `fly' [f ѓ]; #Latv. muša `fly' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: muso `fly' [f ѓ]
Other cognates: Gk. mui~a `fly' [f]; Lat. musca `mosquito' [f]; OIc. myґ `mosquito' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъxa
GRAM: f. ѓ
Page in Trubačev: XX 211
Russian: moґxa (dial.) `midge' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: maґha (dial.) `mosquito' [f ѓ]
Lithuanian: mu°se† `fly' [f Њ]; #Lith. musia° `fly' [f jѓ]
Latvian: mu~sa `fly' [f ѓ]; #Latv. muša `fly' [f jѓ]
Old Prussian: muso `fly' [f ѓ]
Other cognates: Gk. mui~a `fly' [f]; Lat. musca `mosquito' [f]; OIc. myґ `mosquito' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъxъ
GRAM: m. o
Accent paradigm: b/c
PSLMEAN: `moss'
Page in Trubačev: XX 216-218
Russian: mox `moss' [m o], moґxa [Gens]; #Ru. mox `moss' [m o], mxa [Gens]
Old Russian:: mъxъ `marsh overgrown with moss' [m o]; #ORu. moxъ `marsh overgrown with moss' [m o]
BeloRussian: mox `moss' [m o], moґxu [Gens]
Ukrainian: mox `moss' [m o], moґxu [Gens]
Czech: mech `moss' [m o]
Slovak: mach `moss' [m o]
Polish: mech `moss, fluff' [m o]
Upper Sorbian: moch `moss' [m o]; #USrb. moґch (dial.) `moss' [m o], mocha [Gens]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?h `moss, mould, bloom' [m o], ma?ha [Gens]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?h `moss, mould, bloom' [m o], ma?ha [Gens]
Slovene: ma?h `moss, marsh, fluff' [m o], ma?ha [Gens], mahu? [Gens]; #Sln. me°h `moss' [m o], meґha [Gens]
Bulgarian: maўx `moss' [m o]
Lithuanian: mіsai~ `mould' [Nompm o] 4; #Lith. mu°sos `mould' [Nompf ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *muґs-o-m
Page in Pokorny: 742
Other cognates: OIc. mosi `moss, moorland' [m]; OHG mos `moss, marsh' [n]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъzga; mъzgъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; m. o
Page in Trubačev: XXI 19-20
Russian: mzga (dial.) `grey, dank weather, mould' [f ѓ]; #Ru. mozg (dial.) `grey, cloudy weather' [m o]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mus-g-
Page in Pokorny: 742
Other cognates: Lat. muscus `marsh' [m]; Nw. (dial.) musk `dust, drizzle, darkness' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mъždžiti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XXI 22
Church Slavic: moždivyi `pining' [ppa]
Russian: mozžiґt' (coll.) `ache' [verb]; #Ru. mozžiґt' (dial.) `turn sour (milk)' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ma°ž‹iti `drizzle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mus-g-
Page in Pokorny: 742
Other cognates: Lat. muscus `marsh' [m]; Nw. (dial.) musk `dust, drizzle, darkness' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьčьta
GRAM: f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `dream'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 90-91
Church Slavic: mьčьta `vision, apparition' [f ѓ]
Russian: mečtaґ `dream, day-dream' [f ѓ]
Old Russian:: mьčьta `dream, imagination' [f ѓ]; #ORu. mečьta `dream, imagination' [f ѓ]; #ORu. mečta `apparition, sorcery, imagination' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: mečtaґ `dream' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mik-
Page in Pokorny: 712
Other cognates: Lat. micѓre `tremble, move quickly, sparkle' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьčьtъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `vision, apparition'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 91-92
Old Church Slavic: mьčьtъ (Supr.) `vision, apparition' [m o]
Old Russian:: mьčьtъ `apparition, delusion (?), ecstasy' [m o] {1}
Indo-European reconstruction: *mik-
Page in Pokorny: 712
Other cognates: Lat. micѓre `tremble, move quickly, sparkle' [verb]
Notes: {1} Also mečьtъ, mečetъ, mečtъ, mčetъ.
Proto-Slavic form: *mьgla°; mьga°; miglъ
GRAM: f. ѓ; f. ѓ; m. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `mist, haze'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 92-94
Old Church Slavic: mьgla (Ps. Sin. MS 2/N) `mist, haze' [f ѓ]
Russian: mglaґ `mist, haze, darkness' [f ѓ]; #Ru. mga `dense mist, drizzle, haze in times of drought' [f ѓ]
Czech: mlha `mist, haze' [f ѓ]; #Cz. mha (poet.) `mist, haze' [f ѓ]; #Cz. mhla (obs., dial.) `mist, haze' [f ѓ]
Old Czech:: mhla `mist, haze' [f ѓ]
Polish: mgљa `mist, haze' [f ѓ]
Upper Sorbian: mihel `wet mist, drizzle' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: ma°gla `mist, haze' [f ѓ], ma?glu [Accs]; #SCr. C№ak. magla? (Novi) `mist, haze' [f ѓ], maglu? [Accs], ma?glu; #SCr. Kajk. m–Њglo? (Bednja) `mist, haze' [f ѓ], m–Њglu? [Accs] {1}; #SCr. mЌga° (dial.) `drizzle' [f ѓ]
Slovene: mЌgla° `mist, haze' [f ѓ], mgle° [Gens], mglę? [Gens]
Bulgarian: maўglaґ `mist, haze' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *miglaґH
Lithuanian: migla° `mist, haze' [f ѓ] 2/4; #Lith. mie~gas `sleep' [m o] 2; #Lith. mi°gti `sleep, fall asleep' [verb]
Latvian: migla `mist, haze' [f ѓ]; #Latv. mi°egs `sleep' [m o]
Old Prussian: maiggun `sleep' [asgf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3migh-leh2
IE meaning: mist, cloud
Page in Pokorny: 712
COMM: I agree with Mayrhofer (EWAia s.v. meghaґ-) that we must in principle distinguish PIE. *h3meigґh- and *h3meigh- (cf. Kern 1894: 106). The former root is present in Lith. my~žti, Latv. mi°zt `urinate', and is, in my opinion, sparsely attested in Slavic. On account of their semantic similarity, the above-mentioned Slavic verbs meaning `to drizzle' are sometimes connected with my~žti etc. I think that the Slavic etyma listed above show that verbs like *mьžiti are best grouped together with *mьgla° . A more complicated issue is the relationship between words meaning `mist, drizzle' (*meigh- B `dunkel vor den Augen werden, Nebel, Wolke' in Pokorny) and words meaning `blink, twinkle' (*meigh- A `flimmern, blinzeln, micѓre'), which I discuss s.v. mi?gъ . Since there is no obvious semantic link between these groups, TrubačeЁv basically tries to keep them apart, e.g. *mьžiti I `blink, twinkle' vs. *mьžiti II `drizzle' (but Ru.(dial.) mža `doze; drizzle; said about smth. which vanished rapidly' without further distinctions). It is not entirely clear how the meanings `doze, drowsiness' and `swarm (with) `fit in. LSrb. migorisґ se `move to and fro, swarm with; drizzle' (Schuster-S№ewc 907) is matched by MoDu. (dial.) miggelen (miegelen) `drizzle; swarm with'. Ru.(dial.) mžit' `doze, be delirious' is mentioned by TrubačeЁv s.v. *mьžiti I, but a connection with *mьžiti I cannot be excluded, cf. SCr. miґždati `drizzle, doze', MoHG drisseln `drizzle, doze', drusen `doze', drussig `clouded', Lith. blan~das `sleepiness; cloudiness' (cf. Merkulova 1975: 59). Discussing the origin of the meaning `doze' is essentially the same as establishing the semantic connection between Slavic *mьg- and Lith. mie~gas `sleep', mi°gt `sleep, fall asleep', miegoґti `sleep' etc. Fraenkel (I 447) considers the meaning of miegoґti to have evolved from `close one's eyes' (cf. Kern 1894: 109). This seems plausible indeed. On the other hand, there are parallels for a connection between `sleep' and `cloud', e.g. Av. snao‹a- `cloud' vs. Lith. snaґusti `doze' or OIr. neґl `cloud; swoon, faintness, stupor' (cf. Merkulova 1975: 58-59). As long as there is no evidence for a formal distinction between the roots of *mьgla° and *mi?gъ, I think that we must depart from a single root h3meigh-.
Other cognates: Skt. meghaґ- (RV) `cloud, gloomy weather' [m]; Skt. miґh- (RV, TS) `haze, rain' [f]; Gk. Сm…^ГГ• `mist, haze' [f]; Av. maЊ‘a- `cloud' [m]; Arm. mЊg `mist'; MoDu. miggelen `drizzle, swarm (with)' [verb] {2} {3}
Notes: {1} Illič-Svityč lists a number of SCr. dialect forms which point to AP (b) (1963: 40). The standard language has secondary mobility in this word. {2} It cannot be excluded that miggelen is cognate with MDu. miegen `urinate'.
Proto-Slavic form: *mьgnǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `blink'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 97-98
Old Russian:: mьgnuti `wink, blink, twinkle' [verb]; #ORu. megnuti `wink, blink, twinkle' [verb]
Czech: mehnouti (Kott) `blink, move' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: ma°gnuti `blink' [verb]
Slovene: mЌgniґti `blink' [verb], maґgnem [1sg], męґgnim [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
COMM: According to the ESSJa (XIX: 29), the root vocalism of *mьgnǫti is older than the one encountered in *mignǫti , which in most Slavic languages serves as the perfective counterpart of *migati. Van Wijk was the first to identify *mьgnǫti with Gm. *mikk- `aim' < *mig(h)-n- (Van Wijk 1911: 124).
Other cognates: MDu. micken `aim' [verb] {2}
Proto-Slavic form: *mьlča°ti
GRAM: v.
Accent paradigm: c
PSLMEAN: `be silent'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 102-104
Old Church Slavic: mlьčati `be silent' [verb], mlьčǫ [1sg], mlьčiši [2sg]
Russian: molčaґt' `be silent' [verb], molčuґ [1sg], molčiґt [3sg]
Czech: mlčeti `be silent' [verb]
Slovak: mlčat' `be silent' [verb]
Polish: milczecґ `be silent' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: muґčati `be silent' [verb], muґč–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. muča?ti (Vrgada) `be silent' [verb], muči~š [2sg]; #SCr. C№ak. muča~t (Orbanicґi) `be silent' [verb], muči~š [2sg]
Slovene: moґљčati `be silent' [verb], moљčiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўlčaґ `be silent' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *ml(H)k-
Proto-Slavic form: *mьnĕ
GRAM: prn.
PSLMEAN: `me'
Page in Trubačev: XVIII 96-97
Old Church Slavic: mьnĕ `me' [Dats prn]
Old Russian:: mъnĕ `me' [Dats prn]
Czech: mnĕ `me' [Dats prn]
Polish: mnie `me' [Dats prn]
Lithuanian: maґn `me' [Dats prn]
Old Prussian: mennei `me' [Dats prn]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьnĕti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `think'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 113-115
Old Church Slavic: mьnĕti `think, suppose, reckon, imagine' [verb], mьnjǫ [1sg], mьnit [3sg]
Russian: mnit' (obs.) `think, imagine' [verb], mnju [1sg], mnit [3sg]
Czech: mnĕti (arch.) `think, suppose' [verb]; #Cz. mniґti (lit.) `think, suppose' [verb]
Old Czech:: mnieti `think, suppose, intend' [verb]
Slovak: mniet' (obs.) `think, suppose' [verb]
Old Polish: mniecґ `think, suppose' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mnjeti (arch.) `think, suppose' [verb]; #SCr. mni?ti `think, suppose' [verb]
Slovene: mne•ґti `think, suppose' [verb], mniґm [1sg]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mineЂtei
Lithuanian: mine†ґti `mention' [verb]
Latvian: mine^t `mention' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mn-eh1-; present stem mn-ei-.
COMM: mn-ei-.
Other cognates: Skt. maґnyate `think, believe, suppose' [verb]; Gk. ma…nomai `rage' [verb]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьn§e(je)
GRAM: adv.
PSLMEAN: `less'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 119-122
Old Church Slavic: mьnje `less' [adv]
Russian: meґnee `less' [adv]
Czech: meґnĕ `less, fewer' [adv]
Polish: mniej `less, fewer' [adv]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?njЊ `less' [adv]; #SCr. ma?nje `less' [adv]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?nje (Orbanicґi) `less' [adv]
Slovene: ma°nj `less, fewer' [adv]; #Sln. ma?nje `less, fewer' [adv]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mi-n-ios
Page in Pokorny: 711
Other cognates: Lat. minus `less' [adv]; Goth mins `less' [adv]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьn§ьjь
GRAM: adj. jo
PSLMEAN: `smaller, lesser'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 119-122
Old Church Slavic: mьn§ii `smaller, lesser, younger' [adj jo], mьn§ьši [Nomsf], mьn§e [Nomsn]
Russian: meґn'šij `smaller, lesser, younger' [adj jo]
Czech: menšiґ `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]
Old Czech:: meniґ `smaller, lesser, younger' [adj jo], menši [Nomsf], menše [Nomsn]
Slovak: menšiґ `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]
Polish: mniejszy `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]
Serbo-Croatian: ma?nj– `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?nґ– (Vrgada) `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]; #SCr. C№ak. ma?nji `smaller' [adj jo]
Slovene: ma?nji `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]; #Sln. ma?njši `smaller, lesser' [adj jo]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mi-n-i(e/o)s-jo-
Page in Pokorny: 711
Other cognates: Lat. minor `smaller' [adj]; Goth minniza `smaller, lesser' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьrknǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `become dark'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 133-135
Old Church Slavic: mrьknǫti `become dark, darken' [verb]
Russian: meґrknut' `become dark, become dim, fade' [verb]
Czech: mrknouti `wink, blink, glimmer' [verb]; #Cz. mrknouti (Kott) `become dark, screw up one's eyes' [verb]
Old Czech:: mrknuґti (sĕ) `become dark, darken' [verb]
Slovak: mrknut' `become dark, darken, blink' [verb]
Polish: mierzchna§cґ `become dark, darken' [verb]
Slovincian: mji°eёr№k `twilight' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mr?knuti `become dark, darken' [verb]
Slovene: mrґkniti `become dark, darken, blink, wink' [verb], mr?knem [1sg]
Lithuanian: meґrkti `close one's eyes' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrHk-
Other cognates: Go. maurgins `morning' [m]
Notes: {1} According to the Staroslavjanskij slovar', six of the seven attestations actually have mrъk-.
Proto-Slavic form: *mьrkъ
GRAM: m. o
Page in Trubačev: XXI 136-137
Czech: mrk `blink, wink, sign' [m o]
Slovak: mrk (dial.) `twilight' [m o]
Slovincian: mji°eёr№k `twilight' [m o]
Serbo-Croatian: mrk `solar eclipse, kind of mollusk' [m o]
Slovene: mr?k `eclipse, darkness' [m o]
Lithuanian: meґrkti `close one's eyes' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrHk-o-
Other cognates: Go. maurgins `morning' [m]
Proto-Slavic form: *mь°rkъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: a
PSLMEAN: `dark'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 137
Slovak: mrkyґ `dark(?)' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mr°k– `black' [adj o]; #SCr. mr?k [adj o]
Macedonian: mraўk `dark, black' [adj o]
Lithuanian: meґrkti `close one's eyes' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrHk-o-
Proto-Slavic form: *mь°rtvъ
GRAM: adj. o
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `dead'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 146-148
Old Church Slavic: mrьtvъ `dead' [adj o]
Russian: meЁrtvyj `dead' [adj o]
Czech: mrtvyґ `dead' [adj o]
Slovak: mrґtvy `dead' [adj o]
Polish: martwy `lifeless, dead' [adj o]; #Pl. miartwy (arch.) `lifeless, dead' [adj o]
Serbo-Croatian: mr°tav `dead' [adj o], mr°tva [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mrtaІ~v (Vrgada) `dead' [adj o], mrtva? [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mrta?v (Novi) `dead' [adj o], mrtva? [Nomsf]; #SCr. C№ak. mr?t (Orbanicґi) `dead' [adj o], mrtva? [Nomsf]
Slovene: mrґtЌv `dead' [adj o], mrґtva [Nomsf]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mr-tu-o-
Page in Pokorny: 735
Other cognates: Lat. mortuus `dead' [adj]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьrzĕti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XXI 159-160
Old Church Slavic: mrъzĕti (Ps. Sin.) `be loathsome, detestable' [verb]
Russian: merzeґt' (dial.) `become disgusting' [verb]
Czech: mrzeti `irritate' [verb]
Slovak: mrziet' `irritate' [verb]
Polish: mierziecґ `be repulsive, disgust' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mrґzjeti `experience hostility, aversion, disgust `freeze' [verb]; #SCr. C№ak. mrЇze?t (Orbanicґi) `hate' [verb], mrЇzi~je [3sg]
Slovene: mrze•ґti `freeze' [verb], mrziґm [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrgґ
Other cognates: Alb. mardheЁ `frost' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьrziti
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XXI 159-160
Russian: merziґt' (dial.) `render disgusting, be unpleasant, feel disgusted' [verb]
Old Russian:: merziti `sicken, disgust, defile' [verb] {1}
Polish: mierzicґ `be repulsive, disgust' [verb]
Slovincian: mji°eёrzeўc `be repulsive, disgust' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mrґziti `hate, detest' [verb], mrґz–m [1sg]; #SCr. C№ak. mrzi?ti (Vrgada) `hate, detest' [verb], mrzi~š [2sg]
Slovene: mrґziti `experience disgust, hate, detest, be angry with' [verb], mrziґm [1sg]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrgґ
Other cognates: Alb. mardheЁ `frost' [f]
Notes: {1} Also mьrziti, mrьziti.
Proto-Slavic form: *mьrznǫti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `freeze'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 163-165
Old Church Slavic: pomrъznǫti (Supr.) `freeze' [verb]
Church Slavic: mrъznǫti `curse, detest' [verb]
Russian: meЁrznut' `freeze' [verb]
Czech: mrznouti `freeze' [verb]
Slovak: mrznuґt' `freeze' [verb]
Polish: marzna§cґ `freeze' [verb]; #Pl. mierzna§cґ (arch.) `become disgusting, irritate, disgust, repel' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mr?znuti `freeze, grow cold' [verb]
Slovene: mrґzniti `freeze, turn into ice' [verb], mr?znem [1sg] {1}
Bulgarian: mraўґzna `freeze' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *mrgґ
Other cognates: Alb. mardheЁ `frost' [f]
Notes: {1} Not mrґznem (see Pleteršnik II: VI).
Proto-Slavic form: *mьstiti
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `take vengeance, revenge, avenge'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 170-171
Old Church Slavic: mьstiti `take vengeance, revenge, avenge, punish' [verb], mьštǫ [1sg], mьstiši [2sg]
Russian: mstit' `take vengeance, revenge, avenge' [verb], mšču [1sg], mstit [3sg]
Czech: mstiґti `take vengeance, revenge, avenge' [verb]
Polish: msґcicґ `take vengeance, revenge, avenge' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: mЌstiґti `take vengeance, revenge, avenge' [verb], mЌstiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: maўstjaґ `take vengeance, revenge, avenge' [verb]
Page in Pokorny: 715
COMM: Derivative of -> mьsta.
Other cognates: OIc. missa `loss, damage' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьstь; mьsta
GRAM: f. i; f. ѓ
PSLMEAN: `vengeance, revenge'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 172-174
Old Church Slavic: mьstь `vengeance, revenge, punishment, defence' [f i]
Russian: mestь `vengeance, revenge' [f i]; #Ru. msta (dial.) `vengeance, revenge' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: msta (poet.) `vengeance, revenge' [f ѓ]
Czech: msta `vengeance, revenge' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mstva `vengeance, revenge' [f ѓ]
Polish: msta (16th-17th. c.) `vengeance, revenge' [f ѓ]
Bulgarian: maўst `vengeance, revenge' [f i]
Page in Pokorny: 715
COMM: I consider a reconstruction *mith2-ti- more likely than the assumption that *mьstь has the same origin as -> *mьzda.
Other cognates: OIc. missa `loss, damage' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьšelъ
GRAM: m. o
PSLMEAN: `profit'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 174-175
Church Slavic: mьšelъ `shameful profit' [m o]; #CS mьšelъ (MBulg.) `income' [m o]; #CS mšelъ (RuCS) `profit, unlawful gain, property' [m o]; #CS mšelъ (RuCS) `profit, unlawful gain, property' [m jo]
Old Russian:: mšelъ `profit, unlawful gain, property' [m o]; #ORu. mšelь `profit, unlawful gain, property' [m jo]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьzda°
GRAM: f. ѓ
Accent paradigm: b
PSLMEAN: `payment, pay'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 176-178
Old Church Slavic: mьzda `payment, salary, fee, gift' [f ѓ]; #OCS mъzda `payment, salary, fee, gift' [f ѓ]
Russian: mzda (arch.) `recompense, payment' [f ѓ]
Czech: mzda `wages, salary, fee' [f ѓ]
Slovak: mzda `wages, pay' [f ѓ]
Old Polish: mzda (arch.) `fee, price, ransom' [f ѓ]
Serbo-Croatian: ma°zda `recompense, payment, pay, revenge, punishment' [f ѓ]; #SCr. mzda (CS) `recompense, payment, pay, revenge, punishment' [f ѓ]
Slovene: mЌzda° `wages' [f ѓ]
Indo-European reconstruction: *misdh-o-
Other cognates: m–d•haґ- (RV) `booty, prize, profit' [n]; m–žda- `reward, prize' [n]; Gk. misqТj `reward, rent' [m]; Go. mizdo `reward' [f]
Proto-Slavic form: *mьža
GRAM: f. jѓ
Page in Trubačev: XXI 179-180
Russian: mža (dial.) `drizzle, slumber' [f ѓ]
BeloRussian: mža (dial.) `mist' [f ѓ]
Ukrainian: mža `drizzle' [f ѓ]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-iёaЂ
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3migh-ieh2
IE meaning: mist, cloud
Page in Pokorny: 712
Proto-Slavic form: *mьžati II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `drizzle'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 179-180
BeloRussian: imžec' `drizzle' [verb]
Slovincian: mžeЁc `drizzle' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
Proto-Slavic form: *mьžati I; mižati
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `screw up one's eyes, doze'
Page in Trubačev: XIX 62-63; XXI 179
Russian: mžat' (dial.) `doze' [verb]
Czech: mžeti `blink, screw up one's eyes' [verb]
Polish: mz†ecґ `blink, doze, dream' [verb]
Serbo-Croatian: miґždati `doze, drizzle' [verb]
Slovene: mЌžaґti `keep one's eyes closed' [verb], mЌžiґm [1sg]; #Sln. miґžati `keep one's eyes closed' [verb], mižiґm [1sg]
Bulgarian: mižaґ `blink, screw up one's eyes, flicker' [verb]; #Bulg. miґžaў (dial.) `screw up one's eyes, stand with eyes closed' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
Proto-Slavic form: *mьžiti I
GRAM: v.
Page in Trubačev: XXI 181-182
Russian: mžit' (glaza) (dial.) `screw up one's eyes, doze' [verb]
Czech: mžiґti `blink, flash' [verb]
Polish: mz†ycґ `blink, doze, dream' [verb]
Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: *mig-
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3meigh-
IE meaning: flicker, blink
Certainty: +
Page in Pokorny: 712
Proto-Slavic form: *mьžiti II
GRAM: v.
PSLMEAN: `drizzle'
Page in Trubačev: XXI 182-183
Russian: mžit' (dial.) `drizzle' [verb]; #Ru. mžiґt'sja (dial.) `be wrapped in a cold mist' [verb]
Czech: mžiґti `drizzle' [verb]
Polish: mz†ycґ (dial.) `drizzle' [verb]
Indo-European reconstruction: *h3migh-leh2
IE meaning: mist, cloud
Page in Pokorny: 712

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